The Info List - John Dryden

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John Dryden
John Dryden
(/ˈdraɪdən/; 19 August [O.S. 9 August] 1631 – 12 May  [O.S. 1 May] 1700) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.[1] He is seen as dominating the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden. Walter Scott
Walter Scott
called him "Glorious John".[2]


1 Early life 2 Later life and career 3 Reputation and influence 4 Poetic style

4.1 Translation style

5 Family 6 Selected works 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Early life[edit] Dryden was born in the village rectory of Aldwincle
near Thrapston
in Northamptonshire, where his maternal grandfather was rector of All Saints. He was the eldest of fourteen children born to Erasmus Dryden and wife Mary Pickering, paternal grandson of Sir Erasmus Dryden, 1st Baronet (1553–1632), and wife Frances Wilkes, Puritan
landowning gentry who supported the Puritan
cause and Parliament. He was a second cousin once removed of Jonathan Swift. As a boy Dryden lived in the nearby village of Titchmarsh, where it is likely that he received his first education. In 1644 he was sent to Westminster School
Westminster School
as a King's Scholar where his headmaster was Dr. Richard Busby, a charismatic teacher and severe disciplinarian.[3] Having recently been re-founded by Elizabeth I, Westminster during this period embraced a very different religious and political spirit encouraging royalism and high Anglicanism. Whatever Dryden's response to this was, he clearly respected the headmaster and would later send two of his sons to school at Westminster. As a humanist public school, Westminster maintained a curriculum which trained pupils in the art of rhetoric and the presentation of arguments for both sides of a given issue. This is a skill which would remain with Dryden and influence his later writing and thinking, as much of it displays these dialectical patterns. The Westminster curriculum included weekly translation assignments which developed Dryden's capacity for assimilation. This was also to be exhibited in his later works. His years at Westminster were not uneventful, and his first published poem, an elegy with a strong royalist feel on the death of his schoolmate Henry, Lord Hastings from smallpox, alludes to the execution of King Charles I, which took place on 30 January 1649, very near the school where Dr. Busby had first prayed for the King and then locked in his schoolboys to prevent their attending the spectacle. In 1650 Dryden went up to Trinity College, Cambridge.[4] Here he would have experienced a return to the religious and political ethos of his childhood: the Master of Trinity was a Puritan
preacher by the name of Thomas Hill who had been a rector in Dryden's home village.[5] Though there is little specific information on Dryden's undergraduate years, he would most certainly have followed the standard curriculum of classics, rhetoric, and mathematics. In 1654 he obtained his BA, graduating top of the list for Trinity that year. In June of the same year Dryden's father died, leaving him some land which generated a little income, but not enough to live on.[6] Returning to London during the Protectorate, Dryden obtained work with Cromwell's Secretary of State, John Thurloe. This appointment may have been the result of influence exercised on his behalf by his cousin the Lord Chamberlain, Sir Gilbert Pickering. At Cromwell's funeral on 23 November 1658 Dryden processed with the Puritan
poets John Milton
John Milton
and Andrew Marvell. Shortly thereafter he published his first important poem, Heroic Stanzas (1658), a eulogy on Cromwell's death which is cautious and prudent in its emotional display. In 1660 Dryden celebrated the Restoration of the monarchy and the return of Charles II with Astraea Redux, an authentic royalist panegyric. In this work the interregnum is illustrated as a time of anarchy, and Charles is seen as the restorer of peace and order. Later life and career[edit] After the Restoration, as Dryden quickly established himself as the leading poet and literary critic of his day, he transferred his allegiances to the new government. Along with Astraea Redux, Dryden welcomed the new regime with two more panegyrics: To His Sacred Majesty: A Panegyric on his Coronation (1662) and To My Lord Chancellor (1662). These poems suggest that Dryden was looking to court a possible patron, but he was to instead make a living in writing for publishers, not for the aristocracy, and thus ultimately for the reading public. These, and his other nondramatic poems, are occasional—that is, they celebrate public events. Thus they are written for the nation rather than the self, and the Poet
Laureate (as he would later become) is obliged to write a certain number of these per annum.[7] In November 1662 Dryden was proposed for membership in the Royal Society, and he was elected an early fellow. However, Dryden was inactive in Society affairs and in 1666 was expelled for non-payment of his dues.

