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John Alexander McCone (January 4, 1902 – February 14, 1991) was an American businessman and politician who served as Director of Central Intelligence from 1961 to 1965, during the height of the Cold War.[1][2]

Contents

1 Background 2 Atomic Energy Commission 3 Director of Central Intelligence 4 Other 5 Death 6 In fiction 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Background[edit] John A. McCone was born in San Francisco, California, on January 4, 1902. His father ran iron foundries across California, a business started in Nevada in 1860 by McCone's grandfather. He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
in 1922 with a B.S.
B.S.
in Mechanical Engineering, beginning his career in Los Angeles' Llewellyn Iron Works.[1] He rose swiftly and in 1929, when several works merged to become the Consolidated Steel Corporation, he became executive vice president. He also founded Bechtel-McCone.[3] He also worked for the ITT corporation. In 1946, Ralph Casey of the General Accounting Office
General Accounting Office
implied that McCone was a war profiteer, testifying that McCone and his associates of the California Shipbuilding Corporation had made $44,000,000 on an investment of $100,000."[4] McCone's political affiliation was with the Republican Party.[3] A prominent industrialist, McCone also served for more than twenty years as a governmental adviser and official, including head positions at the Atomic Energy Commission in the Eisenhower Administration
Eisenhower Administration
in 1958-1961 and with the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) in the Kennedy Administration
Kennedy Administration
and the Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Administration in 1961-1965. However, it would be his service in 1950-1951, as the 2nd United States Under Secretary of the Air Force that John McCone got his first taste of duty in the senior levels of the U.S. Government during the Truman Administration. Atomic Energy Commission[edit] In 1958, he became chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. According to journalist Seymour Hersh, in December 1960, while still Atomic Energy Commission chairman, McCone revealed CIA information about Israel's Dimona nuclear weapons plant to The New York Times. Hersh writes that President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
was "fixated" on the Israeli nuclear weapons program and one of the reasons that contributed to McCone's appointment as CIA director was his willingness to deal with this and other nuclear weapons issues – and despite the fact that McCone was a conservative Republican.[5] Director of Central Intelligence[edit] After the disaster of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, President John F. Kennedy[6] forced the resignation of CIA director Allen Dulles
Allen Dulles
and some of his staff. McCone replaced Dulles as DCI on November 29, 1961.[7] He married Mrs. Theiline McGee Pigott on August 29, 1962, at St. Anne's Chapel of the Sacred Heart Villa in Seattle, Washington.[8] McCone was not Kennedy's first choice; the President had tentatively offered the job to Clark Clifford, his personal lawyer, who politely refused (Clifford would later serve as Secretary of Defense for Lyndon Johnson); and then to Fowler Hamilton, a Wall Street lawyer with experience in government service during the Roosevelt and Truman administrations. Hamilton accepted, but when a problem developed at the Agency for International Development, he was shifted there.[9] Thus Kennedy, urged on by his brother Robert, turned to McCone.[9] He was a key figure in the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EXCOMM) during the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. In the Honeymoon telegram of September 20, 1962, he insisted that the CIA remain imaginative when it came to Soviet weapons policy towards Cuba, as a September 19 National Intelligence Estimate had concluded it unlikely that nuclear missiles would be placed on the island. The telegram was so named because McCone sent it while on his honeymoon in Paris, France, accompanied not only by his bride, Theiline McGee Pigott but by a CIA cipher team.[10] McCone's suspicions of the inaccuracy of this assessment proved to be correct, as it was later found out the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had followed up its conventional military buildup with the installation of MRBMs (Medium Range Ballistic Missiles) and IRBMs (Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles), sparking off the crisis in October when they were later spotted by CIA's Lockheed U-2
Lockheed U-2
surveillance flights. While McCone was DCI, the CIA was involved in many covert plots; according to Admiral Stansfield Turner
Stansfield Turner
(who himself later served as DCI from 1977 to 1981, under President Jimmy Carter) these included:[11]

