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Sir John Ernest Walker FRS FMedSci[4] (born 7 January 1941) is a British chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1997.[7] As of 2015[update] Walker is Emeritus Director and Professor at the MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit in Cambridge, and a Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.[8][9][10][11][12]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career and research

2.1 Teaching and mentoring 2.2 Awards and honours

3 Personal life 4 References

Early life and education[edit] Walker was born in Halifax, Yorkshire, the son of Thomas Ernest Walker, a stonemason, and Elsie Lawton, an amateur musician. He was brought up with his two younger sisters (Judith and Gen) in a rural environment and went to Rastrick Grammar School. At school, he was a keen sportsman and specialized in physical sciences and mathematics the last three years. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Chemistry
Chemistry
from St Catherine's College, Oxford.[13][14] Walker began his study of peptide antibiotics with Edward Abraham
Edward Abraham
at Oxford in 1965 and received his Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy
degree in 1969.[5][13] During this period, he became interested in developments in molecular biology. Career and research[edit] From 1969 to 1971, Walker worked at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and from 1971–1974 in France. He met Fred Sanger[6] in 1974 at a workshop at the University of Cambridge. This resulted in an invitation to work at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the Medical Research Council, which became a long-term appointment. Among the other staff was Francis Crick, who was well known for his discovery of the molecular structure of DNA. At first, he analyzed the sequences of proteins and then uncovered details of the modified genetic code in mitochondria. In 1978, he decided to apply protein chemical methods to membrane proteins. In this way, Walker characterized the subunit composition of proteins in the mitochondrial membrane and the DNA
DNA
sequence of the mitochondrial genome. His landmark crystallographic studies of the F1-ATPase, the catalytic region of the ATP synthase (done in collaboration with crystallographer Andrew Leslie), from bovine heart mitochondria revealed the three catalytic sites in three different conformations imposed by the position of the asymmetric central stalk. This structure supported the binding change mechanism and rotary catalysis for the ATP synthase (and related enzymes), one of the catalytic mechanisms proposed by Paul Boyer. This work, published in 1994, led to Walker's share of the 1997 Nobel prize for chemistry. Since this structure, Walker and his colleagues have produced most of the crystal structures in the PDB of mitochondrial ATP synthase, including transition state structures and protein with bound inhibitors and antibiotics. Scientists trained in Walker's group at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Laboratory of Molecular Biology
in Cambridge
Cambridge
or MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit have gone on to determine crystal bacterial complex I and cryo-EM maps of mitochondrial complex I and vacuolar type ATPases. Teaching and mentoring[edit] Students and postdoctoral research fellows who studied with John Walker who have gone on to independent research careers include:

Jan Pieters Abrahams, Postdoctoral Fellow (Leiden)[citation needed] Ignacio Arechaga, Postdoctoral Fellow (Santander)[citation needed] Matthew Bowler, PhD student (ESRF)[citation needed] Susan Buchanan, Postdoctoral Fellow (NIH)[citation needed] Elena Cabezon, Postdoctoral Fellow (Santander)[citation needed] Ian Collinson, Postdoctoral Fellow (Bristol)[citation needed] Ian Fernley, PhD student (MRC)[citation needed] Nicholas Gay, PhD student (Cambridge)[citation needed] Georg Groth, Postdoctoral Fellow (Düsseldorf)[citation needed] Rene Lutter, Postdoctoral Fellow (AMC)[citation needed] Bruno Miroux, Postdoctoral Fellow (Paris)[citation needed] Mark Van Raaj, Postdoctoral Fellow (CNB Spain)[citation needed] John Rubinstein, PhD student (Toronto)[citation needed] Matti Saraste, Postdoctoral Fellow (EMBL)[citation needed] Leonid Sazanov, Postdoctoral Fellow (IST Austria)[citation needed] Daniela Stock, Postdoctoral Fellow (Sydney)[citation needed]

Awards and honours[edit] Walker was elected an EMBO Member in 1984.[2] He shared his Nobel Prize with the American chemist Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. They also shared the prize with Danish chemist Jens C. Skou for research unrelated to theirs (Discovery of the Na+/K+-ATPase). Sir John was knighted in 1999 for services to molecular biology. He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Campaign for Science and Engineering.[15] He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(FRS) in 1995.[4] Walker is also a Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
and an Honorary Fellow of St Catherine's College, Oxford.[16] He became a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1999.[17] In 2012 he was awarded the Copley Medal.[4] Personal life[edit] Walker married Christina Westcott in 1963, and has two daughters.[3] References[edit]

^ " John E. Walker - Facts".  ^ a b "John E. Walker". people.embo.org. EMBO.  ^ a b WALKER, Prof. John Ernest. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 1996 (online Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc.  (subscription required) ^ a b c d Anon (1995). "Sir John Walker FMedSci FRS". royalsociety.org. London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where:

“All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.” --" Royal Society
Royal Society
Terms, conditions and policies". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 2016-03-09. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

