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JOHN BARDEEN (/bɑːrˈdiːn/ ; May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer , the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor ; and again in 1972 with Leon N Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer
John Robert Schrieffer
for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory .

The transistor revolutionized the electronics industry, allowing the Information Age to occur, and made possible the development of almost every modern electronic device, from telephones to computers to missiles . Bardeen's developments in superconductivity, which won him his second Nobel, are used in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Spectroscopy (NMR) or its medical sub-tool magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

In 1990, John Bardeen
John Bardeen
appeared on LIFE Magazine 's list of "100 Most Influential Americans of the Century."

CONTENTS

* 1 Education and early life

* 2 Career and research

* 2.1 Bell Labs * 2.2 The invention of the transistor * 2.3 University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
* 2.4 The Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
in 1956 * 2.5 BCS theory * 2.6 The Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
in 1972 * 2.7 Other awards * 2.8 Xerox
Xerox

* 3 Personal life

* 3.1 Death * 3.2 Legacy

* 4 References * 5 External links

EDUCATION AND EARLY LIFE

John Bardeen
John Bardeen
was born in Madison, Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
, on May 23, 1908. He was the son of Charles Russell Bardeen , the first dean of the University of Wisconsin Medical School.

Bardeen attended the University High School at Madison for several years, but graduated from Madison Central High School in 1923. He graduated from high school at age fifteen, even though he could have graduated several years earlier. His graduation was postponed due to taking additional courses at another high school and also partly because of his mother's death. He entered the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1923. While in college he joined the Zeta Psi fraternity. He raised the needed membership fees partly by playing billiards. He was initiated as a member of Tau Beta Pi
Tau Beta Pi
engineering honor society. He chose engineering because he did not want to be an academic like his father and also because it is mathematical. He also felt that engineering had good job prospects.

Bardeen received his Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
degree in electrical engineering in 1928 from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He graduated in 1928 despite taking a year off during his degree to work in Chicago. He had taken all the graduate courses in physics and mathematics that had interested him, and, in fact, graduated in five years, one more than usual; this allowed him time to also complete a Master's thesis, supervised by Leo J. Peters. He received his Master of Science degree in electrical engineering in 1929 from Wisconsin.

Bardeen stayed on for some time at Wisconsin furthering his studies, but he eventually went to work for Gulf Research Laboratories , the research arm of the Gulf Oil Corporation, based in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
. From 1930 to 1933, Bardeen worked there on the development of methods for the interpretation of magnetic and gravitational surveys. He worked as a geophysicist. After the work failed to keep his interest, he applied and was accepted to the graduate program in mathematics at Princeton University
Princeton University
.

Bardeen studied both mathematics and physics as a graduate student, ending up writing his thesis on a problem in solid-state physics , under physicist Eugene Wigner
Eugene Wigner
. Before completing his thesis, he was offered a position as Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University in 1935. He spent the next three years there, from 1935 to 1938, working with to-be Nobel laureates in physics John Hasbrouck van Vleck and Percy Williams Bridgman on problems in cohesion and electrical conduction in metals, and also did some work on level density of nuclei. He received his Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Princeton in 1936.

CAREER AND RESEARCH

BELL LABS

John Bardeen, William Shockley
William Shockley
and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs, 1948

In October 1945, Bardeen began work at Bell Labs . He was a member of a solid-state physics group, led by William Shockley
William Shockley
and chemist Stanley Morgan. Other personnel working in the group were Walter Brattain , physicist Gerald Pearson , chemist Robert Gibney, electronics expert Hilbert Moore and several technicians. He moved his family to Summit, New Jersey
Summit, New Jersey
.

The assignment of the group was to seek a solid-state alternative to fragile glass vacuum tube amplifiers. Their first attempts were based on Shockley's ideas about using an external electrical field on a semiconductor to affect its conductivity. These experiments mysteriously failed every time in all sorts of configurations and materials. The group was at a standstill until Bardeen suggested a theory that invoked surface states that prevented the field from penetrating the semiconductor. The group changed its focus to study these surface states, and they met almost daily to discuss the work. The rapport of the group was excellent, and ideas were freely exchanged. By the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to Physical Review . Brattain started experiments to study the surface states through observations made while shining a bright light on the semiconductor's surface. This led to several more papers (one of them co-authored with Shockley), which estimated the density of the surface states to be more than enough to account for their failed experiments. The pace of the work picked up significantly when they started to surround point contacts between the semiconductor and the conducting wires with electrolytes . Moore built a circuit that allowed them to vary the frequency of the input signal easily and suggested that they use glycol borate (gu), a viscous chemical that didn't evaporate. Finally they began to get some evidence of power amplification when Pearson, acting on a suggestion by Shockley, put a voltage on a droplet of gu placed across a P-N junction .