In the Dominican Republic, the CIA had armed an assassination plot to take out President Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina. After the Bay of Pigs, Kennedy wanted the project stopped because it was too soon for another debacle. The problem is that once you encourage and arm a group of highly motivated locals, you can't just turn them off. Trujillo's enemies gunned him down dramatically, though technically speaking without U.S. help. In Laos, the CIA backed the Hmong (then known by the derogatory name Meo) people of the highlands to fight a counterinsurgency. This set off a complicated three-way civil war that hit the Hmong hard. In Ecuador, the CIA helped overthrow President José Velasco Ibarra. His replacement didn't last long before the CIA turned on him, looking for greater stability and allegiance. In British Guiana, the CIA stirred up trouble through the labor unions to take down the democratically elected Cheddi Jagan. In Cuba, there was Mongoose, a secret campaign against Castro.

Mccone was also involved in the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état;[citation needed] he was friends with ITT president Harold Geneen
Harold Geneen
whose company stood to lose its Brazilian subsidiary if president João Goulart nationalized it. McCone would later work for ITT.[3] McCone represented the CIA's opposition to U.S. support of a coup in South Vietnam
South Vietnam
against President Ngo Dinh Diem, but such objections were overruled by November 1963, when the State Department
State Department
managed to convince Kennedy to allow the coup to proceed. In 1964, he was awarded the Hoover Medal.[12] McCone resigned from his position of DCI in April 1965, believing himself to be unappreciated by President Lyndon B. Johnson, who, he complained, would not read his reports, including on the need for full-fledged inspections of Israeli nuclear facilities.[13] Before his resignation, McCone submitted a final memorandum regarding the war in Vietnam to President Johnson, arguing that Johnson's plan of attack was too limited in scope to successfully defeat the Hanoi regime; he further asserted that public support (in the United States
United States
and abroad) for any effort in North Vietnam would erode if the plan went unchanged:

Dear Mr. President: I remain concerned, as I have said before to you, Secretary Rusk and Secretary McNamara, over the limited scale of air action against North Vietnam which we envision for the next few months. Specifically I feel that we must conduct our bombing attacks in a manner that will begin to hurt North Vietnam badly enough to cause the Hanoi regime to seek a political way out through negotiation rather than expose their economy to increasingly serious levels of destruction. By limiting our attacks to targets like bridges, military installations and lines of communication, in effect we signal to the Communists that our determination to win is significantly modified by our fear of widening the war. ... If this situation develops and lasts several months or more, I feel world opinion will turn against us, Communist propaganda will become increasingly effective, and indeed domestic support of our policy may erode. I therefore urge that as we deploy additional troops, which I believe necessary, we concurrently hit the north harder and inflict greater damage. In my opinion, we should strike their petroleum supplies, electric power installations, and air defense installations (including the SAM sites which are now being built). ... I am not talking about bombing centers of population or killing innocent people, though there will of course be some casualties. I am proposing to "tighten the tourniquet" on North Vietnam so as to make the Communists pause to weigh the losses they are taking against their prospects for gains. We should make it hard for the Viet Cong to win in the south and simultaneously hard for Hanoi to endure our attacks in the north. I believe this course of action holds out the greatest promise we can hope for in our effort to attain our ultimate objective of finding a political solution to the Vietnam problem. — John A. McCone, Director of Central Intelligence, (Johnson Library, National Security File, Country File, Vietnam, Vol. XXXII. Top Secret)[14]

Other[edit] Throughout his career, McCone served on numerous commissions that made recommendations on issues as diverse as civilian applications of military technology and the Watts riots.[15] In 1987, McCone was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Ronald Reagan. Death[edit] John A. McCone died on February 14, 1991, of cardiac arrest at his home in Pebble Beach, California. He was 89 years old.[1] In fiction[edit] McCone was portrayed by Peter White in the 2000 docudrama about the Cuban Missile Crisis, Thirteen Days and by actor Matt Craven in the 2011 film X-Men: First Class. An unnamed fictionalized version of McCone also appears in the 2004 video game Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. See also[edit]

