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John Adams
John Adams
(October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father
Founding Father
who served as the first Vice President (1789–97) and second President of the United States (1797–1801). He was a lawyer, diplomat, political theorist, and a leader of the movement for American independence from Great Britain. He was also a dedicated diarist and correspondent, particularly with his wife and closest advisor Abigail. Adams collaborated with his cousin, revolutionary leader Samuel Adams, but he established his own prominence prior to the American Revolution. After the Boston Massacre, he provided a successful (though unpopular) legal defense of the accused British soldiers, in the face of severe local anti-British sentiment and driven by his devotion to the right to counsel and the "protect[ion] of innocence."[1] Adams was a delegate from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to the Continental Congress, where he played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence. He assisted Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and was its foremost advocate in the Congress. As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain, and acquired vital governmental loans from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
bankers. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Constitution in 1780. This influenced the development of America's own constitution, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government (1776). Adams's credentials as a revolutionary secured for him two terms as President George Washington’s vice president (1789 to 1797) and also his own election in 1796 as the second president. In his single term as president, he encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans, as well as the dominant faction in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army and navy in the face of an undeclared naval "Quasi-War" with France. The major accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton's opposition. Due to his strong posture on defense, Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy."[2] He was the first U.S. president to reside in the executive mansion, now known as the White House. He never owned slaves, and was a moderate on the issue. In 1800, Adams lost re-election to Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and retired to Massachusetts. He eventually resumed his friendship with Jefferson upon the latter's own retirement by initiating a correspondence which lasted 14 years. He and his wife established a family of politicians, diplomats, and historians now referred to as the Adams political family. Adams was the father of John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams, the sixth president of the United States. He died on the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, and the same day as Jefferson. Modern historians in the aggregate have favorably ranked his administration.

Contents

1 Early life and education

1.1 Childhood 1.2 College education and adulthood 1.3 Law practice and marriage

2 Career before the Revolution

2.1 Opponent of Stamp Act 1765 2.2 Counsel for the British: Boston Massacre 2.3 Objections to British Parliament's authority

3 Continental Congress

3.1 Member of Continental Congress 3.2 Thoughts on Government 3.3 Declaration of Independence

3.3.1 Government during revolution

4 Diplomat in Europe

4.1 Commissioner to France and Minister Plenipotentiary 4.2 Ambassador
Ambassador
to Holland and Treaty of Paris 4.3 Ambassador
Ambassador
to Great Britain 4.4 Conceptions of constitutional government

5 Vice Presidency, 1789–97

5.1 Election 5.2 President of the Senate 5.3 Other activities 5.4 Presidential election of 1796

6 Presidency, 1797–1801

6.1 Inauguration 6.2 Quasi-War
Quasi-War
and peace with France (1798–1800) 6.3 Alien and Sedition Acts 6.4 Move to Washington 6.5 Election of 1800 6.6 Cabinet 6.7 Judicial
Judicial
appointments

7 Retirement

7.1 Correspondence with Jefferson 7.2 Death

8 Political philosophy and views

8.1 Slavery 8.2 Accusations of monarchism 8.3 Religious views

9 Legacy

9.1 Historical reputation 9.2 In memoriam

10 See also 11 Notes 12 Bibliography

12.1 Biographies 12.2 Specialized studies 12.3 Primary sources

13 Further reading 14 External links

Early life and education Childhood

Adams' birthplace in Quincy, Massachusetts

John Adams
John Adams
was born on October 30, 1735 (October 19, 1735 Old Style, Julian calendar) to John Adams Sr.
John Adams Sr.
(1691–1761) and Susanna Boylston (1708–1797). He had two younger brothers, Peter and Elihu.[3] Adams' birthplace was then in Braintree, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(now Quincy, Massachusetts), and is preserved at Adams National Historical Park. Adams' mother was from a leading medical family of present-day Brookline, Massachusetts.[3] His father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, and a lieutenant in the militia. His great-grandfather, Henry Adams, emigrated to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
from Braintree, Essex, England around 1638.[4] John Sr. also served as a selectman (town councilman) and supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams often praised his father and recalled their close relationship.[3] Though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt an acute responsibility to live up to his family's heritage of reverence. He was a direct descendant of Puritans who came to the American wilderness in the 1630s, established a colonial presence in America, and profoundly affected the culture, laws, and traditions of their region. Journalist Richard Brookhiser
Richard Brookhiser
wrote that Adams' Puritan ancestors "believed they lived in the Bible. England under the Stuarts was Egypt; they were Israel fleeing ... to establish a refuge for godliness, a city upon a hill."[5] By the time of John Adams' birth in 1735, Puritan tenets such as predestination were no longer as widely accepted, and many of their stricter practices had moderated with time, but Adams "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." It was a value system which he believed in and wished to live up to.[5] Adams emphatically recalled that his parents "held every Species of Libertinage in... Contempt and horror," and portrayed "pictures of disgrace, or baseness and of Ruin" from any debauchery.[6] Adams, as the eldest child, was under a mandate from his parents to obtain a formal education. This began at age six at a Dame school
Dame school
for boys and girls, which was conducted at a teacher's home and centered upon The New England
New England
Primer. Shortly thereafter, Adams attended Braintree Latin
Latin
School under Joseph Cleverly, where studies included Latin, rhetoric, logic, and arithmetic. Adams' reflections on early education were in the negative mostly, including incidents of truancy, a dislike for his master, and a desire to become a farmer. All questions on the matter ended when his father commanded that he remain in school saying, "You shall comply with my desires." Deacon
Deacon
Adams also retained a new school master named Joseph Marsh, and his son responded positively.[7] College education and adulthood At age sixteen, Adams entered Harvard College
Harvard College
in 1751. He studied under Joseph Mayhew.[8] He did not share his father's expectation that he become a minister.[9] After graduating in 1755 with an A.B. degree, he taught school for a few years in Worcester, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
while pondering his permanent vocation. In the next four years, he discerned a passion for prestige, saying that he craved "Honour or Reputation" and "more defference from [his] fellows" and, at age twenty-one, he was determined to become "a great Man." He decided to become a lawyer to further those ends, writing his father that he found among lawyers "noble and gallant achievements" but, among the clergy, the "pretended sanctity of some absolute dunces." Doctrinally, he later became a Unitarian, and dropped belief in predestination, eternal damnation, the divinity of Christ, and most other Calvinist beliefs of his Puritan ancestors. Nevertheless, his remnant Puritanism frequently prompted reservations about his hunger for fame, which he once referred to as mere "trumpery," and he questioned his not properly attending to the "happiness of [his] fellow men."[10] The French and Indian War
French and Indian War
began in 1754 and Adams began to struggle with the issue of a young man's responsibility in the conflict; contemporaries of his social position were largely spectators, while those who were less solvent joined the battle as a means to make some money. Adams later said, "I longed more ardently to be a Soldier than I ever did to be a Lawyer." He was acutely aware that he was the first in his family that "degenerated from the virtues of the house so far as not to have been an officer in the militia."[11] Law practice and marriage

Mrs. Abigail Smith Adams – 1766 Portrait by Benjamin Blythe

Adams followed the usual course of reading the law in order to obtain his license to practice. In 1756, he became an apprentice in the office of John Putnam, a leading lawyer in Worcester.[12] In 1758, he earned an A.M. from Harvard,[13] and the following year was admitted to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
bar, having completed his studies under Putnam.[14] From an early age, he developed the habit of writing descriptions of events and impressions of men which are scattered through his diary, which included his report of the 1761 argument of James Otis Jr.
James Otis Jr.
in the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Superior Court as to the legality of Writs of Assistance. Otis's argument inspired Adams to the cause of the American colonies.[15] In 1763, he had published seven essays in Boston newspapers, treatises that represented his forging into the convoluted realm of political theory. The essays were offered anonymously, with Adams using the nom de plume "Humphrey Ploughjogger;" this author reappeared in the Boston Gazette in 1765 to oppose the Stamp Act.[16] Adams was initially not as well known as his cousin Samuel, but his influence emerged through his work as a constitutional lawyer and his in-depth analysis of historical examples, together with his dedication to the principles of republicanism. Even so, Adams often found his inborn contentiousness to be a constraint in his political career.[9] Adams married his third cousin Abigail Smith (1744–1818) on October 25, 1764. Her parents were Elizabeth Quincy and Rev. William Smith, a Congregational minister at Weymouth, Massachusetts.[17] John and Abigail had six children: Abigail "Nabby" in 1765,[18] future president John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
in 1767,[19] Susanna in 1768, Charles in 1770, Thomas in 1772,[20] and Elizabeth in 1777.[21] Susanna died after about a year,[20] while Elizabeth was stillborn.[21] The fate of his three sons is curious. All three became lawyers. Charles and Thomas were both unsuccessful in their law professions and eventually became alcoholics, never living to old age, while John Quincy
John Quincy
excelled and launched a career in politics. Adams never divulged in writing his feelings on this fact.[22] Career before the Revolution Opponent of Stamp Act 1765

