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John Bardeen
John Bardeen
(/bɑːrˈdiːn/; May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991)[3] was an American physicist and electrical engineer. He is the only person who won the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley
William Shockley
and Walter Brattain
Walter Brattain
for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon N Cooper
Leon N Cooper
and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory.[2][6] The transistor revolutionized the electronics industry and ushered the birth of the Information Age. The semiconductor device also made possible the development of almost every modern electronic device, from telephones to computers to missiles. Bardeen's developments in superconductivity—which won him his second Nobel Prize—are used in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) or its medical sub-tool magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1990, John Bardeen
John Bardeen
appeared on LIFE Magazine's list of "100 Most Influential Americans of the Century."[7]

Contents

1 Education and early life 2 Career and research

2.1 Bell Labs 2.2 The invention of the transistor 2.3 University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign 2.4 The Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1956 2.5 BCS theory 2.6 The Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1972 2.7 Other awards 2.8 Xerox

3 Personal life

3.1 Death 3.2 Legacy

4 References 5 External links

Education and early life[edit] John Bardeen
John Bardeen
was born in Madison, Wisconsin, on May 23, 1908.[8] He was the son of Charles Bardeen, the first dean of the University of Wisconsin Medical School. Bardeen attended the University High School at Madison. He graduated from the school at age 15 in 1923,[8] even though he could have graduated several years earlier. His graduation was postponed because he took courses at another high school and also partly because of his mother's death. He entered the University of Wisconsin–Madison
University of Wisconsin–Madison
in 1923. While in college he joined the Zeta Psi
Zeta Psi
fraternity. He raised the needed membership fees partly by playing billiards. He was initiated as a member of Tau Beta Pi
Tau Beta Pi
engineering honor society. He chose engineering because he did not want to be an academic like his father. He also felt that engineering had good job prospects.[9] Bardeen received his Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
degree in electrical engineering in 1928 from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.[10] He graduated in 1928 despite taking a year off to work in Chicago.[11] He took all the graduate courses in physics and mathematics that had interested him, and he graduated in five years instead of the usual four. This allowed him time to complete his Master's thesis, which was supervised by Leo J. Peters. He received his Master of Science
Master of Science
degree in electrical engineering in 1929 from Wisconsin.[4][10] Bardeen furthered his studies by staying on at Wisconsin, but he eventually went to work for Gulf Research Laboratories, the research arm of the Gulf Oil
Gulf Oil
Corporation that was based in Pittsburgh.[7] From 1930 to 1933, Bardeen worked there on the development of methods for the interpretation of magnetic and gravitational surveys.[8] He worked as a geophysicist. After the work failed to keep his interest, he applied and was accepted to the graduate program in mathematics at Princeton University.[9] As a graduate student, Bardeen studied mathematics and physics. Under physicist Eugene Wigner, he ended up writing his thesis on a problem in solid-state physics. Before completing his thesis, he was offered a position as Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University in 1935. He spent the next three years there, from 1935 to 1938, working with to-be Nobel laureates in physics John Hasbrouck van Vleck and Percy Williams Bridgman
Percy Williams Bridgman
on problems in cohesion and electrical conduction in metals, and also did some work on level density of nuclei. He received his Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Princeton in 1936.[8] Career and research[edit] Bell Labs[edit]

John Bardeen, William Shockley
William Shockley
and Walter Brattain
Walter Brattain
at Bell Labs, 1948