Bechtel Corporation

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Glenn Fowler (February 16, 1991). "John A. McCone, Head of C.I.A. In Cuban Missile Crisis, Dies at 89". New York Times.  ^ "DCI John McCone Creates the Directorate of Science and Technology".  ^ a b c Burn Before Reading, Stansfield Turner, 2005, Hyperion, chapter on JFK ^ Halberstam, David (1972). The Best and the Brightest. Random House. p. 153. ISBN 0394461630.  ^ Seymour Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy, Random House, 1991, 72-73, 105, 120. ^ Excerpted from Gus Russo, Live by the Sword (Baltimore: Bancroft, 1998), pp. 31- 36., from David A. Reitzes jfk-online.com ^ "Adept New C.I.A. Chief. John Alex McCone". New York Times. September 28, 1961.  ^ " John A. McCone And Mrs. Pigott Marry in Seattle; Director of C.I.A. Weds University Regent at Sacred Heart Villa". New York Times. August 30, 1962.  ^ a b David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest, page 152 ^ http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_secretgov_5i.htm ^ Stansfield Turner, Burn Before Reading: Presidents, CIA Directors, and Secret Intelligence, 2005, Chapter Four, "John F. Kennedy, Dulles and McCone: Scandal and Confusion on the New Frontier" ^ "McCone Awarded Hoover Medal". New York Times. December 4, 1964.  ^ Seymour Hersh, 151. ^ McCone, John (1965). "FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1964–1968, VOLUME II, VIETNAM, JANUARY–JUNE 1965; 234. Letter From Director of Central Intelligence
Director of Central Intelligence
McCone to President Johnson". United States Department of State. Washington: Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. Retrieved 8 March 2017.  ^ Governor's Commission on the Los Angeles Riots (1965-12-02). "Violence in the City -- An End or a Beginning?". John McCone, Chairman, Warren M. Christopher, Vice-Chairman. Archived from the original on 2006-01-14. Retrieved 2007-04-06. 

References[edit]

McCartney, Laton (1988). Friends in High Places: The Bechtel Story, The Most Secret Corporation and How It Engineered the World. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-47415-4. OCLC 17300223.  Andrew, Christopher (1995). For the president's eyes only: secret intelligence and the American presidency from Washington to Bush. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-017037-9. OCLC 31377151.  Chapters 7–8, and pp. 321–322. Constructing Cassandra : the Social Construction of Strategic Surprise at the Central Intelligence Agency, 1947- 2001 https://catalogue.kent.ac.uk/Record/764718 Laqueur, Walter (1985). World of Secrets. London: Wiedenfield and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78745-4. 

External links[edit]

Annotated Bibliography for John A. McCone from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues Papers of John A. McCone, Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Presidential Library Guide to the John A. McCone Papers at The Bancroft Library Video of McCone speaking on assassination orders on YouTube Announcement of the Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom FBI files on John McCone John McCone biography by chief CIA historian David Robarge

Political offices

Preceded by Arthur S. Barrows United States
United States
Under Secretary of the Air Force 1950–1951 Succeeded by Roswell Gilpatric

Government offices

Preceded by Lewis Strauss Chair of the Atomic Energy Commission 1958–1961 Succeeded by Glenn T. Seaborg

Preceded by Allen Dulles Director of Central Intelligence 1961–1965 Succeeded by William Raborn

v t e

United States Atomic Energy Commission
United States Atomic Energy Commission
Chairs

David E. Lilienthal
David E. Lilienthal
(1946) Gordon Dean (1950) Lewis Strauss
Lewis Strauss
(1953) John A. McCone (1958) Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
(1961) James R. Schlesinger
James R. Schlesinger
(1971) Dixy Lee Ray
Dixy Lee Ray
(1973)

v t e

Directors of Central Intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency

Central Intelligence

Souers Vandenberg Hillenkoetter Smith Dulles McCone Raborn Helms Schlesinger Colby Bush Turner Casey Webster Gates Woolsey Deutch Tenet Goss

Central Intelligence Agency

Goss Hayden Panetta Petraeus Brennan Pompeo

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2348081 LCCN: nr94003670 GND: 1068648988 SN

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