John Adams
John Adams
– 1766 Portrait by Benjamin Blyth

Adams first rose to prominence leading widespread opposition to the Stamp Act of 1765, imposed by the British Parliament without consulting the American legislatures, and requiring payment of a direct tax by the colonies for various stamped documents. Adams authored the "Braintree Instructions" in 1765, a letter sent to the representatives of Braintree in the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
legislature which served as a model for other towns' instructions.[23] In the piece, he explained that the Stamp Act should be opposed since it denied two fundamental rights guaranteed to all Englishmen, and which all free men deserved: rights to be taxed only by consent and to be tried only by a jury of one's peers. The instructions were a succinct and forthright defense of colonial rights and liberties.[23] In August 1765, he reprised his pen name "Humphrey Ploughjogger" and contributed four articles to the Boston Gazette
Boston Gazette
(republished in The London Chronicle in 1768 as True Sentiments of America, also known as A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law). He delivered a speech in December before the governor and council in which he pronounced the Stamp Act invalid on the ground that Massachusetts
Massachusetts
had not given its assent to it, being without representation in Parliament.[24][25] He later observed that many protests were sparked by an oft-reprinted sermon of Boston minister Jonathan Mayhew, invoking Romans 13 to justify insurrection.[26] In 1766, a town meeting of Braintree elected John Adams
John Adams
as a selectman.[27] Adams strongly supported the right of all Americans to jury trials. Adams protested the 1765 passage of the Stamp Act, which gave jurisdiction to British Vice Admiralty Courts, rather than common law courts.[28] Many colonists, including Adams, believed these courts, which operated without a jury, were corrupt and unfair.[29] Adams moved the family to Boston in April 1768, renting a clapboard house on Brattle Street that was known locally as the "White House." He and Abigail and the children lived there for a year, then moved to Cold Lane; still later, they moved again to a larger house in Brattle Square in the center of the city.[19] Counsel for the British: Boston Massacre On March 5, 1770, a street confrontation resulted in British soldiers killing five civilians in what came to be known as the Boston Massacre.[30] The accused soldiers were arrested on criminal charges and had trouble finding legal representation. Adams ultimately agreed to defend them, though he feared that it would hurt his reputation. In arguing their case, Adams made his legendary statement regarding jury decisions: "Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence."[1] He also expounded upon Blackstone's Ratio: "It is more important that innocence be protected than it is that guilt be punished, for guilt and crimes are so frequent in this world that they cannot all be punished. But if innocence itself is brought to the bar and condemned, perhaps to die, then the citizen will say, 'whether I do good or whether I do evil is immaterial, for innocence itself is no protection,' and if such an idea as that were to take hold in the mind of the citizen that would be the end of security whatsoever." Adams won an acquittal for six of the soldiers. Two of them who had fired directly into the crowd were charged with murder but were convicted only of manslaughter. Adams was paid a small sum by his clients.[31][32] Biographer John E. Ferling
John E. Ferling
suggests that Adams made the most of juror selection during the jury selection stage of the trial, saying that Adams "expertly exercised his right to challenge individual jurors and contrived what amounted to a packed jury. Not only were several jurors closely tied through business arrangements to the British army, but five ultimately became Loyalist exiles." While benefitting from prosecutorial mismanagement, Adams "performed brilliantly." Hiller B. Zobel is a scholar who has closely studied the trial, and he concluded, "we can be fairly sure that before a single witness had been sworn, the outcome of the trial was certain."[33] Ferling also surmises that Adams may have been encouraged to take the case in exchange for political office; one of Boston's seats opened three months later in the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
legislature, and Adams was the town's first choice to fill the vacancy.[34] His law practice increased greatly from this exposure, as did the demands on his time. In 1771, he moved Abigail and the children to Braintree, but he kept his office in Boston, saying, "I shall spend more Time in my Office than ever I did." He also noted on the day of the family's move, "Now my family is away, I feel no Inclination at all, no Temptation, to be any where but at my Office. I am in it by 6 in the Morning – I am in it at 9 at night.... In the Evening, I can be alone at my Office, and no where else. I never could in my family." Nevertheless, after some time in the capital, he became disenchanted with the rural and "vulgar" Braintree as a home for his family. In August 1772, therefore, Adams moved his family back to Boston. He purchased a large brick house on Queen Street, not far from his office.[35] In 1774, Adams and Abigail returned the family to the farm due to the increasingly unstable situation in Boston, and Braintree remained their permanent Massachusetts
Massachusetts
home.[36] Objections to British Parliament's authority Governor Thomas Hutchinson and his judges until 1772 received their salaries from the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
legislature. The Coercive Acts
Coercive Acts
and the Tea Act
Tea Act
were then passed by Parliament, and the British Crown assumed payment of those wages, drawn from customs revenues imposed upon that colony. According to biographer Ferling, the British government thus singled out Massachusetts
Massachusetts
for reprisals of previous rebellion and hoped in the process to force the other colonies into line. Boston radicals protested and asked John Adams
John Adams
to proclaim their objections. In "Two Replies of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
House of Representatives to Governor Hutchinson" Adams argued that the colonists had never been under the sovereignty of Parliament. Their original charter, as well as their allegiance, was exclusively with the king. If a workable line could not be drawn between parliamentary sovereignty and the total independence of the colonies, he continued, the colonies would have no other choice but independence from England.[30] In 1775, in response to a set of essays by Daniel Leonard (writing under the pen name "Massachusettensis") defending Hutchinson's arguments for the absolute authority of Parliament over the colonies, Adams (writing as "Novanglus") composed a series of essays addressed to the people living in the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony. In them, he gave a point-by-point refutation of Leonard's essays, and then provided one of the most extensive and learned arguments made by the colonists against British imperial policy. It was a systematic attempt by Adams to describe the origins, nature, and jurisdiction of (unwritten) British concepts of constitutionality. Adams used his wide knowledge of English and colonial legal history to argue that the provincial legislatures were fully sovereign over their own internal affairs, and that the colonies were connected to Great Britain only through the king.[37][38] The Boston Tea Party, a historic demonstration against the British enactments, took place on December 16, 1773. The British schooner Dartmouth, loaded with tea to be traded subject to the new tea tax, had previously dropped anchor. By 9:00 PM, the work of the protesters was done – they had demolished 342 chests of tea worth about ten thousand pounds – today's equivalent of about $1 million. Adams was briefly retained by the Dartmouth owners regarding the question of their liability for the destroyed shipment. Adams applauded the destruction of the tea. There had been no choice, he thought, and he called the defiant boarding of the vessels and the quick obliteration of the dutied beverage the "grandest Event" in the history of the colonial protest movement.[39] He wrote the following day in his diary that the destruction of the dutied tea by the protesters had been an "absolutely and indispensably" necessary action.[40] Continental Congress Member of Continental Congress

Trumbull's Declaration of Independence – committee presents draft to Congress. Adams stands at center with his hand on his hip.

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
sent Adams to the first and second Continental Congresses in 1774 and from 1775 to 1777 respectively. The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
delegation resolved to assume a largely passive role in the first Congress. But Adams felt strongly that the conservatives of 1774, men like Joseph Galloway
Joseph Galloway
and James Duane, were no different than Hutchinson and Peter Oliver, and he denigrated such men, telling Abigail that "Spiders, Toads, Snakes, are their only proper Emblems." Yet at that point his views were similar to those of conservative John Dickinson. He sought repeal of objectionable policies, but at the early stage he continued to see positive benefits for America remaining part of the British empire.[41] In 1774, the First Continental Congress
First Continental Congress
was convened in response to the passage of the Intolerable Acts. Adams agreed to attend,[42] despite an emotional plea from his friend Jonathan Sewall to do otherwise.[43] At the Congress, Adams renewed his push for the right to a jury trial, stating "Representative government and trial by jury are the heart and lungs of liberty. Without them, we have no other fortification against being ridden like horses, fleeced like sheep, worked like cattle, and fed and clothed like swines and hounds.”[44] Adams did not generally like the other delegates to the Congress. He complained of what he considered to be their pretentiousness, writing to Abigail, "I believe if it was moved and seconded that We should come to a Resolution that Three and two make five We should be entertained with Logick and Rhetorick, Law, History, Politicks and Mathematicks, concerning the Subject for two whole Days, and then We should pass the Resolution unanimously in the Affirmative."[45] The Congress disbanded in October after sending a letter of grievances to King George III.[46] The absence of Adams from home was hard on Abigail, who was left alone to care for the family. But she encouraged her husband in his task, writing: "You cannot be, I know, nor do I wish to see you an inactive Spectator, but if the Sword be drawn I bid adieu to all domestick felicity, and look forward to that Country where there is neither wars nor rumors of War in a firm belief that thro the mercy of its King we shall both rejoice there together."[47] A month after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Adams returned to Philadelphia
Philadelphia
for the Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
as the leader of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
delegation.[48] He moved cautiously at first, observing that Congress was divided between Loyalist (American Revolution), those hesitant to take any position, and those favoring independence.[49] He became convinced that Congress was moving in the proper direction – away from its relationship with Great Britain. Publicly, Adams supported "reconciliation if practicable," but privately agreed with Benjamin Franklin's confidential observation that independence was inevitable.[50] He opposed various attempts, including the Olive Branch Petition, aimed at trying to find peace between the colonies and Great Britain,[51] writing, "In my opinion Powder and Artillery are the most efficacious, Sure, and infallibly conciliatory Measures We can adopt."[52] In June 1775, with a view of promoting union among the colonies, he nominated George Washington
George Washington
of Virginia as commander-in-chief of the army then assembled around Boston.[53] Ferling writes, "By the fall of 1775 no one in Congress labored more ardently than Adams to hasten the day when America would be separate from Great Britain."[50] In October 1775, Adams was appointed the chief judge of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Superior Court, but he never served, and resigned in February 1777.[53] Thoughts on Government A number of delegates sought Adams' advice about forming new governments.[54] While recognizing its importance, Adams had privately criticized Thomas Paine's 1776 pamphlet Common Sense, saying that the author had "a better hand at pulling down than building."[55] Yet, some delegates found his views so convincing they urged him to commit them to paper. He did so in separate letters to these colleagues, each missive a bit longer and more thoughtful. So impressed was Richard Henry Lee that, with Adams's consent, he had the most comprehensive letter printed. Published anonymously just after mid-April 1776, it was titled simply Thoughts on Government
Thoughts on Government
and styled as "a Letter from a Gentleman to his Friend." Many historians agree that none of Adams' other compositions rivaled the enduring influence of this pamphlet.[54] Adams advised that the form of government should be chosen to attain the desired ends – the happiness and virtue of the greatest number of people. He wrote that, "There is no good government but what is republican. That the only valuable part of the British constitution is so because the very definition of a republic is an empire of laws, and not of men." The treatise also defended bicameralism, for "a single assembly is liable to all the vices, follies and frailties of an individual."[56] He also suggested that there should be a separation of powers between the executive, the judicial and the legislative branches, and further recommended that if a continental government were to be formed then it "should sacredly be confined" to certain enumerated powers. Thoughts on Government
Thoughts on Government
was referenced as an authority in every state-constitution writing hall.[57] Declaration of Independence Adams in the 1776 session of Congress drafted the preamble to the Lee resolution of colleague Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
(Virginia), which called on the colonies to adopt new independent governments.[58] On June 7, 1776 he seconded the resolution, which stated, "These colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states."[59] Adams also championed the measure until it was adopted by Congress on July 2. Once the resolution passed, independence became inevitable, though it still had to be declared formally. The commitment was, as Adams put it, "independence itself."[60] Prior to independence being declared, a Committee of Five
Committee of Five
was charged with drafting the Declaration, and included Adams, along with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston and Roger Sherman.[61] The Committee, after discussing the general outline that the document should follow, decided that Jefferson would write the first draft.[62] Jefferson particularly thought Adams should write the document; but Adams persuaded the Committee to choose Jefferson while agreeing to consult with Jefferson personally. Adams recorded his exchange with Jefferson on the question: Jefferson asked, "Why will you not? You ought to do it." To which Adams responded, "I will not – reasons enough." Jefferson replied, "What can be your reasons?" And Adams responded, " Reason
Reason
first, you are a Virginian, and a Virginian ought to appear at the head of this business. Reason
Reason
second, I am obnoxious, suspected, and unpopular. You are very much otherwise. Reason
Reason
third, you can write ten times better than I can." "Well," said Jefferson, "if you are decided, I will do as well as I can." Adams concluded, "Very well. When you have drawn it up, we will have a meeting."[63] The Committee left no minutes, and the drafting process itself is uncertain – accounts written many years later by Jefferson and Adams, although frequently cited, are otherwise contradictory.[64] Although the first draft was written primarily by Jefferson, Adams assumed a major role in its completion. After editing the document further, Congress approved it on July 4.[65] Many years later Jefferson hailed Adams as "the pillar of [the Declaration's] support on the floor of Congress, [its] ablest advocate and defender against the multifarious assaults it encountered."[66] Government during revolution