^ a b Walker, John Ernest (1969). Studies on naturally-occurring peptides. bodleian.ox.ac.uk (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.711292.  ^ a b Walker, John (2014). " Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
(1918–2013) Double Nobel-prizewinning genomics pioneer". Nature. 505 (7481): 27. Bibcode:2014Natur.505...27W. doi:10.1038/505027a. PMID 24380948.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1997".  ^ John Walker interviewed by Alan Macfarlane 14 January 2008 (film) ^ Freeview Video of Fredrick Sanger in conversation with John Walker by the Vega Science Trust ^ A three part video interview with Sir John Walker by the Vega Science Trust ^ Walker, J. E.; Saraste, M; Runswick, M. J.; Gay, N. J. (1982). "Distantly related sequences in the alpha- and beta-subunits of ATP synthase, myosin, kinases and other ATP-requiring enzymes and a common nucleotide binding fold". The EMBO Journal. 1 (8): 945–51. PMC 553140 . PMID 6329717.  ^ John E. Walker publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database, a service provided by Elsevier. (subscription required) ^ a b "John Walker - Curriculum vitae - Mitochondrial Biology Unit". cam.ac.uk.  ^ " John E. Walker - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-06-03.  ^ "Advisory Council of the Campaign for Science and Engineering". Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-11.  ^ "John Walker - Honours and Awards - Mitochondrial Biology Unit". cam.ac.uk.  ^ Anon. "J.E. Walker". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 

 This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Chemistry

1901–1925

1901 Jacobus van 't Hoff 1902 Emil Fischer 1903 Svante Arrhenius 1904 William Ramsay 1905 Adolf von Baeyer 1906 Henri Moissan 1907 Eduard Buchner 1908 Ernest Rutherford 1909 Wilhelm Ostwald 1910 Otto Wallach 1911 Marie Curie 1912 Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
/ Paul Sabatier 1913 Alfred Werner 1914 Theodore Richards 1915 Richard Willstätter 1916 1917 1918 Fritz Haber 1919 1920 Walther Nernst 1921 Frederick Soddy 1922 Francis Aston 1923 Fritz Pregl 1924 1925 Richard Zsigmondy

1926–1950

1926 Theodor Svedberg 1927 Heinrich Wieland 1928 Adolf Windaus 1929 Arthur Harden
Arthur Harden
/ Hans von Euler-Chelpin 1930 Hans Fischer 1931 Carl Bosch
Carl Bosch
/ Friedrich Bergius 1932 Irving Langmuir 1933 1934 Harold Urey 1935 Frédéric Joliot-Curie
Frédéric Joliot-Curie
/ Irène Joliot-Curie 1936 Peter Debye 1937 Norman Haworth
Norman Haworth
/ Paul Karrer 1938 Richard Kuhn 1939 Adolf Butenandt
Adolf Butenandt
/ Leopold Ružička 1940 1941 1942 1943 George de Hevesy 1944 Otto Hahn 1945 Artturi Virtanen 1946 James B. Sumner
James B. Sumner
/ John Northrop / Wendell Meredith Stanley 1947 Robert Robinson 1948 Arne Tiselius 1949 William Giauque 1950 Otto Diels
Otto Diels
/ Kurt Alder

1951–1975

1951 Edwin McMillan
Edwin McMillan
/ Glenn T. Seaborg 1952 Archer Martin
Archer Martin
/ Richard Synge 1953 Hermann Staudinger 1954 Linus Pauling 1955 Vincent du Vigneaud 1956 Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semyonov 1957 Alexander Todd 1958 Frederick Sanger 1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský 1960 Willard Libby 1961 Melvin Calvin 1962 Max Perutz
Max Perutz
/ John Kendrew 1963 Karl Ziegler
Karl Ziegler
/ Giulio Natta 1964 Dorothy Hodgkin 1965 Robert Woodward 1966 Robert S. Mulliken 1967 Manfred Eigen
Manfred Eigen
/ Ronald Norrish / George Porter 1968 Lars Onsager 1969 Derek Barton / Odd Hassel 1970 Luis Federico Leloir 1971 Gerhard Herzberg 1972 Christian B. Anfinsen
Christian B. Anfinsen
/ Stanford Moore / William Stein 1973 Ernst Otto Fischer
Ernst Otto Fischer
/ Geoffrey Wilkinson 1974 Paul Flory 1975 John Cornforth
John Cornforth
/ Vladimir Prelog