Dryden, by John Michael Wright, 1668

Dryden, by James Maubert, c. 1695

On 1 December 1663 Dryden married the royalist sister of Sir Robert Howard—Lady Elizabeth. Dryden's works occasionally contain outbursts against the married state but also celebrations of the same. Thus, little is known of the intimate side of his marriage. Lady Elizabeth bore three sons and outlived her husband. With the reopening of the theatres in 1660 after the Puritan
ban, Dryden began writing plays. His first play The Wild Gallant
The Wild Gallant
appeared in 1663, and was not successful, but was still promising, and from 1668 on he was contracted to produce three plays a year for the King's Company in which he became a shareholder. During the 1660s and 1670s, theatrical writing was his main source of income. He led the way in Restoration comedy, his best-known work being Marriage à la Mode (1673), as well as heroic tragedy and regular tragedy, in which his greatest success was All for Love (1678). Dryden was never satisfied with his theatrical writings and frequently suggested that his talents were wasted on unworthy audiences. He thus was making a bid for poetic fame off-stage. In 1667, around the same time his dramatic career began, he published Annus Mirabilis, a lengthy historical poem which described the English defeat of the Dutch naval fleet and the Great Fire of London in 1666. It was a modern epic in pentameter quatrains that established him as the preeminent poet of his generation, and was crucial in his attaining the posts of Poet
Laureate (1668) and historiographer royal (1670). When the Great Plague of London
Great Plague of London
closed the theatres in 1665, Dryden retreated to Wiltshire
where he wrote Of Dramatick Poesie (1668), arguably the best of his unsystematic prefaces and essays. Dryden constantly defended his own literary practice, and Of Dramatick Poesie, the longest of his critical works, takes the form of a dialogue in which four characters—each based on a prominent contemporary, with Dryden himself as 'Neander'—debate the merits of classical, French and English drama. The greater part of his critical works introduce problems which he is eager to discuss, and show the work of a writer of independent mind who feels strongly about his own ideas, ideas which demonstrate the breadth of his reading. He felt strongly about the relation of the poet to tradition and the creative process, and his best heroic play Aureng-zebe
(1675) has a prologue which denounces the use of rhyme in serious drama. His play All for Love (1678) was written in blank verse, and was to immediately follow Aureng-Zebe. On 18 December 1679 he was attacked in Rose Alley near his home in Covent Garden
Covent Garden
by thugs hired by John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester,[8] with whom he had a long-standing conflict.[9] Dryden's greatest achievements were in satiric verse: the mock-heroic Mac Flecknoe, a more personal product of his laureate years, was a lampoon circulated in manuscript and an attack on the playwright Thomas Shadwell. Dryden's main goal in the work is to "satirize Shadwell, ostensibly for his offenses against literature but more immediately we may suppose for his habitual badgering of him on the stage and in print."[10] It is not a belittling form of satire, but rather one which makes his object great in ways which are unexpected, transferring the ridiculous into poetry.[11] This line of satire continued with Absalom and Achitophel
Absalom and Achitophel
(1681) and The Medal (1682). His other major works from this period are the religious poems Religio Laici (1682), written from the position of a member of the Church of England; his 1683 edition of Plutarch's Lives Translated From the Greek by Several Hands in which he introduced the word biography to English readers; and The Hind and the Panther, (1687) which celebrates his conversion to Roman Catholicism.