In October 1945, Bardeen began work at Bell Labs. He was a member of a solid-state physics group, led by William Shockley
William Shockley
and chemist Stanley Morgan. Other personnel working in the group were Walter Brattain, physicist Gerald Pearson, chemist Robert Gibney, electronics expert Hilbert Moore and several technicians. He moved his family to Summit, New Jersey.[12] The assignment of the group was to seek a solid-state alternative to fragile glass vacuum tube amplifiers. Their first attempts were based on Shockley's ideas about using an external electrical field on a semiconductor to affect its conductivity. These experiments mysteriously failed every time in all sorts of configurations and materials. The group was at a standstill until Bardeen suggested a theory that invoked surface states that prevented the field from penetrating the semiconductor. The group changed its focus to study these surface states, and they met almost daily to discuss the work. The rapport of the group was excellent, and ideas were freely exchanged.[13] By the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to Physical Review. Brattain started experiments to study the surface states through observations made while shining a bright light on the semiconductor's surface. This led to several more papers (one of them co-authored with Shockley), which estimated the density of the surface states to be more than enough to account for their failed experiments. The pace of the work picked up significantly when they started to surround point contacts between the semiconductor and the conducting wires with electrolytes. Moore built a circuit that allowed them to vary the frequency of the input signal easily and suggested that they use glycol borate (gu), a viscous chemical that didn't evaporate. Finally they began to get some evidence of power amplification when Pearson, acting on a suggestion by Shockley,[14] put a voltage on a droplet of gu placed across a p–n junction. The invention of the transistor[edit] Main articles: Transistor
Transistor
and History of the transistor

A stylized replica of the first transistor invented at Bell Labs
Bell Labs
on December 23, 1947

On December 23, 1947, Bardeen and Brattain were working without Shockley when they succeeded in creating a point-contact transistor that achieved amplification. By the next month, Bell Labs' patent attorneys started to work on the patent applications.[15] Bell Labs' attorneys soon discovered that Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld, who filed his MESFET-like patent in Canada on October 22, 1925.[16] Shockley publicly took the lion's share of the credit for the invention of transistor; this led to a deterioration of Bardeen's relationship with Shockley.[17] Bell Labs
Bell Labs
management, however, consistently presented all three inventors as a team. Shockley eventually infuriated and alienated Bardeen and Brattain, and he essentially blocked the two from working on the junction transistor. Bardeen began pursuing a theory for superconductivity and left Bell Labs in 1951. Brattain refused to work with Shockley further and was assigned to another group. Neither Bardeen nor Brattain had much to do with the development of the transistor beyond the first year after its invention.[18][19] The "transistor" (a combination of "transconductance" and "resistor") was 1/50 as large as the vacuum tubes it replaced in televisions and radios and allowed electrical devices to become more compact.[7] University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign[edit]

A commemorative plaque remembering John Bardeen
John Bardeen
and the theory of superconductivity, at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

By 1951, Bardeen was looking for a new job. Fred Seitz, a friend of Bardeen, convinced the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
to make Bardeen an offer of $10,000 a year. Bardeen accepted the offer and left Bell Labs.[15] He joined the engineering and physics faculties at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
in 1951. He was Professor of Electrical Engineering and of Physics
Physics
at Illinois. His first Ph.D. student was Nick Holonyak
Nick Holonyak
(1954), the inventor of the LED in 1962.[5] At Illinois, he established two major research programs, one in the Electrical Engineering Department and one in the Physics
Physics
Department. The research program in the Electrical Engineering Department dealt with both experimental and theoretical aspects of semiconductors, and the research program in the Physics
Physics
Department dealt with theoretical aspects of macroscopic quantum systems, particularly superconductivity and quantum liquids.[20] He was an active professor at Illinois from 1951 to 1975 and then became Professor Emeritus.[7] In his later life, Bardeen remained active in academic research, during which time he focused on understanding the flow of electrons in charge density waves (CDWs) through metallic linear chain compounds. His proposals[21][22][23] that CDW electron transport is a collective quantum phenomenon (see Macroscopic quantum phenomena) were initially greeted with skepticism.[24] However, experiments reported in 2012[25] show oscillations in CDW current versus magnetic flux through tantalum trisulfide rings, similar to the behavior of superconducting quantum interference devices (see SQUID
SQUID
and Aharonov–Bohm effect), lending credence to the idea that collective CDW electron transport is fundamentally quantum in nature.[26][27] (See quantum mechanics.) Bardeen continued his research throughout the 1980s, and published articles in Physical Review Letters[28] and Physics
Physics
Today[29] less than a year before he died. The Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1956[edit] In 1956, John Bardeen
John Bardeen
shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
with William Shockley of Semiconductor Laboratory of Beckman Instruments and Walter Brattain of Bell Telephone Laboratories
Bell Telephone Laboratories
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".[30] At the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockholm, Brattain and Shockley received their awards that night from King Gustaf VI Adolf. Bardeen brought only one of his three children to the Nobel Prize ceremony. King Gustav chided Bardeen because of this, and Bardeen assured the King that the next time he would bring all his children to the ceremony. He kept his promise.[31] BCS theory[edit] Main article: BCS theory In 1957, Bardeen, in collaboration with Leon Cooper
Leon Cooper
and his doctoral student John Robert Schrieffer, proposed the standard theory of superconductivity known as the BCS theory (named for their initials).[7] The Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1972[edit] In 1972, Bardeen shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
with Leon N Cooper of Brown University
Brown University
and John Robert Schrieffer
John Robert Schrieffer
of the University of Pennsylvania "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory".[32] Bardeen did bring all his children to the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockholm.[31] This was Bardeen's second Nobel Prize in Physics. He became the first person to win two Nobel Prizes in the same field.[33] Only five others have ever received more than one Nobel Prize.[34] Bardeen gave much of his Nobel Prize money to fund the Fritz London Memorial Lectures at Duke University.[35] Other awards[edit] In addition to winning the Nobel prize twice, Bardeen won numerous awards including:

1952 Franklin Institute's Stuart Ballantine Medal. 1959 elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences[36] 1965 National Medal of Science.[37] 1971 IEEE Medal of Honor for "his profound contributions to the understanding of the conductivity of solids, to the invention of the transistor, and to the microscopic theory of superconductivity." Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(ForMemRS) in 1973.[3][38] 1975 Franklin Medal. On January 10, 1977, John Bardeen
John Bardeen
was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Gerald Ford. He was represented at the ceremony by his son, William Bardeen. Bardeen was one of 11 recipients given the Third Century Award from President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
in 1990 for "exceptional contributions to American society" and was granted a gold medal from the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1988.

Xerox[edit] Bardeen was also an important adviser to Xerox
Xerox
Corporation. Though quiet by nature, he took the uncharacteristic step of urging Xerox executives to keep their California research center, Xerox
Xerox
PARC, afloat when the parent company was suspicious that its research center would amount to little. Personal life[edit] Bardeen married Jane Maxwell on July 18, 1938. While at Princeton, he met Jane during a visit to his old friends in Pittsburgh. Bardeen was a scientist with a very unassuming personality. While he served as a professor for almost 40 years at the University of Illinois, he was best remembered by neighbors for hosting cookouts where he would prepare food for his friends, many of whom were unaware of his accomplishments at the university. He would always ask his guests if they liked the hamburger bun toasted (since he liked his that way). He enjoyed playing golf and going on picnics with his family. Lillian Hoddeson, a University of Illinois historian who wrote a book on Bardeen, said that because he "differed radically from the popular stereotype of 'genius' and was uninterested in appearing other than ordinary, the public and the media often overlooked him."[5] When Bardeen was asked about his beliefs during a 1988 interview, he responded: "I am not a religious person, and so do not think about it very much". However, he has also said: "I feel that science cannot provide an answer to the ultimate questions about the meaning and purpose of life." Bardeen did believe in a code of moral values and behaviour.[39] John Bardeen's children were taken to church by his wife, who taught Sunday school and was a church elder.[40] Despite this, he and his wife made it clear that they did not have faith in an afterlife and other religious ideas.[41] Death[edit] Bardeen died of heart disease at age 82 at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 30, 1991.[42] Although he lived in Champaign-Urbana, he had come to Boston
Boston
for medical consultation.[7] Bardeen and his wife Jane (1907–1997) are buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Madison, Wisconsin.[43] They were survived by three children, James and William and Elizabeth Bardeen Greytak, and six grandchildren.[7] Legacy[edit]