Adams (left)–Staten Island Conference by Chappel

After defeating the Continental Army
Continental Army
at the Battle of Long Island
Battle of Long Island
on August 27, 1776, British Admiral Richard Howe mistakenly assumed a strategic advantage to be at hand, and requested the Second Continental Congress
Continental Congress
send representatives in an attempt to negotiate peace. A delegation, including Adams and Benjamin Franklin, met with Howe at the Staten Island Peace Conference
Staten Island Peace Conference
on September 11.[67] Howe's authority was premised on the Colonists' submission, so no common ground was to be found. When Lord Howe unhappily stated he could view the American delegates only as British subjects, Adams replied, "Your lordship may consider me in what light you please, ...except that of a British subject."[68] Adams learned many years later that his name was on a list of people specifically excluded from Howe's pardon-granting authority.[69] Being quite unimpressed with General Howe, and also after payments to colonial volunteers were increased, Adams in September 1776 said about the war, "We shall do well enough." Indeed, if Washington got his men, the British would be "ruined."[70] In 1777, Adams began serving as the head of the Board of War
Board of War
and Ordnance; in fact, he sat on no less than ninety committees, chairing twenty-five. No other congressman approached the assumption of such a work load. As Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
reported, he was acknowledged "to be the first man in the House."[71] He was also referred to as a "one man war department,"[72] working eighteen-hour days and mastering the details of raising, equipping and fielding an army under civilian control. He also authored the "Plan of Treaties," laying out the Congress's requirements for the crucial treaty with France.[73] Diplomat in Europe Commissioner to France and Minister Plenipotentiary In the spring of 1776 Adams advocated in Congress that independence was necessary in order to establish trade, and conversely trade was essential for the attainment of independence; he specifically urged negotiation of a commercial treaty with France. He was then appointed, along with Franklin, Dickinson, Benjamin Harrison V
Benjamin Harrison V
of Virginia and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, "to prepare a plan of treaties to be proposed to foreign powers." Indeed, while Jefferson was laboring over the Declaration of Independence, Adams worked on the Model Treaty.[74] On November 27, 1777 Adams was named as commissioner to France, replacing Silas Deane. He accepted at once. He was to join Franklin and Arthur Lee in Paris to negotiate an alliance with the French, who were debating whether or not to recognize and aid the United States. Abigail was left in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to manage their home. However, it was agreed that 10-year-old John Quincy
John Quincy
would go, for the experience was "of inestimable value."[75] On February 17, Adams set sail aboard the frigate Boston, commanded by Captain Samuel Tucker.[76] The stormy trip was treacherous, with lightning injuring 19 sailors and killing one. Adams' ship was later pursued by several British frigates in the mid-Atlantic, but evaded them. Near the coast of Spain, Adams himself took up arms to help capture a heavily armed British merchantman ship, the Martha. Later, a cannon malfunction killed one and injured five more of the crew.[77] On April 1, the men arrived in Spain, where Adams learned that France had already agreed to an alliance with the United States on February 6.[78] Shortly after, they arrived in France.[79] Adams was annoyed by the other two commissioners: Lee, whom he thought paranoid and cynical, and the popular and influential Franklin, whom he found irritating, lethargic, and overly deferential and accommodating to the French.[80] He took a disliking to Dr. Edward Bancroft, Franklin's aid, who, unbeknownst to him, was a British spy.[81] Adams did not speak French, the international language of diplomacy at the time.[82] He therefore assumed a less visible role, but emerged as the commission's chief administrator, imposing order and methods lacking in his delegation's finances and record-keeping affairs.[83] He was frustrated by the lack of commitment on the part of the French to helping the United States. In December, Adams wrote a letter to French foreign minister, the comte de Vergennes arguing for French naval support in North America. Franklin toned down the letter, but Vergennes ignored it.[84] In September 1778, Franklin was named minister plenipotentiary to France while Lee was sent to serve in Spain. To his disappointment, Congress gave Adams no instructions on where to go or what to do next. Disgusted by the apparent slight, he departed France with John Quincy on March 8, 1779.[85] On August 2, they arrived back in Braintree.[86] Adams was elected to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Constitutional Convention with the purpose of establishing a new constitution for Massachusetts. He served on a committee of three, also including Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
and James Bowdoin, to draft the constitution. The task of writing it fell primarily to John Adams. The resulting Constitution of Massachusetts was approved in 1780. It was the first constitution written by a special committee, then ratified by the people; and was also the first to feature a bicameral legislature. Included were a distinct executive – though restrained by an executive council – with a partial (two-thirds) veto, and a separate judicial branch.[57] Adams became one of the founders and charter members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1780.[87][88] In the fall of 1779 Adams was unanimously appointed a minister Plenipotentiary, charged with negotiating a "treaty of peace, amity and commerce" with peace commissioners from Britain.[57] Following the conclusion of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
constitutional convention, he departed for Europe in November[89] aboard the French frigate Sensible – accompanied by John Quincy
John Quincy
and 9-year-old son Charles. In France, constant disagreement between Lee and Franklin eventually resulted in Adams assuming the role of tie-breaker in almost all votes on commission business; Adams also increased his usefulness by mastering the French language. In time Lee was recalled.[74] Compared to Franklin, Adams held a distinctly pessimistic view of the Franco-American alliance. The French, he believed, were involved only for their own self-interest. "It is interest alone which does it," he said, "and it is interest alone which can be trusted." The French, Adams wrote, mean to keep their hands "above our chin to prevent us from drowning, but not to lift our heads out of water."[90] His straightforward manner eventually led to a collision with Vergennes. In March 1780, Congress, trying to curb inflation, voted to devalue the dollar. In June, Vergennes summoned Adams for a meeting. In a letter sent that same month, he insisted that any fluctuation of the dollar value without an exception for French merchants was unacceptable and requested that Adams write to Congress asking it to "retrace its steps." Adams wrote back in defense of the decision, claiming that the French merchants were doing better than Vergennes implied. Adams did not stop there, deciding to use the letter to sound off on some of his grievances with the French. The alliance had been made over two years before. During that time, an army under the comte de Rochambeau had been sent to assist Washington. America was expecting French warships. These were needed, Adams wrote, to contain the British armies in the port cities and contend with the powerful British Navy. However, the French Navy had been sent not to the United States but to the West Indies in order to protect French interests there. Vergennes responded that he would deal only with Franklin, who sent a letter back to Congress critical of Adams.[91] According to Franklin, Adams:

having nothing else wherewith to employ himself, he seems to have endeavored to supply what he may suppose my negotiations defective in. He thinks, as he tells himself, that America has been to free in her expressions of gratitude to France; for that she is more obliged to us than we to her and that we should show spirit in our applications. I apprehend that he mistakes his ground, and that this court is to be treated with decency and delicacy.[92]

Before a response could be sent, Adams left France on his own.[93] Ambassador
Ambassador
to Holland and Treaty of Paris

Medallion given to John Adams
John Adams
in 1782 by Johann Georg Holtzhey
Johann Georg Holtzhey
to mark United States as an independent nation by the Netherlands

In July 1780 Adams replaced Laurens as the ambassador to the Dutch Republic, then one of the few other republics in the world. With the aid of the Dutch Patriot leader Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol, Adams secured the recognition of the United States as an independent government at The Hague
The Hague
on April 19, 1782. In February 1782 the Frisian states was the first Dutch province to recognize the United States, while France had been the first European country to grant diplomatic recognition in 1778. He also negotiated a loan of five million guilders financed by Nicolaas van Staphorst and Wilhelm Willink. By 1794 a total of eleven loans were granted in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
to the United States with a value of 29 million guilders. In October 1782, he negotiated with the Dutch a treaty of amity and commerce, the first such treaty between the United States and a foreign power following the 1778 treaty with France.[94] The house that Adams bought during this stay in the Netherlands
Netherlands
became the first American-owned embassy on foreign soil.[95] After negotiating the loan with the Dutch, Adams was appointed to negotiate the Treaty of Paris to end the war. The comte de Vergennes still disapproved of Adams, so Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, and Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
were appointed to collaborate with Adams; nevertheless, Jefferson did not go to Europe and Laurens was posted to the Dutch Republic. Jay, Adams, and Franklin played the major part in the final negotiations. Overruling Franklin and distrustful of Vergennes, Jay and Adams decided not to consult with France; instead, they dealt directly with the British commissioners.[96] Throughout the negotiations, Adams successfully demanded that the right of the United States to the fisheries along the Atlantic coast be recognized. The American negotiators were able to secure a favorable treaty securing most lands east of the Mississippi, and the document was signed on September 3, 1783.[57] In 1784 and 1785, he was one of the architects of extensive trade relations between the United States and Prussia. The Prussian ambassador in The Hague, Friedrich Wilhelm von Thulemeyer, was involved, as were Jefferson and Franklin, who were in Paris.[97] Ambassador
Ambassador
to Great Britain Adams was appointed in 1785 the first American minister to the Court of St James's (ambassador to Great Britain), and he prepared to travel from Paris to London to begin his new assignment. When a counterpart seemed to assume that Adams had some family members in England, Adams replied, "Neither my father or mother, grandfather or grandmother, great grandfather or great grandmother, nor any other relation that I know of, or care a farthing for, has been in England these one hundred and fifty years; so that you see I have not one drop of blood in my veins but what is American."[98] Adams had his first audience with King George III on June 1, and recorded the event as he saw it in great detail in a letter to Foreign Minister John Jay
John Jay
on June 2. Adams approached the King, telling him that he felt greatly honored by his appointment, and promised to do all that he could to restore friendship and cordiality "between People who, tho Seperated [sic] by an Ocean and under different Governments have the Same Language, a Similar Religion and kindred Blood." After hearing this, King George, promised to "receive with Pleasure, the Assurances of the friendly Dispositions of the United States." He added that "while he had been the last to consent" to American independence, he wished Adams to know that he had always done what he thought right and proper. Towards the end of the interview, the King said, which to Adams appeared very sudden, "There is an Opinion, among Some People, that you are not the most attached of all Your Countrymen, to the manners of France." Adams replied, "That Opinion sir, is not mistaken, I must avow to your Majesty, I have no Attachments but to my own Country." To this King George responded, "An honest Man will never have any other."[99] During her visit to Washington to mark the bicentennial of American independence in 1976, Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
of the United Kingdom gave historical perspective to Adams' service: "John Adams, America's first ambassador, said to my ancestor, King George III, that it was his desire to help with the restoration of 'the old good nature and the old good humour between our peoples.' That restoration has long been made, and the links of language, tradition, and personal contact have maintained it."[100] Adams was joined by his wife while in London; they suffered the stares and hostility of the Court, and chose to escape it when they could by seeking out Richard Price, minister of Newington Green Unitarian Church and instigator of the Revolution Controversy.[101] Conceptions of constitutional government

Adams – 1785 Mather Brown
Mather Brown
Portrait

Adams' preoccupation with political and governmental affairs–which caused considerable separation from his wife and children–ironically had a distinct familial context, which he articulated in 1780: "I must study Politicks and War that my sons may have the liberty to study Mathematicks and Philosophy. My sons ought to study Geography, natural History, Naval Architecture, navigation, Commerce and Agriculture, in order to give their children a right to study Painting, Poetry, Musick, Architecture, Statuary, Tapestry, and Porcelaine."[102] While in London, Adams published a work entitled A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States (1787).[103] In it he repudiated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of state government frameworks. In the book, Adams suggested that "the rich, the well-born and the able" should be set apart from other men in a senate – that would prevent them from dominating the lower house. Adams' Defence is described as an articulation of the classical republican theory of mixed government. Adams contended that social classes exist in every political society, and that a good government must accept that reality. For centuries, dating back to Aristotle, a mixed regime balancing monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy – that is, the king, the nobles, and the people – was required to preserve order and liberty.[104] Wood (2006) has maintained that Adams' political philosophy had become irrelevant by the time the Federal Constitution was ratified. By then, American political thought, transformed by more than a decade of vigorous debate as well as formative experiential pressures, had abandoned the classical perception of politics as a mirror of social estates. Americans' new understanding of popular sovereignty was that the citizenry were the sole possessors of power in the nation. Representatives in the government enjoyed mere portions of the people's power and only for a limited time. Adams was thought to have overlooked this evolution and revealed his continued attachment to the older version of politics.[105] Yet Wood was accused of ignoring Adams' peculiar definition of the term "republic," and his support for a constitution ratified by the people.[106] On separation of powers, Adams wrote that, "Power must be opposed to power, and interest to interest."[107] This sentiment was later echoed by James Madison's famous statement that, "[a]mbition must be made to counteract ambition", in The Federalist No. 51, explaining the separation of powers established under the new Constitution.[108][109] On the government's role in education Adams offered unambiguously that, "The whole people must take upon themselves the education of the whole people and be willing to bear the expenses of it. There should not be a district of one mile square, without a school in it, not founded by a charitable individual, but maintained at the public expense of the people themselves."[110] Vice Presidency, 1789–97 Election

John Adams
John Adams
by Gilbert Stuart, c. 1815, oil on canvas – National Gallery of Art, Washington DC

Each state's presidential electors gathered in their state's capital on February 4, 1789 to cast their votes for the president. As originally prescribed by Article II of the Constitution, each state chose a number of electors equal to its representation in Congress. Each elector then cast two votes for president, though the electors were not allowed to cast both votes for the same person, and were prohibited from casting both their ballots for persons from their own state. The individual who won the most electoral votes would become president while the individual with the second-most electoral votes would become vice president. Each state's votes were sealed and delivered to Congress to be counted.[111] Adams received 34 electoral college votes in the presidential election of 1789, finishing in second place behind George Washington, who garnered 69 votes. As a result, Washington became the nation's first president, and Adams became the its first vice president. Adams finished well ahead of all the vote getters other than Washington, but he was still offended by the fact that Washington received more than twice as many votes.[112] To Benjamin Rush, he wrote, "Is not my election to this office, in the dark and scurvy manner in which it was done, a curse rather than a blessing?" Unbeknownst to Adams, Hamilton, under the pretext of not embarrassing Washington and in an abundance of caution in order to ensure that Adams did not tie or surpass Washington in total vote count, had convinced several electors not to vote for Adams.[113] The first presidential term and the first vice presidential term both officially started on March 4, 1789, the date set by the Congress of the Confederation for the beginning of operations of the federal government under the new U.S. Constitution.[114] However, due to a delay in the counting and certification of the electoral votes, which was not done until April 6 (because although the Senate of the 1st Congress initially convened on March 4, it did not achieve a quorum until April 6, and so could not conduct business),[115][116] they commenced several weeks late. Adams first presided over the Senate on April 21.[117] Washington was inaugurated into office on April 30.[115] President of the Senate The vice presidency was primarily established to provide a successor in the event of the death, disability, or resignation of the president;[118] the sole constitutionally prescribed responsibility of the vice president is to preside over the U.S. Senate. The vice president also has the authority (ex officio, for he is not an elected member of the Senate) to cast a tie-breaking vote. Adams played an active role in the Senate's deliberations, particularly during his first term. On at least one occasion, he persuaded senators to vote against legislation he opposed, and at the start of his time in office he frequently lectured the body on procedural and policy matters.[118]