1976–2000

1976 William Lipscomb 1977 Ilya Prigogine 1978 Peter D. Mitchell 1979 Herbert C. Brown
Herbert C. Brown
/ Georg Wittig 1980 Paul Berg
Paul Berg
/ Walter Gilbert
Walter Gilbert
/ Frederick Sanger 1981 Kenichi Fukui
Kenichi Fukui
/ Roald Hoffmann 1982 Aaron Klug 1983 Henry Taube 1984 Robert Merrifield 1985 Herbert A. Hauptman
Herbert A. Hauptman
/ Jerome Karle 1986 Dudley R. Herschbach
Dudley R. Herschbach
/ Yuan T. Lee
Yuan T. Lee
/ John Polanyi 1987 Donald J. Cram
Donald J. Cram
/ Jean-Marie Lehn
Jean-Marie Lehn
/ Charles J. Pedersen 1988 Johann Deisenhofer
Johann Deisenhofer
/ Robert Huber
Robert Huber
/ Hartmut Michel 1989 Sidney Altman / Thomas Cech 1990 Elias Corey 1991 Richard R. Ernst 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus 1993 Kary Mullis
Kary Mullis
/ Michael Smith 1994 George Olah 1995 Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen
/ Mario J. Molina
Mario J. Molina
/ Frank Rowland 1996 Robert Curl
Robert Curl
/ Harold Kroto / Richard Smalley 1997 Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
/ John E. Walker / Jens Christian Skou 1998 Walter Kohn
Walter Kohn
/ John Pople 1999 Ahmed Zewail 2000 Alan J. Heeger / Alan MacDiarmid / Hideki Shirakawa

2001–present

2001 William Knowles / Ryoji Noyori / K. Barry Sharpless 2002 John B. Fenn / Koichi Tanaka
Koichi Tanaka
/ Kurt Wüthrich 2003 Peter Agre
Peter Agre
/ Roderick MacKinnon 2004 Aaron Ciechanover
Aaron Ciechanover
/ Avram Hershko
Avram Hershko
/ Irwin Rose 2005 Robert H. Grubbs
Robert H. Grubbs
/ Richard R. Schrock
Richard R. Schrock
/ Yves Chauvin 2006 Roger D. Kornberg 2007 Gerhard Ertl 2008 Osamu Shimomura
Osamu Shimomura
/ Martin Chalfie
Martin Chalfie
/ Roger Y. Tsien 2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
/ Thomas A. Steitz
Thomas A. Steitz
/ Ada E. Yonath 2010 Richard F. Heck
Richard F. Heck
/ Akira Suzuki / Ei-ichi Negishi 2011 Dan Shechtman 2012 Robert Lefkowitz
Robert Lefkowitz
/ Brian Kobilka 2013 Martin Karplus
Martin Karplus
/ Michael Levitt
Michael Levitt
/ Arieh Warshel 2014 Eric Betzig
Eric Betzig
/ Stefan Hell
Stefan Hell
/ William E. Moerner 2015 Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
/ Paul L. Modrich
Paul L. Modrich
/ Aziz Sancar 2016 Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
/ Fraser Stoddart
Fraser Stoddart
/ Ben Feringa 2017 Jacques Dubochet
Jacques Dubochet
/ Joachim Frank
Joachim Frank
/ Richard Henderson

v t e

1997 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
(United States) John E. Walker (United Kingdom) Jens C. Skou
Jens C. Skou
(Denmark)

Literature

Dario Fo
Dario Fo
(Italy)

Peace

International Campaign to Ban Landmines
International Campaign to Ban Landmines
(Switzerland) Jody Williams
Jody Williams
(United States)

Physics

Steven Chu
Steven Chu
(United States) Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
(France) William Daniel Phillips
William Daniel Phillips
(United States)

Physiology or Medicine

Stanley B. Prusiner
Stanley B. Prusiner
(United States)

Economic Sciences

Robert C. Merton
Robert C. Merton
(United States) Myron Scholes
Myron Scholes
(Canada/United States)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

v t e

Copley Medallists (2001–present)

Jacques Miller (2001) John Pople (2002) John Gurdon
John Gurdon
(2003) Harry Kroto
Harry Kroto
(2004) Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
(2005) Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
(2006) Robert May (2007) Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
(2008) Martin Evans
Martin Evans
(2009) David Cox / Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
(2010) Dan McKenzie (2011) John E. Walker (2012) Andre Geim
Andre Geim
(2013) Alec Jeffreys
Alec Jeffreys
(2014) Peter Higgs
Peter Higgs
(2015) Richard Henderson (2016) Andrew Wiles
Andrew Wiles
(2017)

v t e

Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
elected in 1995

Fellows

 Martin A. Bennett  Iain Campbell  Johnson Cann  Keith Chater  Ed Corrigan  E. Brian Davies  Graham Dixon-Lewis  Richard Ellis  Graham Farquhar  Jeffrey Harborne  Julia Higgins  Jonathan Charles Howard  Antony Jameson  Jack Henri Kaplan  Gurdev Khush  Anthony Ledwith   Frank Matthews Leslie  Robin Marshall  Christopher John Marshall  Paul Mason  David Miller  Richard Alan North  Tim Pedley  Geoffrey James Pert  Keith Peters  Jeremy David Pickett-Heaps  Richard J. Roberts  Joseph Rotblat  Jeremy Sanders  Robert Malcolm Simmons  Ian William Murison Smith  Peter Sneath  Laszlo Solymar  Roger Tayler  Richard Taylor  Shirley M. Tilghman  John E. Walker  Stephen C. West  Colin Windsor  Andrew Wyllie

Foreign

 Ugo Fano  Gertrude B. Elion  Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch  Rita Levi-Montalcini  Calvin Quate  John Archibald Wheeler

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 267064369 LCCN: no00066483 ISNI: 0

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