Frontispiece and title page, vol. II, 1716 edition, Works of Virgil translated by Dryden

He wrote Britannia Rediviva celebrating the birth of a son and heir to the Catholic King and Queen on 10 June 1688.[12] When later in the same year James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution, Dryden's refusal to take the oaths of allegiance to the new monarchs, William and Mary, left him out of favour at court. Thomas Shadwell
Thomas Shadwell
succeeded him as Poet
Laureate, and he was forced to give up his public offices and live by the proceeds of his pen. Dryden translated works by Horace, Juvenal, Ovid, Lucretius, and Theocritus, a task which he found far more satisfying than writing for the stage. In 1694 he began work on what would be his most ambitious and defining work as translator, The Works of Virgil
(1697), which was published by subscription. The publication of the translation of Virgil
was a national event and brought Dryden the sum of £1,400.[13] His final translations appeared in the volume Fables Ancient and Modern (1700), a series of episodes from Homer, Ovid, and Boccaccio, as well as modernised adaptations from Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
interspersed with Dryden's own poems. As a translator, he made great literary works in the older languages available to readers of English. Dryden died on 12 May 1700, and was initially buried in St. Anne's cemetery in Soho, before being exhumed and reburied in Westminster Abbey ten days later.[14] He was the subject of poetic eulogies, such as Luctus Brittannici: or the Tears of the British Muses; for the Death of John Dryden, Esq. (London, 1700), and The Nine Muses. A Royal Society
Royal Society
of Arts blue plaque commemorates Dryden at 43 Gerrard Street in London's Chinatown.[15] He lived at 137 Long Acre from 1682 to 1686 and at 43 Gerrard Street from 1686 until his death.[16] Reputation and influence[edit]

Dryden near end of his life

Dryden was the dominant literary figure and influence of his age. He established the heroic couplet as a standard form of English poetry by writing successful satires, religious pieces, fables, epigrams, compliments, prologues, and plays with it; he also introduced the alexandrine and triplet into the form. In his poems, translations, and criticism, he established a poetic diction appropriate to the heroic couplet—Auden referred to him as "the master of the middle style"[17]—that was a model for his contemporaries and for much of the 18th century. The considerable loss felt by the English literary community at his death was evident in the elegies written about him.[18] Dryden's heroic couplet became the dominant poetic form of the 18th century. Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
was heavily influenced by Dryden and often borrowed from him; other writers were equally influenced by Dryden and Pope. Pope famously praised Dryden's versification in his imitation of Horace's Epistle II.i: "Dryden taught to join / The varying pause, the full resounding line, / The long majestic march, and energy divine." Samuel Johnson[19] summed up the general attitude with his remark that "the veneration with which his name is pronounced by every cultivator of English literature, is paid to him as he refined the language, improved the sentiments, and tuned the numbers of English poetry." His poems were very widely read, and are often quoted, for instance, in Tom Jones and Johnson's essays. Johnson also noted, however, that "He is, therefore, with all his variety of excellence, not often pathetic; and had so little sensibility of the power of effusions purely natural, that he did not esteem them in others. Simplicity gave him no pleasure." Readers in the first half of the 18th century did not mind this too much, but later generations considered Dryden's absence of sensibility a fault. One of the first attacks on Dryden's reputation was by Wordsworth, who complained that Dryden's descriptions of natural objects in his translations from Virgil
were much inferior to the originals. However, several of Wordsworth's contemporaries, such as George Crabbe, Lord Byron, and Walter Scott
Walter Scott
(who edited Dryden's works), were still keen admirers of Dryden. Besides, Wordsworth
did admire many of Dryden's poems, and his famous "Intimations of Immortality" ode owes something stylistically to Dryden's "Alexander's Feast". John Keats
John Keats
admired the "Fables", and imitated them in his poem Lamia. Later 19th century writers had little use for verse satire, Pope, or Dryden; Matthew Arnold famously dismissed them as "classics of our prose." He did have a committed admirer in George Saintsbury, and was a prominent figure in quotation books such as Bartlett's, but the next major poet to take an interest in Dryden was T. S. Eliot, who wrote that he was "the ancestor of nearly all that is best in the poetry of the eighteenth century", and that "we cannot fully enjoy or rightly estimate a hundred years of English poetry unless we fully enjoy Dryden."[20] However, in the same essay, Eliot accused Dryden of having a "commonplace mind". Critical interest in Dryden has increased recently, but, as a relatively straightforward writer (William Empson, another modern admirer of Dryden, compared his "flat" use of language with Donne's interest in the "echoes and recesses of words"[21]), his work has not occasioned as much interest as Andrew Marvell's, John Donne's or Pope's.[22]