Adams by John Trumbull, 1793

At the start of Washington's presidency, Adams became deeply involved in a lengthy Senate controversy over the official titles for the president and executive officers of the new government. Although the House of Representatives agreed in short order that the president should be addressed simply as "George Washington, President of the United States," the Senate debated the issue at some length.[118] Adams favored the adoption of the style of Highness (as well as the title of Protector of Their [the United States'] Liberties) for the president.[119] Others favored the variant of Electoral Highness or the lesser Excellency."[120] Anti-federalists in the Senate objected to the monarchical sound of them all; Jefferson described them as "superlatively ridiculous."[121] The Senate emphasized simplicity and republicanism, and many argued that these "distinctions," as Adams called them, violated the Constitution's prohibition on titles of nobility. Adams remained stubborn. He argued that the distinctions were necessary because the highest office of the United States must be marked with "dignity and splendor" in order to command respect. Adams was almost universally derided for his combative nature and stubbornness, especially as he actively debated and lectured the senators. "For forty minutes he harangued us from the chair," wrote Senator William Maclay of Pennsylvania. Maclay became Adams's fiercest opponent and repeatedly expressed personal contempt for him in both public and private. He likened Adams to "a monkey just put into breeches."[122] Ralph Izard
Ralph Izard
suggested that Adams be referred to by the title "His Rotundity," a joke which soon became popular.[123] On May 14, the Senate decided that the title of "Mr. President" would be used.[124] Privately, Adams conceded that his vice presidency had begun poorly, and that perhaps he had been out of the country too long to know the sentiment of the people. Washington quietly expressed his displeasure with the fuss over the title controversy. This is thought by some to be one of the reasons for why Adams held so little influence with the President.[125] As vice president, Adams supported Washington's policies by casting 29 tie-breaking votes.[118] In one instance, he voted against a bill sponsored by Maclay that would have required Senate consent for the removal of executive branch officials who had been confirmed by the Senate.[126] He influenced the location of the nation's capital. Adams never questioned Washington's courage or patriotism. However, Washington did join Franklin and others as the object of Adams' ire or envy. "The History of our Revolution will be one continued lie," Adams declared. "... The essence of the whole will be that Dr. Franklin's electrical Rod smote the Earth and out sprung General Washington. That Franklin electrified him with his Rod – and henceforth these two conducted all the Policy, Negotiations, Legislatures and War."[127] Adams' political views and his attempt to assume a more active role in the Senate made him a natural target for critics of the Washington administration. Toward the end of his first term, as a result of a threatened resolution that would have silenced him except for procedural and policy matters, he began to exercise more restraint. When the nation's first two opposing political parties formed, he joined the Federalist Party, though he was consistently in opposition to its dominant leader Alexander Hamilton.[101] Other activities Beyond his role in the Senate, Adams played a minor role in the politics of the early 1790s. During his two vice-presidential terms, Adams attended few cabinet meetings, and the president sought his counsel only infrequently. Nonetheless, the two men, according to Ferling, "jointly executed many more of the executive branch's ceremonial undertakings than would be likely for a contemporary president and vice-president."[118] Overall, while Adams brought energy and dedication to the office,[128] by the summer of 1789 he had already found the task "not quite adapted to my character...too inactive, and mechanical."[129] He often lamented what he viewed as the "complete insignificance" of his situation. To Abigail he once wrote, "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man ... or his imagination contrived or his imagination conceived; and as I can do neither good nor evil, I must be borne away by others and met the common fate."[130] Presidential election of 1796 Main article: United States presidential election, 1796

1796 electoral vote totals

Name Party Votes

John Adams

07 !Federalist 71

Thomas Jefferson

01 !Democratic-Republican 68

Thomas Pinckney

08 !Federalist 59

Aaron Burr

02 !Democratic-Republican 30

Samuel Adams

03 !Democratic-Republican 15

Oliver Ellsworth

04 !Democratic-Republican 11

George Clinton

05 !Democratic-Republican 7

John Jay

09 !Federalist 5

James Iredell

10 !Federalist 3

John Henry

06 !Democratic-Republican 2

Samuel Johnston

11 !Federalist 2

George Washington

13 !None 2

C. C. Pinckney

12 !Federalist 1

The election of 1796 was the first contested American presidential election.[131] Twice, George Washington
George Washington
had been elected to office unanimously; however, during his presidency, deep philosophical differences between the two leading figures in the administration – Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
and Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
– regarding domestic economic policy and U.S. foreign policy caused a rift between them,[132][133] and led to the founding of the Federalist Party
Federalist Party
and the Democratic-Republican Party. Thus, when Washington announced that he would not be a candidate for a third term, an intense partisan struggle for control of Congress and the presidency began. Like the previous two presidential elections, no candidates were put forward for voters to choose between in 1796. The Constitution provided for the selection of electors who would then elect a president.[134] In seven states voters chose the presidential electors. In the remaining nine states, they were chosen by the state's legislature.[135] The clear favorite of Democratic–Republicans was Jefferson, although he was very reluctant to run.[136] There was little doubt that Adams would be the choice of a great majority of the Federalists.[134] Even so, Hamilton also had hoped to lead the party.[137] The Democratic-Republicans in Congress held a nominating caucus and named Jefferson and Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
as their presidential choices.[137] Jefferson at first declined the nomination, but he finally agreed to run a few weeks later. Federalist members of Congress held an informal nominating caucus and named Adams and Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
as their candidates for president.[136][138] The campaign, was, for the most part, unorganized and sporadic, confined to newspaper attacks, pamphlets and political rallies;[134] of the four contenders, only Burr actively campaigned. The practice of not campaigning for office would remain for many decades.[135] Adams specifically stated that he wanted to stay out of what he called the "silly and wicked game" of campaigning for office.[139] As the campaign progressed, fears grew among Hamilton and his supporters that Adams was too vain, opinionated, unpredictable and stubborn to follow their directions once elected.[140] Desiring "a more pliant president than Adams," Hamilton maneuvered to tip the election to Pinckney. He coerced South Carolina Federalist electors, pledged to vote for "favorite son" Pinckney, to scatter their second votes among candidates other than Adams. Hamilton's scheme was undone, however, when several New England
New England
state electors heard of it, conferred, and agreed not to vote for Pinckney.[141] Adams was nonetheless angered, writing shortly after the election that Hamilton was a "proud Spirited, conceited, aspiring Mortal always pretending to Morality, with as debauched Morals as old Franklin who is more his Model than any one I know."[142] In the end, Adams won the presidency by a narrow margin, receiving 71 electoral votes to 68 for Jefferson, who became the vice president; Pinckney finished in third with 59 votes, and Burr came in fourth with 30. The balance of the Electoral College votes were dispersed among nine other candidates.[143] This is the only election to date in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing tickets.[144] Presidency, 1797–1801 Main article: Presidency of John Adams

President's House, Philadelphia. Adams occupied this Philadelphia mansion from March 1797 to May 1800.

Historian George Herring argues that Adams was the most independent-minded of the founders.[145] Though he aligned with the Federalists, he was somewhat a party unto himself, disagreeing with the Federalists as much as he did the Democratic-Republicans.[146] He was often described as "prickly", but his tenacity was fed by good decisions made in the face of universal opposition.[145] Adams was often combative, which diminished presidential decorum, as Adams himself admitted in his old age: "[As president] I refused to suffer in silence. I sighed, sobbed, and groaned, and sometimes screeched and screamed. And I must confess to my shame and sorrow that I sometimes swore."[147] Adams' resolve to advance peace with France, rather than to continue hostilities, especially reduced his popularity.[148] This played an important role in his reelection defeat, however he was so pleased with the outcome that he had it engraved on his tombstone. Adams spent much of his term at home in Massachusetts, ignoring the details of political patronage nursed by other office holders.[149] Inauguration Adams was sworn into office as the nation's second president on March 4, 1797, by Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth.[150] As president, he followed Washington's lead in using the presidency to exemplify republican values and civic virtue, and his service was free of scandal. He continued to strengthen the central government by expanding the Navy and Army. In July 1798 Adams signed into law the Act for the Relief of Sick and Disabled Seamen, which authorized the establishment of a government-operated marine hospital service.[151] Historians debate his decision to retain en masse the members of Washington's cabinet. Many felt he was oblivious to the political danger of such a decision, in light of the cabinet's loyalty to Hamilton. The "Hamiltonians who surround him," Jefferson soon remarked, "you are only a little less hostile to him than to me."[152] Although aware of the Hamilton factor, Adams was convinced their retention ensured a smoother succession.[153] Adams' economic programs maintained those of Hamilton, who indeed had regularly consulted with key cabinet members, especially the powerful Secretary of the Treasury, Oliver Wolcott
Oliver Wolcott
Jr.[154] Adams was in other respects quite independent of his cabinet, often making decisions despite strong opposition from it. Such self-reliance enabled him to avoid war with France, despite a strong desire among his cabinet secretaries for the conflict.[152] Quasi-War
Quasi-War
and peace with France (1798–1800) See also: XYZ Affair, Quasi-War, and Fries Rebellion The president's term was marked by disputes concerning the country's role, if any, in the expanding conflict in Europe, where Britain and France were at war. Hamilton and the Federalists supported Britain, while Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans favored France.[155] The French had supported Jefferson for president and became even more belligerent at his loss.[156] When Adams entered office, he decided to continue Washington's policy of staying out of the European war. The intense battle over the Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty
in 1795 had previously polarized politics throughout the nation.[157] The French saw America as Britain's junior partner and began seizing American merchant ships that were trading with the British. Nevertheless, most Americans were initially pro-French due to France's assistance during the Revolutionary War and because of their desire to support a republic against the British monarchy, and would not have sufficiently rallied behind anyone to stop France.[158][159] On May 16, Adams gave a speech to the House and Senate in which he called for increasing defense capabilities in case of war with France.[160] For this he was roundly derided in the Republican press.[161]

A political cartoon depicts the XYZ Affair
XYZ Affair
– America is a female being plundered by Frenchmen. (1798)