THE INVENTION OF THE TRANSISTOR

Main articles: Transistor
Transistor
and History of the transistor A stylized replica of the first transistor invented at Bell Labs on December 23, 1947

On December 23, 1947, Bardeen and Brattain—working without Shockley—succeeded in creating a point-contact transistor that achieved amplification. By the next month, Bell Labs ' patent attorneys started to work on the patent applications.

Bell Labs' attorneys soon discovered that Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld , who filed his MESFET
MESFET
-like patent in Canada on October 22, 1925.

Shockley took the lion's share of the credit in public for the invention of transistor, which led to a deterioration of Bardeen's relationship with Shockley. Bell Labs management, however, consistently presented all three inventors as a team. Shockley eventually infuriated and alienated Bardeen and Brattain, and he essentially blocked the two from working on the junction transistor. Bardeen began pursuing a theory for superconductivity and left Bell Labs in 1951. Brattain refused to work with Shockley further and was assigned to another group. Neither Bardeen nor Brattain had much to do with the development of the transistor beyond the first year after its invention.

The "transistor" (a combination of "transconductance" and "resistor") was 1/50 as large as the vacuum tubes it replaced in televisions and radios and allowed electrical devices to become more compact.

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA–CHAMPAIGN

A commemorative plaque remembering John Bardeen
John Bardeen
and the theory of superconductivity, at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

By 1951, Bardeen was looking for a new job. Fred Seitz, a friend of Bardeen, convinced the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
to make Bardeen an offer of $10,000 a year. Bardeen accepted the offer and left Bell Labs. He joined the engineering faculty and the physics faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
in 1951. He was Professor of Electrical Engineering and of Physics
Physics
at Illinois. His first Ph.D. student was Nick Holonyak
Nick Holonyak
(1954), the inventor of the LED in 1962.

At Illinois, he established two major research programs, one in the Electrical Engineering Department and one in the Physics
Physics
Department. The research program in the Electrical Engineering Department dealt with both experimental and theoretical aspects of semiconductors, and the research program in the Physics
Physics
Department dealt with theoretical aspects of macroscopic quantum systems, particularly superconductivity and quantum liquids.

He was an active professor at Illinois from 1951 to 1975 and then became Professor Emeritus. In his later life, Bardeen remained active in academic research, during which time he focused on understanding the flow of electrons in charge density waves (CDWs) through metallic linear chain compounds. His proposals that CDW electron transport is a collective quantum phenomenon (see Macroscopic quantum phenomena ) were initially greeted with skepticism. However, experiments reported in 2012 show oscillations in CDW current versus magnetic flux through tantalum trisulfide rings, similar to the behavior of superconducting quantum interference devices (see SQUID
SQUID
and Aharonov–Bohm effect ), lending credence to the idea that collective CDW electron transport is fundamentally quantum in nature. (See quantum mechanics .) Bardeen continued his research throughout the 1980s, and published articles in Physical Review Letters and Physics Today less than a year before he died.

THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS IN 1956

In 1956, John Bardeen
John Bardeen
shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
with William Shockley of Semiconductor Laboratory of Beckman Instruments and Walter Brattain of Bell Telephone Laboratories "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".

At the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockholm
Stockholm
, Brattain and Shockley received their awards that night from King Gustaf VI Adolf . Bardeen brought only one of his three children to the Nobel Prize ceremony. King Gustav chided Bardeen because of this, and Bardeen assured the King that the next time he would bring all his children to the ceremony. He kept his promise.

BCS THEORY

Main article: BCS theory

In 1957, Bardeen, in collaboration with Leon Cooper
Leon Cooper
and his doctoral student John Robert Schrieffer
John Robert Schrieffer
, proposed the standard theory of superconductivity known as the BCS theory (named for their initials).

THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS IN 1972

In 1972, Bardeen shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
with Leon N Cooper of Brown University
Brown University
and John Robert Schrieffer
John Robert Schrieffer
of the University of Pennsylvania "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory".

Bardeen did bring all his children to the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockholm.

This was Bardeen's second Nobel Prize in Physics. He became the first person to win two Nobel Prizes in the same field. Only five others have ever received more than one Nobel Prize.

Bardeen gave much of his Nobel Prize money to fund the Fritz London Memorial Lectures at Duke University
Duke University
.

OTHER AWARDS

In addition to winning the Nobel prize twice, Bardeen won numerous awards including:

* 1952 Franklin Institute 's Stuart Ballantine Medal . * 1959 elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences * 1965 National Medal of Science . * 1971 IEEE Medal of Honor
IEEE Medal of Honor
for "his profound contributions to the understanding of the conductivity of solids, to the invention of the transistor, and to the microscopic theory of superconductivity." * Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(ForMemRS) in 1973 . * 1975 Franklin Medal
Franklin Medal
. * On January 10, 1977, John Bardeen
John Bardeen
was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
by President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
. He was represented at the ceremony by his son, William Bardeen. * Bardeen was one of 11 recipients given the Third Century Award from President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
in 1990 for "exceptional contributions to American society" and was granted a gold medal from the Soviet Academy of Sciences
Soviet Academy of Sciences
in 1988.