Dryden, believed the first to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot

Dryden is believed to be the first person to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot end in prepositions.[23][24] Dryden created the proscription against preposition stranding in 1672 when he objected to Ben Jonson's 1611 phrase, "the bodies that those souls were frighted from", though he did not provide the rationale for his preference.[25] Dryden often translated his writing into Latin, to check whether his writing was concise and elegant, Latin being considered an elegant and long-lived language with which to compare; then Dryden translated his writing back to English according to Latin-grammar usage. As Latin does not have sentences ending in prepositions, Dryden may have applied Latin grammar to English, thus forming the rule of no sentence-ending prepositions, subsequently adopted by other writers.[26] The phrase "blaze of glory" is believed to have originated in Dryden's 1686 poem The Hind and the Panther, referring to the throne of God as a "blaze of glory that forbids the sight".[27] Poetic style[edit] What Dryden achieved in his poetry was neither the emotional excitement of the early nineteenth-century romantics nor the intellectual complexities of the metaphysicals. His subject matter was often factual, and he aimed at expressing his thoughts in the most precise and concentrated manner. Although he uses formal structures such as heroic couplets, he tried to recreate the natural rhythm of speech, and he knew that different subjects need different kinds of verse. In his preface to Religio Laici
Religio Laici
he says that "the expressions of a poem designed purely for instruction ought to be plain and natural, yet majestic... The florid, elevated and figurative way is for the passions; for (these) are begotten in the soul by showing the objects out of their true proportion.... A man is to be cheated into passion, but to be reasoned into truth." Translation style[edit] While Dryden had many admirers, he also had his share of critics, Mark Van Doren among them. Van Doren complained that in translating Virgil's Aeneid, Dryden had added "a fund of phrases with which he could expand any passage that seemed to him curt". Dryden did not feel such expansion was a fault, arguing that as Latin is a naturally concise language it cannot be duly represented by a comparable number of words in English. "He...recognized that Virgil
'had the advantage of a language wherein much may be comprehended in a little space' (5:329–30). The 'way to please the best Judges...is not to Translate a Poet
literally; and Virgil
least of any other' (5:329)".[28] For example, take lines 789–795 of Book 2 when Aeneas sees and receives a message from the ghost of his wife, Creusa.

iamque vale et nati serva communis amorem.' haec ubi dicta dedit, lacrimantem et multa volentem dicere deseruit, tenuisque recessit in auras. ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum; ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago, par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno. sic demum socios consumpta nocte reviso[29]

Dryden translates it like this:

I trust our common issue to your care.' She said, and gliding pass'd unseen in air. I strove to speak: but horror tied my tongue; And thrice about her neck my arms I flung, And, thrice deceiv'd, on vain embraces hung. Light as an empty dream at break of day, Or as a blast of wind, she rush'd away. Thus having pass'd the night in fruitless pain, I to my longing friends return again[30]

Dryden's translation is based on presumed authorial intent and smooth English. In line 790 the literal translation of "haec ubi dicta dedit” is "when she gave these words.” But "she said” gets the point across, uses half the words, and makes for better English. A few lines later, with "ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum; ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago", he alters the literal translation "Thrice trying to give arms around her neck; thrice the image grasped in vain fled the hands", in order to fit it into meter and the emotion of the scene. In his own words,

The way I have taken, is not so streight as Metaphrase, nor so loose as Paraphrase: Some things too I have omitted, and sometimes added of my own. Yet the omissions I hope, are but of Circumstances, and such as wou'd have no grace in English; and the Addition, I also hope, are easily deduc'd from Virgil's Sense. They will seem (at least I have the Vanity to think so), not struck into him, but growing out of him. (5:529)[31]

In a similar vein, Dryden writes in his Preface to the translation anthology Sylvae:

Where I have taken away some of [the original authors'] Expressions, and cut them shorter, it may possibly be on this consideration, that what was beautiful in the Greek or Latin, would not appear so shining in the English; and where I have enlarg’d them, I desire the false Criticks would not always think that those thoughts are wholly mine, but that either they are secretly in the Poet, or may be fairly deduc’d from him; or at least, if both those considerations should fail, that my own is of a piece with his, and that if he were living, and an Englishman, they are such as he wou’d probably have written.[32]

Family[edit] On 1 December 1663 Dryden married Lady Elizabeth Howard (died 1714).[33] The marriage was at St. Swithin's, London, and the consent of the parents is noted on the licence, though Lady Elizabeth was then about twenty-five. She was the object of some scandals, well or ill founded; it was said that Dryden had been bullied into the marriage by her brothers. A small estate in Wiltshire
was settled upon them by her father. The lady's intellect and temper were apparently not good; her husband was treated as an inferior by those of her social status.[34] Both Dryden and his wife were warmly attached to their children.[35] They had three sons: Charles (1666–1704), John (1668–1701), and Erasmus Henry (1669–1710).[36] Lady Elizabeth Dryden survived her husband, but went insane soon after his death.[37] Though some have historically claimed to be from the lineage of John Dryden, his three children had no children themselves.[38] In his will, he left The George Inn at Northampton to Trustees, to form a school for the children of the poor of the town. This became John Dryden's School, later The Orange School.[39] Selected works[edit]

The title page of The Hind and the Panther

An illustration in Alexander's Feast

Dramatic works

Dates given are (acted/published) and unless otherwise noted are taken from Scott's edition.[40]

The Wild Gallant, a Comedy (1663/1669) The Rival Ladies, a Tragi-Comedy (1663/1664) The Indian Queen, a Tragedy (1664/1665) The Indian Emperor, or the Conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards (1665/) Secret Love, or the Maiden Queen (1667/) Sir Martin Mar-all, or the Feigned Innocence, a Comedy (1667/1668) The Tempest, or the Enchanted Island, a Comedy (1667/1670), an adaptation with William D'Avenant
William D'Avenant
of Shakespeare's The Tempest An Evening's Love, or the Mock Astrology, a Comedy (1668/1668) Tyrannick Love, or the Royal Martyr, a Tragedy (1668 or 1669/1670) Almanzor and Almahide, or the Conquest of Granada by the Spaniards, a Tragedy, Part I & Part II (1669 or 1670/1672) Marriage-a-la-Mode, a Comedy (1673/1673) The Assignation, or Love in a Nunnery, a Comedy (1672/1673) Amboyna; or the Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Merchants, a Tragedy (1673/1673) The Mistaken Husband
The Mistaken Husband
(comedy) (1674/1675)[41] The State of Innocence, and Fall of Man, an Opera (/1674) Aureng-Zebe, a Tragedy (1676/1676) All for Love, or the World Well Lost, a Tragedy (1678/1678) Limberham, or the Kind Keeper, a Comedy (/1678) Oedipus, a Tragedy (1678 or 1679/1679), an adaptation with Nathaniel Lee of Sophocles' Oedipus Troilus and Cressida, or Truth found too late, a Tragedy (/1679) The Spanish Friar, or the Double Discovery (1681 or 1682/) The Duke of Guise, a Tragedy (1682/1683) with Nathaniel Lee Albion and Albanius, an Opera (1685/1685) Don Sebastian, a Tragedy (1690/1690) Amphitryon, or the Two Sosias, a Comedy (1690/1690) King Arthur, or the British Worthy, a Dramatic Opera (1691/1691) Cleomenes, the Spartan Hero, a Tragedy (1692/1692) Love Triumphant, or Nature will prevail, a Tragedy (1693 or 1694/1693 or 1694) The Secular Masque
The Secular Masque