“ Near the end of this decade, when they begin enumerating the names of the people who had the greatest impact on the 20th century, the name of John Bardeen, who died last week, has to be near, or perhaps even arguably at, the top of the list... Mr. Bardeen shared two Nobel Prizes and won numerous other honors. But what greater honor can there be when each of us can look all around us and everywhere see the reminders of a man whose genius has made our lives longer, healthier and better. ”

—  Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
editorial, February 3, 1991

In honor of Professor Bardeen, the engineering quadrangle at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
is named the Bardeen Quad. Also in honor of Bardeen, Sony
Sony
Corporation endowed a $3 million John Bardeen
John Bardeen
professorial chair at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, beginning in 1990.[42] The current John Bardeen Professor is Nick Holonyak, Bardeen's first doctoral student and protege. At the time of Bardeen's death, then-University of Illinois chancellor Morton Weir said, "It is a rare person whose work changes the life of every American; John's did."[33] Bardeen was honored on a March 6, 2008, United States postage stamp as part of the "American Scientists" series designed by artist Victor Stabin. The $0.41 stamp was unveiled in a ceremony at the University of Illinois.[44] His citation reads: "Theoretical physicist John Bardeen (1908–1991) shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
twice — in 1956, as co-inventor of the transistor and in 1972, for the explanation of superconductivity. The transistor paved the way for all modern electronics, from computers to microchips. Diverse applications of superconductivity include infrared sensors and medical imaging systems." The other scientists on the "American Scientists" sheet include biochemist Gerty Cori, chemist Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and astronomer Edwin Hubble. References[edit]