XEROX

Bardeen was also an important adviser to Xerox
Xerox
Corporation . Though quiet by nature, he took the uncharacteristic step of urging Xerox executives to keep their California research center, Xerox
Xerox
PARC , afloat when the parent company was suspicious that its research center would amount to little.

PERSONAL LIFE

Bardeen married Jane Maxwell on July 18, 1938. While at Princeton, he met Jane during a visit to his old friends in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
.

Bardeen was a man with a very unassuming personality. While he served as a professor for almost 40 years at the University of Illinois, he was best remembered by neighbors for hosting cookouts where he would cook for his friends, many of whom were unaware of his accomplishments at the university. He would always ask his guests if they liked the hamburger bun toasted (since he liked his that way). He enjoyed playing golf and going on picnics with his family. Lillian Hoddeson, a University of Illinois historian who wrote a book on Bardeen, said that because he "differed radically from the popular stereotype of 'genius' and was uninterested in appearing other than ordinary, the public and the media often overlooked him."

When asked about his beliefs in an interview in 1988, Bardeen responded: "I am not a religious person, and so do not think about it very much". However, he has also said: "I feel that science cannot provide an answer to the ultimate questions about the meaning and purpose of life." Bardeen did believe in a code of moral values and behaviour. John Bardeen's children were taken to church by his wife, who taught Sunday school and was a church elder. Despite this, he and his wife made it clear that they did not have faith in an afterlife and other religious ideas.

DEATH

Bardeen died of heart disease at Brigham and Women\'s Hospital in Boston
Boston
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, on January 30, 1991. Although he lived in Champaign-Urbana , he had come to Boston
Boston
for medical consultation. Bardeen and his wife Jane (1907–1997) are buried in Forest Hill Cemetery , Madison, Wisconsin. They were survived by three children, James and William and Elizabeth Bardeen Greytak, and six grandchildren.

LEGACY

“ Near the end of this decade, when they begin enumerating the names of the people who had the greatest impact on the 20th century, the name of John Bardeen, who died last week, has to be near, or perhaps even arguably at, the top of the list... Mr. Bardeen shared two Nobel Prizes and won numerous other honors. But what greater honor can there be when each of us can look all around us and everywhere see the reminders of a man whose genius has made our lives longer, healthier and better. ”

Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
editorial, February 3, 1991

In honor of Professor Bardeen, the engineering quadrangle at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is named the Bardeen Quad.

Also in honor of Bardeen, Sony
Sony
Corporation endowed a $3 million John Bardeen professorial chair at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, beginning in 1990. The current John Bardeen Professor is Nick Holonyak
Nick Holonyak
, Bardeen's first doctoral student and protege.

At the time of Bardeen's death, then-University of Illinois chancellor Morton Weir said, "It is a rare person whose work changes the life of every American; John's did."

Bardeen was honored on a March 6, 2008, United States postage stamp as part of the "American Scientists" series designed by artist Victor Stabin . The $0.41 stamp was unveiled in a ceremony at the University of Illinois. His citation reads: "Theoretical physicist John Bardeen (1908–1991) shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
twice — in 1956, as co-inventor of the transistor and in 1972, for the explanation of superconductivity. The transistor paved the way for all modern electronics, from computers to microchips. Diverse applications of superconductivity include infrared sensors and medical imaging systems." The other scientists on the "American Scientists" sheet include biochemist Gerty Cori , chemist Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and astronomer Edwin Hubble .