Other works

Astraea Redux, 1660 Annus Mirabilis (poem), 1667 An Essay of Dramatick Poesie, 1668 Absalom and Achitophel, 1681 Mac Flecknoe, 1682 The Medal, 1682 Religio Laici, 1682 Threnodia Augustalis, 1685 The Hind and the Panther, 1687 A Song for St. Cecilia's Day, 1687 Britannia Rediviva, 1688, written to mark the birth of a Prince of Wales. Epigram on Milton, 1688 Creator Spirit, by whose aid, 1690. Translation of Rabanus Maurus' Veni Creator Spiritus[42] The Works of Virgil, 1697 Alexander's Feast, 1697 Fables, Ancient and Modern, 1700 The Art of Satire To the Memory of Mr. Oldham, 1684


^ " John Dryden
John Dryden
(British author) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2014-05-13.  ^ Scott, W. Waverley, vol. 12, chap 14, The Pirate: "I am desirous to hear of your meeting with Dryden". "What, with Glorious John?" ^ Hopkins, David, John Dryden, ed. by Isobel Armstrong, (Tavistock: Northcote House Publishers, 2004), 22 ^ "Dryden, John (DRDN650J)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  ^ John Dryden
John Dryden
The Major Works, ed. by Keith Walker, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), ix-x ^ John Dryden
John Dryden
The Major Works, ed. by Keith Walker, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), x ^ Abrams, M.H., and Stephen Greenblatt eds. 'John Dryden' in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 7th ed., (New York: Norton & Co, 2000), 2071 ^ John Richardson, The Annals of London. University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0-520-22795-6. p. 156. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ "John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester". luminarium.org. Retrieved 2 August 2010.  ^ Oden, Richard, L. Dryden and Shadwell, The Literary Controversy and 'Mac Flecknoe' (1668–1679) ISBN 0-8201-1289-5 ^ Eliot, T. S., 'John Dryden', in Selected Essays, (London: Faber and Faber, 1932), 308 ^ Britannia Rediviva: a Poem on the Birth of the Prince. John Dryden. 1913. The Poems of John Dryden. Bartleby.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-12. ^ John Dryden
John Dryden
The Major Works, ed. by Keith Walker, xiv ^ Winn, James Anderson. John Dryden
John Dryden
and His World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. p. 512 ^ "DRYDEN, JOHN (1631–1700)". English Heritage. Retrieved 26 April 2017.  ^ Wheatley, Henry B. (1904). "Gerrard Street and its neighbourhood"; 35 pages  ^ W. H. Auden, New Year Letter, in Collected Poems ^ John Dryden
John Dryden
The Major Works, 37 ^ Dryden, in Samuel Johnson, The Major Works (ed. Donald Greene), 707 ^ Eliot, T. S., John Dryden, 305-06 ^ Seven Types of Ambiguity, Chapter 7 ^ Robert M. Adams, "The Case for Dryden", New York Review of Books 17 March 1988 ^ Gilman, E. Ward (ed.). 1989. "A Brief History of English Usage", Webster's Dictionary of English Usage. Springfield (Mass.): Merriam-Webster, pp. 7a-11a, Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Greene, Robert Lane. "Three Books for the Grammar Lover in Your Life : NPR". NPR. Retrieved 18 May 2011.  ^ Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, 2002, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, p. 627f. ^ Stamper, Kory (2017-01-01). Word by Word: The Secret Life of Dictionaries. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 47. ISBN 9781101870945.  ^ Cresswell, Julia (2007). The Cat's Pyjamas: The Penguin Book of Clichés (2nd ed.). Penguin Books. p. 98. ISBN 9780141025162.  ^ Corse, Taylor. Dryden's Aeneid. Associated University Presses. p. 15.  ^ Virgil. The Aeneid. Mundelein IL: Bolchazy-Carducci. p. 140.  ^ Virgil. "Aeneid". Retrieved 15 April 2014.  ^ Dryden, Jonh (1697). The Works of Virgil
in English. Berkeley: University of California Press.  ^ Dryden, John. "Preface to Sylvae". Bartelby.com. Retrieved 27 April 2015.  ^ "The Life of John Dryden". www.luminarium.org. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie (1888). "Dryden, John". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 16. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 66, 73–74.  ^ Stephen 1888, p. 66. ^ Stephen 1888, p. 74. ^ Stephen 1888, p. 72. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-25.  ^ Dryden, John (1800). The Critical and Miscellaneous Prose Works of John Dryden: Now First Collected : with Notes and Illustrations. Cadell and Davies.  ^ Walter Scott, ed. (1808). The Works of John Dryden. London: William Miller.  ^ Authorship is unresolved; not included in Scott. ^ Hatfield, Edwin F., ed., The Church Hymn book, 1872 (n. 313, p. 193-4), New York and Chicago, USA