Sentiments changed with the XYZ Affair. Adams appointed a three-member commission to represent the United States to negotiate with France. The commission consisted of John Marshall, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and Elbridge Gerry. However, when the envoys arrived in October 1797, they were kept waiting for several days, and then granted only a 15-minute meeting with French Foreign Minister Talleyrand. After this, the diplomats were met by three of Talleyrand's agents. Each refused to conduct diplomatic negotiations unless the United States paid enormous bribes, one to Talleyrand personally, and another to the Republic of France.[162] Supposedly this was to make up for offenses given to France by Adams in his speech.[163] The Americans refused to negotiate on such terms.[164] Marshall and Pinckney returned home, while Gerry remained.[165] The affair substantially weakened popular American support of France. The pro-French Jeffersonians lost support and quickly became the minority as many began to demand full-scale war. The affair heightened fears of sedition by the administration's opponents and legislation was introduced in response. The president knew that America would be unable to win a conflict, as France at the time was dominating the fight in most of Europe. Adams therefore pursued a strategy whereby American ships harassed French ships in an effort sufficient to stem the French assaults on American interests. This was the undeclared naval war between the U.S. and France – the Quasi-War
Quasi-War
which broke out in 1798.[157] There was danger of invasion from the more powerful French forces, so Adams and the Federalist congress built up the army, bringing back Washington as its commander. Washington wanted Hamilton to be his second-in-command and Adams reluctantly accommodated.[166] It became apparent that Hamilton was truly in charge due to Washington's advanced years.[157] Adams also rebuilt the Navy, adding six fast, powerful frigates, most notably the USS Constitution. To pay for the military buildup, Congress imposed new taxes on property: the Direct Tax of 1798.[158] It was the first (and last) such federal tax. Taxpayers were angered, especially in southeast Pennsylvania, where the bloodless Fries's Rebellion broke out among rural German-speaking farmers who protested what they saw as a threat to their republican liberties and to their churches.[167][168] Hamilton assumed control in the War department, and the rift between Adams' and Hamilton's supporters widened. Many sought to vest Hamilton with command authority over the army, and they also resisted giving prominent Democratic-Republicans positions in the army, which Adams wanted to do in order to gain bipartisan support. By building a large standing army, Hamilton's supporters raised popular alarms and played into the hands of the Democratic-Republicans. They also alienated Adams and his large personal following. They shortsightedly viewed the Federalist party as their own tool and ignored the need to pull together the entire nation in the face of war with France. Overall, however, patriotic sentiments and a series of naval victories, popularized the war as well as the president.[169] In February 1799, Adams surprised many by sending diplomat William Vans Murray on a peace mission to France. Napoleon, realizing that the conflict was pointless, signaled his readiness for friendly relations. At the Convention of 1800, the two sides agreed to return any captured ships and to allow for the peaceful transfer of non-military goods to an enemy of the nation. The Treaty of Alliance of 1778 was superseded and the United States was then free of foreign entanglements, as Washington had advised in his farewell address. Adams brought in John Marshall as Secretary of State and demobilized the emergency army.[170] Adams proudly avoided war, but deeply split his party in the process.[171] Alien and Sedition Acts Main article: Alien and Sedition Acts

BEP engraved portrait of Adams as President

Despite the discredit of the XYZ Affair, the Democratic–Republicans' opposition persisted. In the midst of war, which included the "reign of terror" during the French Revolution, political tensions were incendiary. Some pro-French Democratic-Republicans even fostered a movement in America, similar to the French Revolution, to overthrow the Federalists.[172] When Democratic-Republicans in some states refused to enforce federal laws, some Federalists voiced the intention to send in an army and force them to capitulate. As the hostility sweeping Europe bled over into America, calls for secession began to reach new heights.[173] Some Federalists accused the French and their associated immigrants of provoking civil unrest. In an attempt to quell the uprising, the Federalists introduced, and the Congress passed, a series of laws collectively referred to as the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were signed by Adams in 1798.[174] Congress specifically passed four measures – the Naturalization Act, the Alien Friends Act, the Alien Enemies Act and the Sedition Act. All came within a period of two weeks, in what Jefferson called an "unguarded passion." These statutes were designed to mitigate the threat of secessionists by disallowing their most extreme firebrands. The Naturalization Act increased to 14 years the period of residence required for an immigrant to attain American citizenship (naturalized citizens tended to vote for the Democratic-Republicans). The Alien Friends Act and the Alien Enemies Act allowed the president to deport any foreigner (from friendly and hostile nations, respectively) whom he considered dangerous to the country. The Sedition Act made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officials. Punishments included 2–5 years in prison and fines of up to $5,000.[175] Adams had not promoted any of these acts, but was urged to sign them by his wife and cabinet. He eventually agreed and signed the bills into law.[176] The acts became controversial from prosecution thereunder of a Congressman and a number of newspaper editors. Indeed, the Federalist administration initiated fourteen or more indictments under the Sedition Act, as well as suits against five of the six most prominent Democratic–Republican newspapers. The majority of the legal actions began in 1798 and 1799, and went to trial on the eve of the 1800 presidential election – timing that hardly appeared coincidental, according to biographer Ferling. Other historians have cited evidence that the Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
were rarely enforced, namely: 1) only 10 convictions under the Sedition Act have been identified; 2) Adams never signed a deportation order; and 3) the sources of expressed furor over the acts were Democratic–Republicans. However, other historians have emphasized that the Acts were employed for political targeting from the outset, causing many aliens to leave the country. The Acts as well allowed for prosecution of many who opposed the Federalists, even on the floor of Congress.[177] In any case, the election of 1800 in fact became a bitter and volatile contest, with each side expressing extraordinary fear of the other and its policies; after Democratic–Republicans prevailed in the elections of 1800, they used the acts against Federalists before the laws finally expired.[157] Move to Washington Adams made his first official visit to the nation's new seat of government in early June 1800. Amid the "raw and unfinished" cityscape, the president found the public buildings "in a much greater forwardness of completion than expected."[178] He moved into the nearly completed President's Mansion (later known as the White House) on November 1. Abigail arrived a few weeks later. Upon arriving, Adams wrote to her, "Before I end my letter, I pray Heaven to bestow the best of Blessings on this House and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise Men ever rule under this roof."[179][180] The Senate of the Sixth Congress met for the first time in the new Congress House (later known as the Capitol building) on November 17, 1800. Several days later, on November 22, Adams delivered his fourth State of the Union Address
State of the Union Address
to a joint session of Congress in the Senate chamber.[181] This would be the last annual message any president would personally deliver to Congress for the next 113 years.[182] Election of 1800 Main article: United States presidential election, 1800 With the Federalist Party
Federalist Party
deeply split over his negotiations with France, and the opposition Democratic–Republicans enraged over the Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
and the expansion of the military, Adams faced a daunting reelection campaign in 1800.[135] As in 1796, the Federalist members of Congress caucused in the spring of 1800 and nominated Adams and Charles C. Pinckney. The Democratic–Republicans meanwhile nominated Jefferson and Burr, their candidates in the previous election.[183] The campaign was bitter and characterized by malicious personal attacks. Federalists spread rumors that the Democratic–Republicans were radicals who would ruin the country through revolution. Republicans in turn accused Federalists of subverting republican principles through punitive federal laws, and of favoring Britain and the other coalition countries in their war with France in order to promote aristocratic, anti-republican values. Additionally, Hamilton was hard at work, attempting to sabotage the president's reelection. In October, he published a pamphlet in which he charged that Adams was "emotionally unstable, given to impulsive and irrational decisions, unable to coexist with his closest advisers, and generally unfit to be president." He also worked at persuading Federalist presidential electors in New England
New England
to withhold their vote from Adams, hoping to boosting Pinckney's chances of winning the presidency.[135][183]

1800 electoral vote totals

Name Party Votes

Thomas Jefferson

01 !Democratic-Republican 73

Aaron Burr

02 !Democratic-Republican 73

John Adams

03 !Federalist 65

C. C. Pinckney

04 !Federalist 64

John Jay

05 !Federalist 1

When the electoral votes were counted, Adams finished in third place with 65 votes, and Pinckney came in fourth with 64 votes (one New England Federalist elector voted for John Jay
John Jay
instead). Jefferson and Burr tied for first place with 73 votes each. Because of the tie, the election devolved upon the House of Representatives. As specified by the Constitution, each state's delegation voted en bloc, with each state having a single vote; an absolute majority (nine, as there were 16 states at the time) was required for victory. On February 17, 1801 – on the 36th ballot – Jefferson was elected by a vote of 10 to 4 (two states abstained).[135][143] Ferling attributes Adams' defeat to five factors: the stronger organization of the Democratic–Republicans; Federalist disunity; the controversy surrounding the Alien and Sedition Acts; the popularity of Jefferson in the south; and the effective politicking of Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
in New York, where the State Legislature shifted from Federalist to Democratic–Republican on the basis of a few wards in New York City controlled by Burr's political machine.[183] Analyzing the causes of the party's trouncing, Adams wrote, "No party that ever existed knew itself so little or so vainly overrated its own influence and popularity as ours. None ever understood so ill the causes of its own power, or so wantonly destroyed them."[184] To compound the agony of his defeat, Adams' son Charles, a long-time alcoholic, died in late November. Anxious to rejoin Abigail, who had already left for Massachusetts, Adams departed the White House
White House
in the predawn hours of March 4, 1801, and did not attend Jefferson's inauguration. Since him, only three out-going presidents (having served a full term) have not attended their successor's inauguration.[183] The complications arising out of the 1796 and 1800 elections prompted Congress and the states to refine the process whereby the Electoral College elects a president and a vice president. The new procedure was enacted through the 12th Amendment, which became a part of the Constitution in June 1804, and was first followed in that year's presidential election.[185] Cabinet

The Adams Cabinet

Office Name Term

President John Adams 1797–1801

Vice President Thomas Jefferson 1797–1801

Secretary of State Timothy Pickering 1797–1800

John Marshall 1800–1801

Secretary of Treasury Oliver Wolcott
Oliver Wolcott
Jr. 1797–1801

Samuel Dexter 1801

Secretary of War James McHenry 1797–1800

Samuel Dexter 1800–1801

Attorney General Charles Lee 1797–1801

Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert 1798–1801

Judicial
Judicial
appointments Main article: List of federal judges appointed by John Adams

John Marshall, 4th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court

Supreme Court Appointments by President Adams

Position Name Term

Chief Justice John Marshall 1801–1835

Associate Justice Bushrod Washington 1799–1829

Alfred Moore 1800–1804

Adams appointed two U.S. Supreme Court associate justices during his term in office: Bushrod Washington, the nephew of American founding father and President George Washington, to succeed James Wilson; and Alfred Moore, who succeeded James Iredell. He also named John Marshall as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States, replacing Oliver Ellsworth, who had retired due to ill health. Marshall's long tenure represents the most lasting influence of the Federalists, as he infused the Constitution with a judicious and carefully reasoned nationalistic interpretation and established the Judicial
Judicial
Branch as the equal of the Executive and Legislative
Legislative
branches.[183] After the Federalists lost control of both houses of Congress along with the White House
White House
in the election of 1800, the lame-duck session of the 6th Congress in February 1801 approved a judiciary act, commonly known as the Midnight Judges Act, which created a set of federal appeals courts between the district courts and the Supreme Court. Adams filled the vacancies created in this statute by appointing a series of judges, whom his opponents called the "Midnight Judges" the appointments were issued just days before his presidential term expired. Most of these judges lost their posts when the 7th Congress, with a solid Democratic-Republican majority, approved the Judiciary Act of 1802, abolishing the newly created courts.[186]

Retirement Adams resumed farming at his home Peacefield
Peacefield
in the town of Quincy; he also began work on an autobiography (which he never finished) and resumed correspondence with such old friends as Benjamin Waterhouse and Benjamin Rush.[187] Aside from this, Adams generally stayed quiet. He did not publicly criticize Jefferson's actions as president,[188] believing that "instead of opposing Systematically any Administration, running down their Characters and opposing all their Measures right or wrong, We ought to Support every Administration as far as We can in Justice." He did, however, privately attack the president over his Embargo Act,[189] despite the fact that it was voted for by his son John Quincy, a U.S. senator.[190] Another incident took place in relation to Mercy Otis Warren
Mercy Otis Warren
in 1806. Warren, an old friend, had attacked Adams in a pamphlet for his "partiality for monarchy" and "pride of talents and much ambition." A tempestuous correspondence ensued. In time, the friendship healed.[191] After Jefferson's retirement from public life in 1809, Adams became more vocal. He published a three-year marathon of letters in the Boston Patriot newspaper, refuting line-by-line an 1800 pamphlet by Hamilton which attacked his conduct and character. Though Hamilton had died in 1804 in a duel with Aaron Burr, Adams felt the need to vindicate his character against the New Yorker's vehement charges.[187] The years of retirement in the Adams' household were not without some temporary financial adversity; in 1803 the bank holding his cash reserves of about $13,000 collapsed. John Quincy
John Quincy
came to the rescue by purchasing from him his properties in Weymouth and Quincy, including Peacefield, for the sum of $12,800.[187] Daughter Abigail ("Nabby") was married to Representative William Stephens Smith, but she returned to her parents' home after the failure of the marriage; she died of breast cancer in 1813.[187] His wife Abigail died of typhoid on October 28, 1818.[192] His son Thomas and wife Ann, along with seven children, lived with Adams to the end of Adams' life, as well as Louisa Smith (Abigail's niece by her brother William).[187] Sixteen months before John Adams' death, John Quincy became the sixth president of the United States in 1825, the only son to succeed his father as president until George W. Bush
George W. Bush
in 2001.[193] Correspondence with Jefferson In early 1801, Adams had sent Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
a brief note after returning to Quincy to which Jefferson did not respond. In 1804, Abigail wrote to Jefferson to express her condolences upon the death of his daughter Polly, who had stayed with the Adamses in London in 1787. This initiated a brief correspondence which quickly descended into political rancor. Jefferson terminated it by not replying to Abigail's fourth letter. Aside from that, there had been no communication between Peacefield
Peacefield
and Monticello since Adams left office.[194]