^ "Elizabeth Greytak, Systems Analyst". Boston: The Boston
Boston
Globe. 2000-12-25. Retrieved 2014-12-27.  ^ a b Bardeen Biography from the Nobel Foundation ^ a b c Pippard, B. (1994). "John Bardeen. 23 May 1908–30 January 1991". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 39: 20–34. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1994.0002.  ^ a b c d John Bardeen
John Bardeen
at the Mathematics Genealogy Project ^ a b c "Nice Guys Can Finish As Geniuses at University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign". Chicago Tribune: Knight Ridder News Service. 2003-01-25. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  ^ Hoddeson, Lillian and Vicki Daitch. True Genius: the Life and Science of John Bardeen. National Academy Press, 2002. ISBN 0-309-08408-3 ^ a b c d e f g "John Bardeen, Nobelist, Inventor of Transistor, Dies". Washington Post. 1991-01-31. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  ^ a b c d "Biography of John Bardeen". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-01.  ^ a b "Biography of John Bardeen
John Bardeen
1". PBS. Retrieved 2007-12-24.  ^ a b "Curriculum Vitae of John Bardeen". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-01.  ^ David Pines (2003-05-01). "John Bardeen: genius in action". physicsworld.com. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2008-01-07.  ^ Hoddeson, Lillian and Daitch, Vicki. "True Genius: The Life and Science of John Bardeen", p. 117. "Soon, however, life in Summit would become easy and rich for the Bardeens." ^ Brattain quoted in Crystal Fire p. 127 ^ Crystal Fire p. 132 ^ a b "Biography of John Bardeen
John Bardeen
2". PBS. Retrieved 2007-12-24.  ^ US 1745175  "Method and apparatus for controlling electric current" first filing in Canada on 22.10.1925 ^ Diane Kormos Buchwald. American Scientist 91.2 (Mar.-Apr. 2003): 185–86. ^ Crystal Fire p. 278 ^ R Kessler, 1997, Absent at the Creation, Washington Post Magazine. ^ "Biography at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign". The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-11-06.  ^ Bardeen, John (1979). "Theory of non-ohmic conduction from charge-density waves in NbSe3". Physical Review Letters. 42 (22): 1498–1500. Bibcode:1979PhRvL..42.1498B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.42.1498. Archived from the original on 2013-04-14.  ^ Bardeen, John (1980). "Tunneling theory of charge-density-wave depinning". Physical Review Letters. 45 (24): 1978–1980. Bibcode:1980PhRvL..45.1978B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.45.1978. Archived from the original on 2013-04-14.  ^ J. H. Miller, Jr.; J. Richard; J. R. Tucker; John Bardeen
John Bardeen
(1983). "Evidence for tunneling of charge-density waves in TaS3". Physical Review Letters. 51 (17): 1592–1595. Bibcode:1983PhRvL..51.1592M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.1592. Archived from the original on 2013-04-14.  ^ Pines, David (2009). "Biographical Memoirs: John Bardeen" (PDF). Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 153 (3): 287–321. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2013.  ^ M. Tsubota; K. Inagaki; T. Matsuura; S. Tanda (2012). "Aharonov-Bohm effect in charge-density wave loops with inherent temporal current switching". EPL. 97 (5): 57011. arXiv:0906.5206 . Bibcode:2012EL.....9757011T. doi:10.1209/0295-5075/97/57011.  ^ J. H. Miller, Jr.; A.I. Wijesinghe; Z. Tang; A.M. Guloy (2012). "Correlated quantum transport of density wave electrons". Physical Review Letters. 108 (3): 036404. arXiv:1109.4619 . Bibcode:2012PhRvL.108c6404M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.036404. PMID 22400766.  ^ J.H. Miller, Jr.; A.I. Wijesinghe; Z. Tang; A.M. Guloy. "Coherent quantum transport of charge density waves". arXiv:1212.3020 . Bibcode:2013PhRvB..87k5127M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.115127.  ^ Bardeen, John (1990). "Theory of size effects in depinning of charge-density waves". Physical Review Letters. 64 (19): 2297–2299. Bibcode:1990PhRvL..64.2297B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.64.2297. PMID 10041638. Archived from the original on 2013-02-24.  ^ Bardeen, John (1990). " Superconductivity
Superconductivity
and other macroscopic quantum phenomena". Physics
Physics
Today. 43 (12): 25–31. Bibcode:1990PhT....43l..25B. doi:10.1063/1.881218. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1956". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-11-06.  ^ a b "Biography of John Bardeen
John Bardeen
3". PBS. Retrieved 2007-12-24.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1972". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-12-19.  ^ a b " Physicist
Physicist
John Bardeen, 82, transistor pioneer, Nobelist". Chicago Sun-Times. 1991-01-31. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  ^ cf. List of Nobel laureates#Laureates ^ " Fritz London
Fritz London
Memorial Prize". Duke University. Retrieved 2007-12-24.  ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details – US National Science Foundation (NSF)". nsf.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-25.  ^ "Fellowship of the Royal Society
Royal Society
1660–2015". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-07-15.  ^ Hoddeson, Lillian; Daitch, Vicki (2002). True Genius: The Life and Science of John Bardeen. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 9780309169547. John's mother, Althea, had been reared in the Quaker tradition, and his stepmother, Ruth, was Catholic, but John was resolutely secular throughout his life. He was once "taken by surprise" when an interviewer asked him a question about religion. "I am not a religious person," he said, "and so do not think about it very much." He went on in a rare elaboration of his personal beliefs. "I feel that science cannot provide an answer to the ultimate questions about the meaning and purpose of life. With religion, one can get answers on faith. Most scientists leave them open and perhaps unanswerable, but do abide by a code of moral values. For a civilized society to succeed, there must be a common consensus on moral values and moral behaviour, with due regard to the welfare of our fellow man. There are likely many sets of moral values compatible with successful civilized society. It is when they conflict that difficulties arise."  ^ Daitch & Hoddeson (2002). True Genius:: The Life and Science of John Bardeen. Joseph Henry Press, pp. 168–169. ^ Vicki Daitch, Lillian Hoddeson (2002). "Last Journey". True Genius:: The Life and Science of John Bardeen. Joseph Henry Press. p. 313. ISBN 9780309169547. Every time we attend a funeral service," Jane had once told her sister Betty, "we decide again that we want no such ceremony when we die." She and John agreed that the family could, if they wanted to, have a memorial service conducted by friends and family, "but not a sermon by a stranger, who, if a minister, is bound to dwell on life after death and other religious ideas in which we have no faith.  ^ a b John Noble Wilford (January 31, 1991). "Dr. John Bardeen, 82, Winner Of Nobel Prize for Transistor, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-02-25. John Bardeen, a co-inventor of the transistor that led to modern electronics and twice a winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics, died yesterday at Brigham and Women's Hospital
Brigham and Women's Hospital
in Boston. He was 82 years old. ...  ^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/centralhistorian/383446449/, Accessed 9-30-2009. ^ "Bardeen Stamp Celebrated at Campus Ceremony". University of Illinois. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 