Further reading[edit]


The Works of John Dryden, 20 vols., ed. H. T. Swedenberg Jr. et al. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1956–2002) John Dryden
John Dryden
The Major Works, ed. by Keith Walker, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987) The Works of John Dryden, ed. by David Marriott (Hertfordshire: Wordsworth
Editions, 1995) John Dryden
John Dryden
Selected Poems, ed. by David Hopkins (London: Everyman Paperbacks, 1998) John Dryden
John Dryden
Selected Poems, ed. by Steven N. Swicker and David Bywaters (London: Penguin Books, 2001) ISBN 978-0140439144


Winn, James Anderson. John Dryden
John Dryden
and His World (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987)

Modern criticism

Eliot, T. S., "John Dryden", in Selected Essays (London: Faber and Faber, 1932) Hopkins, David, John Dryden, ed. by Isobel Armstrong (Tavistock: Northcote House Publishers, 2004) Oden, Richard, L. Dryden and Shadwell, The Literary Controversy and ' Mac Flecknoe
Mac Flecknoe
(1668–1679) (Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, Inc., Delmar, New York, 1977) Van Doren, Mark (2007). John Dryden: A Study of His Poetry. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4067-2488-2.  Stark, Ryan. "John Dryden, New Philosophy, and Rhetoric", in Rhetoric, Science, and Magic in Seventeenth-Century England (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 2009)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Dryden.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Dryden

has original works written by or about: John Dryden

Works by John Dryden
John Dryden
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Dryden
John Dryden
at Internet Archive Works by John Dryden
John Dryden
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Poems by John Dryden
John Dryden
at PoetryFoundation.org John Dryden
John Dryden
at the National Portrait Gallery, London

Court offices

Preceded by William Davenant English Poet
Laureate 1668–1689 Succeeded by Thomas Shadwell

Preceded by James Howell English Historiographer Royal 1670–1689 Succeeded by Thomas Shadwell

v t e

Works by John Dryden


Essay of Dramatick Poesie
Essay of Dramatick Poesie


Fables, Ancient and Modern
Fables, Ancient and Modern


The State of Innocence
The State of Innocence
(1677) Albion and Albanius
Albion and Albanius
(1685) King Arthur (1691)


Astraea Redux
Astraea Redux
(1660) Annus Mirabilis (1667) Absalom and Achitophel
Absalom and Achitophel
(1681-82) Mac Flecknoe
Mac Flecknoe
(1682) Religio Laici
Religio Laici
(1682) Threnodia Augustalis
Threnodia Augustalis
(1685) The Hind and the Panther
The Hind and the Panther
(1687) Alexander's Feast (1697)


The Wild Gallant
The Wild Gallant
(1663) The Indian Queen (1664) The Indian Emperour
The Indian Emperour
(1665) The Maiden Queen (1667) The Tempest
The Tempest
(1667) Sir Martin Mar-all
Sir Martin Mar-all
(1667) An Evening's Love
An Evening's Love
(1668) Tyrannick Love
Tyrannick Love
(1669) The Conquest of Granada
The Conquest of Granada
(1670) The Assignation
The Assignation
(1672) Marriage à la mode (1672) Amboyna (1673) The Mistaken Husband
The Mistaken Husband
(1674) Aureng-zebe
(1675) All for Love (1678) Mr. Limberham; or, the Kind Keeper (1678) Oedipus
(1679) Amphitryon (1691)