John Adams, c. 1816, by Samuel Morse
Samuel Morse
(Brooklyn Museum)

In early 1812, Adams reconciled with Jefferson. Their mutual friend Benjamin Rush, a fellow signer of the Declaration of Independence who had been corresponding with both, encouraged them to reach out to each other. On New Year's Day Adams sent a brief, friendly note to Jefferson to accompany the delivery of "two pieces of homespun," a two-volume collection of lectures on rhetoric by John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams. Jefferson replied immediately with a cordial letter, and the two men revived their friendship, which they sustained by mail. The correspondence that they resumed in 1812 lasted the rest of their lives, and has been hailed as among their great legacies of American literature.[187] Their letters represent an insight into both the period and the minds of the two revolutionary leaders and presidents. The missives lasted fourteen years, and consisted of 158 letters – 109 from Adams and 49 from Jefferson.[194] Early on, Adams repeatedly tried to turn the correspondence to a discussion of their actions in the political arena.[195] Jefferson refused to oblige him, saying that "nothing new can be added by you or me to what has been said by others and will be said in every age."[196] Adams made one more attempt, writing that "You and I ought not to die before we have explained ourselves to each other.[197] Still, Jefferson declined to engage Adams in this sort of discussion. Adams accepted this, and the correspondence turned to other matters.[198] The two men discussed "natural aristocracy." Jefferson said, "The natural aristocracy I consider as the most precious gift of nature for the instruction, the trusts, and government of society. And indeed it would have been inconsistent in creation to have formed man for the social state, and not to have provided virtue and wisdom enough to manage the concerns of society. May we not even say that the form of government is best which provides most effectually for a pure selection of these natural [aristocrats] into the offices of government?"[199] Adams wondered if it ever would be so clear who these people were, "Your distinction between natural and artificial aristocracy does not appear to me well founded. Birth and wealth are conferred on some men as imperiously by nature, as genius, strength, or beauty. ... When aristocracies are established by human laws and honour, wealth, and power are made hereditary by municipal laws and political institutions, then I acknowledge artificial aristocracy to commence." It would always be true, Adams argued, that fate would bestow influence on some men for reasons other than true wisdom and virtue. That being the way of nature, he thought such "talents" were natural. A good government, therefore, had to account for that reality.[200] As the two grew older, the letters became fewer and farther between. There was also a great deal that they kept to themselves. Jefferson said nothing about his construction of a new house, domestic turmoil, slave ownership, or poor financial situation, while Adams did not mention the troublesome behavior of his son Thomas, who had failed as a lawyer and become an alcoholic, resorting afterwards to living primarily as a caretaker at Peacefield.[201] Death

Tombs of John Adams
John Adams
(far) and John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(near), in family crypt at United First Parish Church

Less than a month before his death, Adams issued a statement about the destiny of the United States, which historians such as Joy Hakim have characterized as a "warning" for his fellow citizens: "My best wishes, in the joys, and festivities, and the solemn services of that day on which will be completed the fiftieth year from its birth, of the independence of the United States: a memorable epoch in the annals of the human race, destined in future history to form the brightest or the blackest page, according to the use or the abuse of those political institutions by which they shall, in time to come, be shaped by the human mind."[202] On July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Adams died at his home in Quincy, at approximately 6:20 PM. [203] At 90 years, 247 days, Adams was the longest-lived US president until Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
surpassed that age in 2001.[204] Adams' crypt lies at United First Parish Church
United First Parish Church
in Quincy, Massachusetts, with his wife Abigail and son John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams.[205] When Adams died, his last words included an acknowledgement of his longtime friend and rival: " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
survives." Adams was unaware that Jefferson had died several hours before.[206][207] Political philosophy and views Slavery Adams never bought a slave and declined on principle to utilize slave labor, saying, "I have, through my whole life, held the practice of slavery in such abhorrence, that I have never owned a negro or any other slave, though I have lived for many years in times, when the practice was not disgraceful, when the best men in my vicinity thought it not inconsistent with their character, and when it has cost me thousands of dollars for the labor and subsistence of free men, which I might have saved by the purchase of negroes at times when they were very cheap."[208] Adams generally tried to keep the issue out of national politics, because of the anticipated southern response during a time when unity was needed to achieve independence.[209] He spoke out in 1777 against a bill to emancipate slaves in Massachusetts, saying that the issue was presently too divisive, and so the legislation should "sleep for a time."[209] He also was against use of black soldiers in the Revolution, due to opposition from southerners.[209] Slavery was abolished in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
about 1780, when it was forbidden by implication in the Declaration of Rights that John Adams
John Adams
wrote into the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Constitution.[210] Abigail Adams vocally opposed slavery.[3] Accusations of monarchism Throughout his lifetime Adams expressed controversial and shifting views regarding the virtues of monarchical and hereditary political institutions.[211] At times he conveyed substantial support for these approaches,[212] suggesting for example that "hereditary monarchy or aristocracy" are the "only institutions that can possibly preserve the laws and liberties of the people."[212] Yet at other times he distanced himself from such ideas, calling himself "a mortal and irreconcilable enemy to Monarchy" and "no friend to hereditary limited monarchy in America."[121] Such denials did not assuage his critics, and Adams was often accused of being a monarchist.[213]

John Adams
John Adams
by Gilbert Stuart
Gilbert Stuart
(1823). This portrait was the last ever made of Adams, done at the request of John Quincy.

Many of these attacks are considered to have been scurrilous, including suggestions that he was planning to "crown himself king" and "grooming John Quincy
John Quincy
as heir to the throne."[213] However, Peter Shaw has argued that: "[T]he inevitable attacks on Adams, crude as they were, stumbled on a truth that he did not admit to himself. He was leaning toward monarchy and aristocracy (as distinct from kings and aristocrats) at the time he wrote 'Davila,' though he did not directly reveal this in its essays. Decidedly, sometime after he became vice-president, Adams concluded that the United States would have to adopt a hereditary legislature and a monarch... and he outlined a plan by which state conventions would appoint hereditary senators while a national one appointed a president for life."[214] In contradiction to such notions, Adams asserted in a letter to Thomas Jefferson: "If you suppose that I have ever had a design or desire of attempting to introduce a government of King, Lords and Commons, or in other words an hereditary Executive, or an hereditary Senate, either into the government of the United States, or that of any individual state, in this country, you are wholly mistaken. There is not such a thought expressed or intimated in any public writing or private letter of mine, and I may safely challenge all of mankind to produce such a passage and quote the chapter and verse."[215] Religious views Adams was raised a Congregationalist, since his ancestors were Puritans. According to biographer David McCullough, "as his family and friends knew, Adams was both a devout Christian, and an independent thinker."[216] In a letter to Benjamin Rush, Adams credited religion with the success of his ancestors since their migration to the New World in the 1630s.[217] Adams was educated at Harvard when the influence of deism was growing there, and sometimes used deistic terms in his speeches and writing.[187] He also believed that regular church service was beneficial to man's moral sense. Everett (1966) concludes that "Adams strove for a religion based on a common sense sort of reasonableness" and maintained that religion must change and evolve toward perfection.[218] Fielding (1940) argues that Adams' beliefs synthesized Puritan, deist, and humanist concepts. Adams at one point said that Christianity had originally been revelatory, but was being misinterpreted and misused in the service of superstition, fraud, and unscrupulous power.[219] Goff (1993) acknowledges Fielding's "persuasive argument that Adams never was a deist because he allowed the suspension of the laws of nature and believed that evil was internal, not the result of external institutions."[220] Frazer (2004) notes that while Adams shared many perspectives with deists, "Adams clearly was not a deist. Deism
Deism
rejected any and all supernatural activity and intervention by God; consequently, deists did not believe in miracles or God's providence. ... Adams, however, did believe in miracles, providence, and, to a certain extent, the Bible as revelation."[221] Frazer further argues that Adams' "theistic rationalism, like that of the other Founders, was a sort of middle ground between Protestantism and deism."[222] By contrast, David L. Holmes has argued that Adams, beginning as a Congregationalist, ended his days as a Christian Unitarian, accepting central tenets of the Unitarian creed, but also accepting Jesus as the redeemer of humanity and the biblical account of his miracles as true.[223] Like many of his Protestant contemporaries, Adams criticized the claims to universal authority made by the Catholic Church.[152] In 1796, Adams denounced political opponent Thomas Paine's deistic criticisms of Christianity in The Age of Reason, saying, "The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity and humanity, let the Blackguard Paine say what he will."[224]

Legacy Historical reputation See also: Bibliography of John Adams Adams has left behind a mixed legacy. Most historians applaud him for avoiding an all-out war with France during his presidency. His signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
is almost always condemned.[225] Adams is generally less well known than many of America's other founding fathers. McCullough argued that "[t]he problem with Adams is that most Americans know nothing about him." Todd Leopold of CNN
CNN
added in 2001 that Adams is "remembered as that guy who served a single term as president between Washington and Jefferson, and as a short, vain, somewhat rotund man whose stature seems to have been dwarfed by his lanky colleagues."[226] He has always been seen, Ferling says, as "honest and dedicated," but despite his lengthy career in public service, is still overshadowed by the dramatic explanations and strong personalities of his contemporaries.[227] Gilbert Chinard, in his 1933 biography of Adams, described the man as "staunch, honest stubborn and somewhat narrow."[228] In his 1962 biography, Page Smith lauds Adams for his fight against radicals such as Thomas Paine, whose promised reforms portended anarchy and misery. In 1995, Peter Shaw published The Character of John Adams. Ferling says that the man who emerges is one "perpetually at war with himself," whose desire for fame and recognition leads to changes of vanity. Ferling, in his 1992 biography, writes that "Adams was his own worst enemy." He criticizes Adams for his "pettiness...jealousy, and vanity," and finds fault with him for his frequent separations from his wife and children. However, he praises Adams for his willingness to acknowledge his deficiencies and for striving to overcome them.[229] In 2001, David McCullough
David McCullough
published a biography of the president entitled John Adams. McCullough lauds Adams for consistency and honesty, "plays down or explains away" his more controversial actions, such as the dispute over presidential titles and the predawn flight from the White House, and criticizes his friend and rival, Jefferson. The book was very favorably received and, along with the Ferling biography, contributed to a rapid surge in Adams' reputation.[230] In 2008, a miniseries was released based on the McCullough biography, featuring Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
as Adams.[231] In memoriam Main article: List of memorials to John Adams Adams is commemorated as the namesake of various counties, buildings, and other items. Unlike many other American founders, Adams does not have a monument dedicated to himself in Washington D.C.[232] This has been the cause of some discontent. According to McCullough, "Popular symbolism has not been very generous toward Adams. There is no memorial, no statue...in his honor in our nation's capital, and to me that is absolutely inexcusable. It's long past time when we should recognize what he did, and who he was."[233] See also

Book: Presidents of the United States (1789–1860)

John Adams Building
John Adams Building
of the Library of Congress Suffolk County Courthouse, also known as the " John Adams
John Adams
Courthouse"