External links[edit]

Biography portal

Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Bardeen

The Bardeen Archives at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Biography from Nobel-Winners.com Associated Press Obituary of John Bardeen
John Bardeen
as printed in The Boston Globe Oral History interview transcript with John Bardeen
John Bardeen
12, 16 May, 1, 22 December 1977 & 4 April 1978, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives Oral History interview transcript with John Bardeen
John Bardeen
13 February 1980, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
Library and Archives Interview with Bardeen about his experience at Princeton The American Presidency Project IEEE History Center biography IEEE 2nd Int. Conference on Computers, Communications and Control (ICCCC 2008), an event dedicated to the Centenary of John Bardeen (1908–1991) U.S. Patent 2,524,035 – "Three-Electrode Circuit Element Utilizing Semiconductive Materials"

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

v t e

Presidents of the American Physical Society

1899–1925

Henry Augustus Rowland
Henry Augustus Rowland
(1899) Albert A. Michelson
Albert A. Michelson
(1901) Arthur Gordon Webster
Arthur Gordon Webster
(1903) Carl Barus
Carl Barus
(1905) Edward Leamington Nichols
Edward Leamington Nichols
(1907) Henry Crew
Henry Crew
(1909) William Francis Magie
William Francis Magie
(1911) Benjamin Osgood Peirce
Benjamin Osgood Peirce
(1913) Ernest Merritt
Ernest Merritt
(1914) Robert Andrews Millikan
Robert Andrews Millikan
(1916) Henry Andrews Bumstead (1918) Joseph Sweetman Ames
Joseph Sweetman Ames
(1919) Theodore Lyman (1921) Thomas Corwin Mendenhall
Thomas Corwin Mendenhall
(1923) Dayton Miller
Dayton Miller
(1925)

1926–1950

Karl Taylor Compton (1927) Henry Gale (1929) William Francis Gray Swann (1931) Paul D. Foote (1933) Arthur Compton
Arthur Compton
(1934) Robert W. Wood
Robert W. Wood
(1935) Floyd K. Richtmyer (1936) Harrison M. Randall (1937) Lyman James Briggs
Lyman James Briggs
(1938) John Torrence Tate, Sr. (1939) John Zeleny (1940) George Braxton Pegram (1941) G. Stewart (1941) Percy Williams Bridgman
Percy Williams Bridgman
(1942) Albert Hull
Albert Hull
(1943) Arthur Jeffrey Dempster
Arthur Jeffrey Dempster
(1944) Harvey Fletcher
Harvey Fletcher
(1945) Edward Condon
Edward Condon
(1946) Lee Alvin DuBridge
Lee Alvin DuBridge
(1947) J. Robert Oppenheimer
J. Robert Oppenheimer
(1948) Francis Wheeler Loomis (1949) Isidor Isaac Rabi
Isidor Isaac Rabi
(1950)