Heroic couplet

v t e

Restoration comedy


Aphra Behn Susanna Centlivre Colley Cibber William Congreve John Dryden George Etherege George Farquhar Edward Howard James Howard Robert Howard Thomas Otway Charles Sedley Thomas Shadwell Thomas Southerne Richard Steele John Vanbrugh George Villiers William Wycherley

Notable Plays

The Indian Emperour
The Indian Emperour
(1665) The Committee; Or, The Faithful Irishman (1665) The Mulberry-Garden
The Mulberry-Garden
(1668) Tarugo's Wiles: or, The Coffee-house (1668) The Rehearsal (1671) Marriage à la mode (1672) The Country Wife
The Country Wife
(1675) Aureng-zebe
(1675) The Plain-Dealer (1676) The Man of Mode
The Man of Mode
(1676) Venice Preserv'd (1682) Bellamira (1687) Love for Love
Love for Love
(1700) Love's Last Shift
Love's Last Shift
(1696) The Relapse
The Relapse
(1696) The Way of the World
The Way of the World
(1700) The Recruiting Officer
The Recruiting Officer
(1706) The Beaux' Stratagem
The Beaux' Stratagem


Beau Fop Spark Rake

Related People

Charles II Jeremy Collier Thomas Hobbes Marquis de Sade Molière James II Georg Monck John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester

Related articles

Bedlam Chocolate houses Comedy of manners Court Drury Lane Fleet Prison Hedonism The Libertine (1994) The Libertine (film) Libertinism Lincoln's Inn Fields Mode Restoration of Charles II Second Anglo-Dutch War Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage Wit

v t e

The works of Plutarch


Parallel Lives Moralia Pseudo-Plutarch


and Coriolanus1 Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Julius Caesar Aratus of Sicyon
Aratus of Sicyon
/ Artaxerxes and Galba
/ Otho2 Aristides
and Cato the Elder1 Crassus and Nicias1 Demetrius and Antony1 Demosthenes
and Cicero1 Dion and Brutus1 Fabius and Pericles1 Lucullus
and Cimon1 Lysander
and Sulla1 Numa and Lycurgus1 Pelopidas
and Marcellus1 Philopoemen
and Flamininus1 Phocion
and Cato the Younger Pompey
and Agesilaus1 Poplicola and Solon1 Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius Romulus
and Theseus1 Sertorius and Eumenes1 Agis / Cleomenes1 and Tiberius Gracchus
Tiberius Gracchus
/ Gaius Gracchus Timoleon
and Aemilius Paulus1 Themistocles
and Camillus

Translators and editors

Jacques Amyot Arthur Hugh Clough John Dryden Philemon Holland Thomas North

1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives

v t e

Laureate of the United Kingdom

John Dryden
John Dryden
(1668–88) Thomas Shadwell
Thomas Shadwell
(1689–92) Nahum Tate
Nahum Tate
(1692–1715) Nicholas Rowe (1715–18) Laurence Eusden
Laurence Eusden
(1718–30) Colley Cibber
Colley Cibber
(1730–57) William Whitehead (1757–85) Thomas Warton
Thomas Warton
(1785–90) Henry James Pye
Henry James Pye
(1790–1813) Robert Southey
Robert Southey
(1813–43) William Wordsworth
(1843–50) Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
(1850–92) Alfred Austin
Alfred Austin
(1896–1913) Robert Bridges
Robert Bridges
(1913–30) John Masefield
John Masefield
(1930–67) Cecil Day-Lewis
Cecil Day-Lewis
(1968–72) John Betjeman
John Betjeman
(1972–84) Ted Hughes
Ted Hughes
(1984–98) Andrew Motion
Andrew Motion
(1999–2009) Carol Ann Duffy
Carol Ann Duffy

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 68937979 LCCN: n79006406 ISNI: 0000 0001 1028 8042 GND: 118680897 SELIBR: 184079 SUDOC: 027924459 BNF: cb119862951 (data) BPN: 35352108 ULAN: 500317012 MusicBrainz: 525993e8-47af-44d5-91d1-dd1bfb5fdab4 NLA: 35046283 NDL: 00438269 NKC: jn19990001882 BNE: XX880