Notes

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Abigail Adams
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to Thomas Jefferson, July 15, 1813. Cappon p. 358. ^ McCullough 2001, p. 608. ^ Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to John Adams, October 28, 1813. Cappon, p. 388. ^ John Adams
John Adams
to Thomas Jefferson, November 15, 1813. Cappon, p. 400. ^ McCullough 2001, p. 634. ^ Hakim 2003, p. 97. ^ McCullough 2001, p. 622. ^ "Reagan Resting Comfortably After Hip Surgery". CNN. January 13, 2001. Retrieved December 28, 2007.  ^ "History". United First Parish Church. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2015.  ^ McCullough 2001, p. 646. ^ Ellis 2003, p. 248. ^ Adams, John (June 8, 1819). "Letter to Robert J. Evans". Liberty Fund Inc. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ a b c Wiencek, Henry (2004). "An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America". Macmillan. p. 215. ISBN 0374529515. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016.  ^ Moore, George (1866). "Notes on the history of slavery in Massachusetts". D. Appleton & Co. pp. 200–03. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016.  ^ Hatfield, Mark O. (1997). "Vice Presidents of the United States" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 3–11. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 19, 2012.  ^ a b Biddle, Alexander, ed. (1892). Old Family Letters. Press of J.B. Lippincott Company. pp. 38ff. Archived from the original on April 7, 2015.  ^ a b "John & Abigail Adams". PBS online. Archived from the original on July 30, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013.  ^ Shaw 1975, pp. 230–37. ^ Diggins, John Patrick, ed. (2004). The Portable John Adams. Penguin Books. pp. 466ff. ISBN 978-0142437780. Archived from the original on April 7, 2015.  ^ McCullough 2001, p. 18. ^ McCullough 2001, p. 22. ^ Everett, Robert B. (1966). "The Mature Religious Thought of John Adams" (PDF). Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association: 49–57. ISSN 0361-6207. Retrieved March 23, 2017.  ^ Fielding, Howard (1940). "John Adams: Puritan, Deist, Humanist". Journal of Religion. 20 (1): 33–46. doi:10.1086/482479. JSTOR 1198647.  ^ Goff, Philip Kevin. (1993). The Religious World of the Revolutionary John Adams. PhD desertation. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. p. 382. ^ Frazer, Gregg L. (2004). The Political Theology of the American Founding. PhD dissertation. Claremont Graduate University. p. 46. ^ Frazer, Gregg L. (2004). The Political Theology of the American Founding. PhD dissertation. Claremont Graduate University. p. 50. ^ Holmes 2006, pp. 73–78. ^ Adams, Vol. III, p. 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796. ^ Taylor, C. James. "John Adams: Impact and Legacy". The Miller Center. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ Leopold, Todd (June 7, 2006). " David McCullough
David McCullough
brings 'John Adams' to life". CNN. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ Ferling 1992, pp. 2-3. ^ Chinard 1933, p. vi. ^ Ferling 1992, pp. 3–4. ^ Maier, Pauline (May 27, 2001). "Plain Speaking: In David McCullough's telling, the second president is reminiscent of the 33rd (Harry Truman)". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2017.  ^ Lieberman, Paul (April 13, 2008). " Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
is so imperfect for the role". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 10, 2018.  ^ Heffner, Alexander. "Why doesn't John Adams
John Adams
have a memorial in Washington?". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 7, 2017.  ^ Cunningham, Lillian (January 17, 2016). "The case of the missing John Adams
John Adams
monument". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 

Bibliography

Biographies

Chinard, Gilbert (1933). Honest John Adams. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company.  Diggins, John P. (2003). Schlesinger, Arthur M., ed. John Adams. The American Presidents. New York, NY: Time Books. ISBN 0805069372.  Ellis, Joseph J. (1993). Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393311333.  Ferling, John E. (1992). John Adams: A Life. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0870497308.  McCullough, David (2001). John Adams. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1416575887.  Shaw, Peter (1975). The Character of John Adams. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393008568.  Smith, Page (1962). John Adams. Volume I 1735–1784 & Volume II 1784–1826. New York, NY: Doubleday. LCCN 63-7188. 

Specialized studies

Boyd, Julian Parks; Gawalt, Gerard W. (1999). The Declaration of Independence: the evolution of the text. Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in association with the Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Memorial Foundation. ISBN 978-0844409801.  Chernow, Ron (2004). Alexander Hamilton. London, UK: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-1101200858.  Elkins, Stanley M.; McKitrick, Eric (1993). The Age of Federalism. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195068904.  Ellis, Joseph J. (2003). Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1400077687.  Hakim, Joy (2003). The New Nation. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 019515326X. Archived from the original on April 7, 2015.  Herring, George C. (2008). From colony to superpower: U.S. foreign relations since 1776. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199743770.  Hoadley, John F. (1986). Origins of American Political Parties: 1789–1803. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0813153209.  Holmes, David L. (2006). The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195300925.  Kurtz, Stephen G. (1957). The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795–1800. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.  Knott, Stephen F. (2002). Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
and the Persistence of Myth. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0700611576.  Maier, Pauline (1998). American scripture: making the Declaration of Independence. New York, NY: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0679779087.  Miller, John C. (1960). The Federalist Era: 1789–1801. ISBN 978-0061330278.  Vinton, John Adams
John Adams
(1858). The Vinton Memorial. S.K. Whipple.  Wood, Gordon S. (2006). Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different. London, UK: Penguin Books. ISBN 1594200939. 

Primary sources

Adams, John; Adams, Charles Francis (1851). The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: Autobiography, continued. Diary. Essays and controversial papers of the Revolution. The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States. 3. Little, Brown.  Butterfield, L. H. et al., eds., The Adams Papers (1961– ). Multivolume letterpress edition of all letters to and from major members of the Adams family, plus their diaries; still incomplete. "The Adams Family Papers Editorial Project". Masshist.org. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 

"Founders Online" searchable edition

Butterfield, L. H., ed. Adams Family Correspondence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Cappon, Lester J., ed. (1959). The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and Abigail and John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807842303.  Carey, George W., ed. The Political Writings of John Adams. (2001) John A. Schutz and Douglass Adair, eds. Spur of Fame, The Dialogues of John Adams
John Adams
and Benjamin Rush, 1805–1813 (1966) ISBN 978-0865972872 C. Bradley Thompson, ed. Revolutionary Writings of John Adams, (2001) ISBN 978-0865972858 Adams, John, (1774) Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America. Hogan, Margaret and C. James Taylor, eds. My Dearest Friend: Letters of Abigail and John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007. Richardson, James D. ed. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents (1897), reprints his major messages and reports. Taylor, Robert J. et al., eds. Papers of John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Wroth, L. Kinvin and Hiller B. Zobel, eds. The Legal Papers of John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Further reading

Akers, Charles W. "John Adams" in Henry Graff, ed. (3rd ed. 2002). The Presidents: A Reference History. online Brinkley, Alan, and Davis Dyer, eds. (2004).The American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company, Brown, Ralph A. (2004). The Presidency of John Adams. Freeman, Joanne B. (2001). Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic. Grant, James (2005). John Adams: Party of One. Haraszti, Zoltan (1952). John Adams
John Adams
and the Prophets of Progress. Incisive analysis of John Adams' political comments on numerous authors through examining his marginalia in his copies of their books. Howe, John R., Jr. (1966). The Changing Political Thought of John Adams Knollenberg, Bernard (2003). Growth of the American Revolution: 1766–1775, Ryerson, Richard Alan, ed. (2001). John Adams
John Adams
and the Founding of the Republic Ryerson, Richard Alan (2016). John Adams's Republic: The One, the Few, and the Many 555 pp Sharp, James Roger (1995). American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis.; politics of 1790s Visser, Michiel (2008). "Adams, John (1735–1826)". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; Cato Institute. pp. 5–6. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n4. ISBN 978-1412965804. OCLC 750831024.  Waldstreicher, David, ed. (2013). A Companion to John Adams
John Adams
and John Quincy Adams, ISBN 978-0470655580 White, Leonard Duppe. (1956). The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History, ISBN 978-0313201011

External links

White House
White House
biography

United States Congress. " John Adams
John Adams
(id: A000039)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  William Everdell, From State to Free-State: The Meaning of the Word Republic from Jean Bodin to John Adams
John Adams
By William R. Everdell John Adams: A Resource Guide at the Library of Congress Letter from John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
describing his father John Adams' decline toward the end of the latter's life – Shapell Manuscript Foundation The John Adams
John Adams
Library at the Boston Public Library Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive at the Massachusetts Historical Society The Adams Papers, subset of Founders Online from the National Archives American President: John Adams
John Adams
(1735–1826) at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia John Adams
John Adams
Papers at the Avalon Project Works by John Adams
John Adams
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Adams
John Adams
at Internet Archive Works by John Adams
John Adams
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) "Thoughts on Government" Adams, April 1776 at the Constitution Society John Adams
John Adams
at The American Revolution
American Revolution
website "Life Portrait of John Adams", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, March 22, 1999 Adams’ Argument for the Defense at the trial of the soldiers at the Boston Massacre, at Founders Online website. (Retrieved 10 December 2017.)

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John Adams

2nd President of the United States, 1797–1801 1st Vice President of the United States, 1789–1797 U.S. Ambassador
Ambassador
to the United Kingdom, 1785–1788 U.S. Ambassador
Ambassador
to the Netherlands, 1782–1788 Delegate, Second Continental Congress, 1775–1778 Delegate, First Continental Congress, 1774

Founding of the United States

Braintree Instructions (1765) Boston Massacre
Boston Massacre
defense Continental Association Novanglus; A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin in 1754 to the Present Time (1775) Thoughts on Government
Thoughts on Government
(1776) Declaration of Independence

May 15 preamble Committee of Five

Model Treaty

Treaty of Amity and Commerce Treaty of Alliance

Board of War Chairman of the Marine Committee, 1775-1779

Continental Navy

Staten Island Peace Conference

Conference House

Constitution of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1780) Treaty of Paris, 1783

Presidency

Inauguration Quasi War with France

XYZ Affair Commerce Protection Act United States Marine Corps Convention of 1800

Alien and Sedition Acts

Naturalization Act of 1798

Navy Department Library Treaty of Tellico Treaty of Tripoli Midnight Judges Act

Marbury v. Madison

State of the Union Address
State of the Union Address
(1797 1798 1799 1800) Cabinet Federal judiciary appointments

Other writings

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society holdings

Adams Papers Editorial Project

Life and homes

Early life and education Adams National Historical Park

John Adams
John Adams
Birthplace Family home and John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
birthplace Peacefield Presidential Library

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Hall, Harvard University Presidents House, Philadelphia Co-founder and second president, American Academy of Arts and Sciences United First Parish Church
United First Parish Church
and gravesite

Elections

United States presidential election 1788–1789 1792 1796 1800

Legacy

Adams House at Harvard University John Adams
John Adams
Building U.S. Postage stamps Adams Memorial

Popular culture

Profiles in Courage
Profiles in Courage
(1964 series) American Primitive (1969 play) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) The Adams Chronicles (1976 miniseries) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2001 book 2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty (2015 miniseries)

Related

"Adams and Liberty" campaign song Adams' personal library American Enlightenment Congress Hall Federalist Party

Federalist Era First Party System republicanism

American Philosophical Society Gazette of the United States The American Museum American Revolution

patriots

Family

Abigail Adams

wife Quincy family

Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Smith (daughter) John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams

son presidency

Charles Adams (son) Thomas Boylston Adams (son) George W. Adams (grandson) Charles Adams Sr. (grandson) John Adams II
John Adams II
(grandson) John Q. Adams (great-grandson) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(great-grandson) Brooks Adams
Brooks Adams
(great-grandson) John Adams Sr.
John Adams Sr.
(father) Susanna Boylston (mother) Elihu Adams (brother) Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
(second cousin) Louisa Adams

daughter-in-law First Lady

← George Washington Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

Category

Offices and distinctions

Diplomatic posts

New office United States Minister to Great Britain 1785–1788 Succeeded by Thomas Pinckney

United States Minister to the Netherlands 1782–1788 Succeeded by Charles W. F. Dumas Acting

Political offices

New office Vice President of the United States 1789–1797 Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson

Preceded by George Washington 2nd President of the United States 1797–1801

Party political offices

New political party Federalist nominee for Vice President of the United States 1792¹² Succeeded by Thomas Pinckney²

Federalist nominee for President of the United States 1796, 1800 Succeeded by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

Honorary titles

Preceded by George Washington Oldest living President of the United States 1799–1826 Succeeded by James Madison

Notes and references

1. While Adams won the vice presidency in 1789 as well, he was not the candidate of the Federalist Party, which had not yet formed. 2. Technically, Adams was a presidential candidate in 1792 and Pinckney was a presidential candidate in 1796. Prior to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each presidential elector could cast two ballots; the highest vote-getter would become president and the runner-up would become vice president. Thus, in 1792, with George Washington as the prohibitive favorite for president, the Federalist party fielded Adams as a presidential candidate, with the intention that he be elected to the vice presidency. Similarly, in 1796 and 1800, the Federalist party fielded two candidates, Adams and Thomas Pinckney, in 1796 and Adams and Charles Pinckney in 1800, with the intention that Adams be elected president and Pinckney be elected vice president.