1951–1975

Charles Christian Lauritsen (1951) John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
(1952) Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
(1953) H. Bethe (1954) Raymond Thayer Birge (1955) E. Wigner (1956) Henry DeWolf Smyth
Henry DeWolf Smyth
(1957) Jesse Beams
Jesse Beams
(1958) George Eugene Uhlenbeck
George Eugene Uhlenbeck
(1959) Victor Frederick Weisskopf
Victor Frederick Weisskopf
(1960) Frederick Seitz
Frederick Seitz
(1961) William V. Houston
William V. Houston
(1962) John Harry Williams (1963) Robert Bacher
Robert Bacher
(1964) Felix Bloch
Felix Bloch
(1965) John Archibald Wheeler
John Archibald Wheeler
(1966) Charles H. Townes
Charles H. Townes
(1967) John Bardeen
John Bardeen
(1968) Luis Walter Alvarez
Luis Walter Alvarez
(1969) Edward Mills Purcell
Edward Mills Purcell
(1970) Robert Serber
Robert Serber
(1971) Philip M. Morse (1972) Joseph Edward Mayer (1973) Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky (1974) Chien-Shiung Wu
Chien-Shiung Wu
(1975)

1976–2000

William A. Fowler (1976) George Pake (1977) Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
(1978) Lewis M. Branscomb
Lewis M. Branscomb
(1979) Herman Feshbach (1980) Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1981) Maurice Goldhaber
Maurice Goldhaber
(1982) Robert Marshak (1983) Mildred Dresselhaus
Mildred Dresselhaus
(1984) Robert R. Wilson
Robert R. Wilson
(1985) Sidney Drell (1986) Val Logsdon Fitch
Val Logsdon Fitch
(1987) James A. Krumhansl (1989) Eugen Merzbacher (1990) Nicolaas Bloembergen
Nicolaas Bloembergen
(1991) Ernest M. Henley (1992) Donald N. Langenberg (1993) Burton Richter
Burton Richter
(1994) C. Kumar Patel (1995) J.R. Schrieffer (1996) D. Allan Bromley
D. Allan Bromley
(1997) Andrew Sessler
Andrew Sessler
(1998) Jerome I. Friedman
Jerome I. Friedman
(1999) James S. Langer (2000)

2001–future

George Trilling (2001) William Brinkman (2002) Myriam Sarachik (2003) Helen Quinn
Helen Quinn
(2004) Marvin Cohen (2005) John Hopfield (2006) Leo Kadanoff
Leo Kadanoff
(2007) Arthur Bienenstock (2008) Cherry A. Murray
Cherry A. Murray
(2009) Curtis Callan
Curtis Callan
(2010) Barry Barish
Barry Barish
(2011) Robert L. Byer
Robert L. Byer
(2012) Michael Turner (2013) Malcolm R. Beasley (2014) Sam Aronson (2015) Homer Neal (2016) Laura Greene (2017) Roger Falcone (2018) David Gross
David Gross
(2019) Philip H. Bucksbaum
Philip H. Bucksbaum
(2020)

v t e

IEEE Medal of Honor

1951–1975

Vladimir K. Zworykin
Vladimir K. Zworykin
(1951) Walter R. G. Baker (1952) John M. Miller (1953) William L. Everitt (1954) Harald T. Friis (1955) John V. L. Hogan (1956) Julius Adams Stratton (1957) Albert W. Hull
Albert W. Hull
(1958) Emory Leon Chaffee
Emory Leon Chaffee
(1959) Harry Nyquist
Harry Nyquist
(1960) Ernst Guillemin (1961) Edward Victor Appleton
Edward Victor Appleton
(1962) George C. Southworth (1963) John Hays Hammond Jr.
John Hays Hammond Jr.
(1963) Harold Alden Wheeler (1964) Claude Shannon
Claude Shannon
(1966) Charles H. Townes
Charles H. Townes
(1967) Gordon Kidd Teal (1968) Edward Ginzton (1969) Dennis Gabor
Dennis Gabor
(1970) John Bardeen
John Bardeen
(1971) Jay Wright Forrester (1972) Rudolf Kompfner (1973) Rudolf E. Kálmán
Rudolf E. Kálmán
(1974) John R. Pierce
John R. Pierce
(1975)

Complete roster 1917–1925 1926–1950 1951–1975 1976–2000 2001–present

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 91244949 LCCN: nb2002007194 ISNI: 0000 0000 6659 2249 GND: 120147025 SUDOC: 136228879 BNF: cb14497799s (data) BIBSYS: 5093323 MGP: 42856 NKC: js20020513

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