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E John Bardeen
John Bardeen
at the Mathematics Genealogy Project * ^ A B C "Nice Guys Can Finish As Geniuses at University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign.". Chicago Tribune: Knight Ridder News Service. 2003-01-25. Retrieved 2007-08-03. * ^ A B Bardeen Biography from the Nobel Foundation * ^ A B C Pippard, B. (1994). "John Bardeen. 23 May 1908–30 January 1991". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society . 39: 20–34. doi :10.1098/rsbm.1994.0002 . * ^ "Elizabeth Greytak, Systems Analyst". Boston: The Boston
Boston
Globe . 2000-12-25. Retrieved 2014-12-27. * ^ Hoddeson, Lillian and Vicki Daitch. True Genius: the Life and Science of John Bardeen. National Academy Press, 2002. ISBN 0-309-08408-3 * ^ A B C D E F G "John Bardeen, Nobelist, Inventor of Transistor, Dies". Washington Post. 1991-01-31. Retrieved 2007-08-03. * ^ A B C D "Biography of John Bardeen". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-01. * ^ A B "Biography of John Bardeen
John Bardeen
1". PBS. Retrieved 2007-12-24. * ^ A B "Curriculum Vitae of John Bardeen". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-01. * ^ David Pines (2003-05-01). "John Bardeen: genius in action". physicsworld.com. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2008-01-07. * ^ Hoddeson, Lillian and Daitch, Vicki. "True Genius: The Life and Science of John Bardeen", p. 117. "Soon, however, life in Summit would become easy and rich for the Bardeens." * ^ Brattain quoted in Crystal Fire p. 127 * ^ Crystal Fire p. 132 * ^ A B "Biography of John Bardeen
John Bardeen
2". PBS. Retrieved 2007-12-24. * ^ US 1745175 "Method and apparatus for controlling electric current" first filing in Canada on 22.10.1925 * ^ Diane Kormos Buchwald. American Scientist 91.2 (Mar.-Apr. 2003): 185–86. * ^ Crystal Fire p. 278 * ^ "Biography at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign". The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-11-06. * ^ Bardeen, John (1979). "Theory of non-ohmic conduction from charge-density waves in NbSe3". Physical Review Letters. 42 (22): 1498–1500. Bibcode :1979PhRvL..42.1498B. doi :10.1103/PhysRevLett.42.1498 . Archived from the original on 2013-04-14. * ^ Bardeen, John (1980). "Tunneling theory of charge-density-wave depinning". Physical Review Letters. 45 (24): 1978–1980. Bibcode :1980PhRvL..45.1978B. doi :10.1103/PhysRevLett.45.1978 . Archived from the original on 2013-04-14. * ^ J. H. Miller, Jr.; J. Richard; J. R. Tucker; John Bardeen (1983). "Evidence for tunneling of charge-density waves in TaS3". Physical Review Letters. 51 (17): 1592–1595. Bibcode :1983PhRvL..51.1592M. doi :10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.1592 . Archived from the original on 2013-04-14. * ^ Pines, David (2009). "Biographical Memoirs: John Bardeen" (PDF). Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 153 (3): 287–321. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2013. * ^ M. Tsubota; K. Inagaki; T. Matsuura; S. Tanda (2012). "Aharonov-Bohm effect in charge-density wave loops with inherent temporal current switching". EPL (Europhysics Letters). 97 (5): 57011. Bibcode :2012EL.....9757011T. arXiv :0906.5206  . doi :10.1209/0295-5075/97/57011 . * ^ J. H. Miller, Jr.; A.I. Wijesinghe; Z. Tang; A.M. Guloy (2012). "Correlated quantum transport of density wave electrons". Physical Review Letters. 108 (3): 036404. Bibcode :2012PhRvL.108c6404M. PMID 22400766 . arXiv :1109.4619  . doi :10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.036404 .

* ^ J.H. Miller, Jr.; A.I. Wijesinghe; Z. Tang; A.M. Guloy. "Coherent quantum transport of charge density waves". arXiv :1212.3020  . * ^ Bardeen, John (1990). "Theory of size effects in depinning of charge-density waves". Physical Review Letters. 64 (19): 2297–2299. Bibcode :1990PhRvL..64.2297B. PMID 10041638 . doi :10.1103/PhysRevLett.64.2297 . Archived from the original on 2013-02-24. * ^ Bardeen, John (1990). " Superconductivity
Superconductivity
and other macroscopic quantum phenomena". Physics
Physics
Today. 43 (12): 25–31. Bibcode :1990PhT....43l..25B. doi :10.1063/1.881218 . * ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
in 1956". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-06. * ^ A B "Biography of John Bardeen
John Bardeen
3". PBS. Retrieved 2007-12-24. * ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
in 1972". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-12-19. * ^ A B " Physicist John Bardeen, 82, transistor pioneer, Nobelist". Chicago Sun-Times. 1991-01-31. Retrieved 2007-08-03. * ^ cf. List of Nobel laureates#Laureates * ^ " Fritz London
Fritz London
Memorial Prize". Duke University. Retrieved 2007-12-24. * ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 April 2011. * ^ "The President\'s National Medal of Science: Recipient Details – US National Science Foundation (NSF)". nsf.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-25. * ^ "Fellowship of the Royal Society
Royal Society
1660–2015". London: Royal Society . Archived from the original on 2015-07-15. * ^ Hoddeson, Lillian; Daitch, Vicki (2002). True Genius: The Life and Science of John Bardeen. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 9780309169547 . John's mother, Althea, had been reared in the Quaker tradition, and his stepmother, Ruth, was Catholic, but John was resolutely secular throughout his life. He was once "taken by surprise" when an interviewer asked him a question about religion. "I am not a religious person," he said, "and so do not think about it very much." He went on in a rare elaboration of his persona