Articles related to John Adams

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Signers of the United States Declaration of Independence

Physical history of the Declaration of Independence, Memorial

J. Adams S. Adams Bartlett Braxton Carroll Chase Clark Clymer Ellery Floyd Franklin Gerry Gwinnett Hall Hancock Harrison Hart Hewes Heyward Hooper Hopkins Hopkinson Huntington Jefferson F. Lee R. Lee Lewis Livingston Lynch McKean Middleton L. Morris R. Morris Morton Nelson Paca Paine Penn Read Rodney Ross Rush Rutledge Sherman Smith Stockton Stone Taylor Thornton Walton Whipple Williams Wilson Witherspoon Wolcott Wythe

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Presidents of the United States (list)

George Washington
George Washington
(1789–1797) John Adams
John Adams
(1797–1801) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1801–1809) James Madison
James Madison
(1809–1817) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1817–1825) John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1825–1829) Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(1829–1837) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1837–1841) William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison
(1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841–1845) James K. Polk
James K. Polk
(1845–1849) Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
(1849–1850) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1850–1853) Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
(1853–1857) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1857–1861) Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865–1869) Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869–1877) Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1877–1881) James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield
(1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1881–1885) Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1885–1889) Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
(1889–1893) Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1893–1897) William McKinley
William McKinley
(1897–1901) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901–1909) William H. Taft (1909–1913) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1913–1921) Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
(1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1923–1929) Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1929–1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953–1961) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961–1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1963–1969) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1969–1974) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1974–1977) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1977–1981) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1989–1993) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1993–2001) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2001–2009) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009–2017) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2017–present)

Presidency timelines

Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. D. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L. B. Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan G. H. W. Bush Clinton G. W. Bush Obama Trump

Book Category

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Vice Presidents of the United States
Vice Presidents of the United States
(list)

John Adams
John Adams
(1789–1797) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1797–1801) Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
(1801–1805) George Clinton (1805–1812) Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
(1813–1814) Daniel D. Tompkins
Daniel D. Tompkins
(1817–1825) John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
(1825–1832) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1833–1837) Richard M. Johnson (1837–1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1845–1849) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1849–1850) William R. King
William R. King
(1853) John C. Breckinridge
John C. Breckinridge
(1857–1861) Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865) Schuyler Colfax
Schuyler Colfax
(1869–1873) Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson
(1873–1875) William A. Wheeler
William A. Wheeler
(1877–1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1881) Thomas A. Hendricks
Thomas A. Hendricks
(1885) Levi P. Morton
Levi P. Morton
(1889–1893) Adlai Stevenson (1893–1897) Garret Hobart
Garret Hobart
(1897–1899) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901) Charles W. Fairbanks
Charles W. Fairbanks
(1905–1909) James S. Sherman
James S. Sherman
(1909–1912) Thomas R. Marshall
Thomas R. Marshall
(1913–1921) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1921–1923) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1925–1929) Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(1929–1933) John Nance Garner
John Nance Garner
(1933–1941) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1941–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–1953) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1953–1961) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1961–1963) Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Humphrey
(1965–1969) Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
(1969–1973) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1973–1974) Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
(1974–1977) Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale
(1977–1981) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1981–1989) Dan Quayle
Dan Quayle
(1989–1993) Al Gore
Al Gore
(1993–2001) Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
(2001–2009) Joe Biden
Joe Biden
(2009–2017) Mike Pence
Mike Pence
(2017–present)

List Category

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The Age of Enlightenment

Topics

Atheism Capitalism Civil liberties Counter-Enlightenment Critical thinking Deism Democracy Empiricism Encyclopédistes Enlightened absolutism Free markets Haskalah Humanism Human rights Liberalism Liberté, égalité, fraternité Methodological skepticism Nationalism Natural philosophy Objectivity Rationality Rationalism Reason Reductionism Sapere aude Science Scientific method Socialism Universality Weimar Classicism

Thinkers

France

Jean le Rond d'Alembert Étienne Bonnot de Condillac Marquis de Condorcet Denis Diderot Claude Adrien Helvétius Baron d'Holbach Georges-Louis Leclerc Montesquieu François Quesnay Jean-Jacques Rousseau Marquis de Sade Voltaire

Germany

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Georg Hamann Johann Gottfried von Herder Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi Immanuel Kant Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Moses Mendelssohn Friedrich Schiller Thomas Wizenmann

Greece

Neophytos Doukas Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais

Ireland

Robert Boyle Edmund Burke

Italy

Cesare Beccaria Gaetano Filangieri Antonio Genovesi Pietro Verri

The Netherlands

Spinoza Hugo Grotius Balthasar Bekker Bernard Nieuwentyt Frederik van Leenhof Christiaan Huygens Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Jan Swammerdam

Poland

Tadeusz Czacki Hugo Kołłątaj Stanisław Konarski Ignacy Krasicki Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz Stanisław August Poniatowski Jędrzej Śniadecki Stanisław Staszic Józef Wybicki Andrzej Stanisław Załuski Józef Andrzej Załuski

Portugal

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo

Russia

Catherine II

Spain

Charles III Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro

United Kingdom (Scotland)

Francis Bacon Jeremy Bentham Joseph Black James Boswell Adam Ferguson Edward Gibbon Robert Hooke David Hume Francis Hutcheson Samuel Johnson John Locke Isaac Newton Thomas Reid Adam Smith Mary Wollstonecraft

United States

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson James Madison George Mason Thomas Paine

v t e

Ambassadors of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1785–1811

John Adams
John Adams
(1785–1788) Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
(1792–1796) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1796–1803) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1803–1807) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1808–1811) Jonathan Russell
Jonathan Russell
(chargé d'affaires) (1811–1812)

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1815–1893

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1815–1817) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1818–1825) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1825–1826) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1826–1827) James Barbour
James Barbour
(1828–1829) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1829–1831) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1831–1832) Aaron Vail (chargé d'affaires) (1832–1836) Andrew Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
(1836–1841) Edward Everett
Edward Everett
(1841–1845) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1845–1846) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1846–1849) Abbott Lawrence
Abbott Lawrence
(1849–1852) Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1853–1856) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1856–1861) Charles Adams Sr. (1861–1868) Reverdy Johnson
Reverdy Johnson
(1868–1869) John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
(1869–1870) Robert C. Schenck
Robert C. Schenck
(1871–1876) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1876–1877) John Welsh (1877–1879) James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
(1880–1885) Edward J. Phelps (1885–1889) Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln
(1889–1893)

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1893–present

Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard
Sr. (1893–1897) John Hay
John Hay
(1897–1898) Joseph Choate (1899–1905) Whitelaw Reid
Whitelaw Reid
(1905–1912) Walter Page (1913-1918) John W. Davis
John W. Davis
(1918–1921) George Harvey (1921–1923) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1924–1925) Alanson B. Houghton
Alanson B. Houghton
(1925–1929) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1929–1931) Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1932–1933) Robert Bingham (1933–1937) Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940) John G. Winant (1941–1946) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946) Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950) Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953) Winthrop W. Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich
(1953–1957) John Hay
John Hay
Whitney (1957–1961) David K. E. Bruce (1961–1969) Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974) Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976) Anne Armstrong (1976–1977) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977–1981) John J. Louis Jr. (1981–1983) Charles H. Price II
Charles H. Price II
(1983–1989) Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989–1991) Raymond G. H. Seitz (1991–1994) William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
(1994–1997) Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1997–2001) William Stamps Farish III
William Stamps Farish III
(2001–2004) Robert H. Tuttle
Robert H. Tuttle
(2005–2009) Louis Susman
Louis Susman
(2009–2013) Matthew Barzun
Matthew Barzun
(2013–2017) Woody Johnson
Woody Johnson
(2017– )

v t e

Cabinet of President John Adams
John Adams
(1797–1801)

Secretary of State

Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering
(1797–1800) John Marshall
John Marshall
(1800–01)

Secretary of the Treasury

Oliver Wolcott Jr.
Oliver Wolcott Jr.
(1797–1801) Samuel Dexter
Samuel Dexter
(1801)

Secretary of War

James McHenry
James McHenry
(1796–1800) Samuel Dexter
Samuel Dexter
(1800–01)

Attorney General

Charles Lee (1797–1801)

Postmaster General

Joseph Habersham
Joseph Habersham
(1797–1801)

Secretary of the Navy

Benjamin Stoddert
Benjamin Stoddert
(1798–1801)

v t e

John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams

United States House of Representatives, 1831–1848 6th President of the United States, 1825–1829 8th U.S. Secretary of State, 1817–1825 U.S. Ambassador
Ambassador
to the United Kingdom, 1814–1817 1st U.S. Minister to Russia, 1809–1814 Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Senate, 1803–1808 U.S. Minister to Prussia, 1797–1801 U.S. Ambassador
Ambassador
to the Netherlands, 1794–1797

Presidency

Inauguration American System Internal improvements Tariff of 1828 First Treaty of Prairie du Chien Treaty of Fond du Lac Treaty of Limits United States Naval Observatory Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori State of the Union Address, 1825 1827 1828 Federal judiciary appointments

Other events

Monroe Doctrine, author Treaty of Ghent Adams–Onís Treaty Treaty of 1818 Smithsonian Institution United States v. The Amistad

Mendi Bible

President, American Academy of Arts and Sciences President, Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences

Writings

Lifelong diary Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society holdings

Adams Papers Editorial Project

Life and homes

Early life Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Cairn John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
and abolitionism Adams National Historical Park

Birthplace and family home Peacefield Presidential Library

United First Parish Church
United First Parish Church
and gravesite

Elections

United States presidential election, 1824

Corrupt Bargain

United States presidential election, 1828

Legacy

Adams Memorial Adams House at Harvard University U.S. Postage stamps Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
Centennial half dollar

Popular culture

Profiles in Courage
Profiles in Courage
(1957 book 1965 television series) The Adams Chronicles (1976 miniseries) Mutiny on the Amistad
Mutiny on the Amistad
(1987 book) Amistad (1997 film) John Adams
John Adams
(2001 book 2008 miniseries)

Adams family Quincy family

Louisa Adams
Louisa Adams
(wife) George W. Adams (son) Charles Adams Sr. (son) John Adams II
John Adams II
(son) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(grandson) Brooks Adams
Brooks Adams
(grandson) John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
II (grandson) John Adams

father presidency

Abigail Adams

mother First Lady Quincy family

Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Smith (sister) Charles Adams (brother) Thomas Boylston Adams (brother) John Adams Sr.
John Adams Sr.
(paternal grandfather) Susanna Boylston (paternal grandmother) Elihu Adams (paternal uncle) John Quincy
John Quincy
(great-grandfather)

Related

National Republican Party Republicanism Quincy Patriot

← James Monroe Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

Category

v t e

Hall of Fame for Great Americans

John Adams John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Ward Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington
George Washington
Carver William Ellery
William Ellery
Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan
James Buchanan
Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W. Gibbs William C. Gorgas Ulysses S. Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A. Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. B. Morse William T. G. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T. Washington George Washington Daniel Webster George Westinghouse James McNeill Whistler Walt Whitman Eli Whitney John Greenleaf Whittier Emma Willard Frances E. Willard Roger Williams Woodrow Wilson Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 95296943 LCCN: n79105675 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 2412 GND: 118500597 SUDOC: 02737470X BNF: cb12186797v (data) BIBSYS: 90845244 ULAN: 500353261 NLA: 35001112 NDL: 01133474 NKC: jn20000720003 RLS: 000025438 US Congress: A000039 BNE: XX1699

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