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JOHN III (Portuguese : João III Portuguese pronunciation: ; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon , the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
. John succeeded his father in 1521, at the age of nineteen.

During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World
New World
through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil . John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India
India
(such as Goa
Goa
) secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empire
Portuguese empire
had a global dimension and spanned almost 1 billion acres (about 4 million square kilometers).

During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty
Dynasty
, and Japan, during the Muromachi period
Muromachi period
. He abandoned Muslim
Muslim
territories in North Africa in favor of trade with India
India
and investment in Brazil. In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic region
Baltic region
and the Rhineland
Rhineland
, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 1.1 Initial reign

* 2 Policy

* 2.1 International relations

* 3 Culture * 4 Inquisition
Inquisition

* 5 Imperial Management

* 5.1 Luso-African Relations * 5.2 Luso-Asian relations * 5.3 Portuguese America

* 6 Death and Issue * 7 Style * 8 Ancestry * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links

EARLY LIFE

Detail of Prince John from the Triptych of the Infantes; Master of Lourinhã , 1516.

John, the eldest son of King Manuel I , was born in Lisbon
Lisbon
on 7 June 1502. The event was marked by the presentation of Gil Vicente
Gil Vicente
's Visitation Play or the Monologue of the Cowherd (Auto da Visitação ou Monólogo do Vaqueiro) in the queen's chamber.

The young prince was sworn heir to the throne in 1503, the year his youngest sister, Isabella of Portugal , Empress Consort of the Holy Roman Empire between 1527 and 1538, was born.

John was educated by notable scholars of the time, including the astrologer Tomás de Torres , Diogo de Ortiz, Bishop of Viseu , and Luís Teixeira Lobo, one of the first Portuguese Renaissance humanists , rector of the University of Siena (1476) and Professor of Law at Ferrara (1502).

John's chronicler António de Castilho said that, "Dom João III faced problems easily, complementing his lack of culture with a practice formation that he always showed during his reign" (Elogio d'el rei D. João de Portugal, terceiro, do nome). In 1514, he was given his own house, and a few years later began to help his father in administrative duties.

At the age of sixteen, John was chosen to marry his first cousin, the 20-year-old Eleanor of Austria
Eleanor of Austria
, eldest daughter of Philip the Handsome of Austria-Burgundy and Queen Joanna of Castile , but instead she married his widowed father Manuel. John took deep offence at this: his chroniclers say he became melancholic and was never quite the same. Some historians also claim this was one of the main reasons that John later became fervently religious, giving him name the Pious (Portuguese : o Piedoso).

INITIAL REIGN

On 19 December 1521, John was crowned king in the Church of São Domingos in Lisbon, beginning a thirty-six-year reign characterized by intense activity in internal and overseas politics, especially in relations with other major European states. John III continued to centralize the absolutist politics of his ancestors. He called the Portuguese Cortes
Portuguese Cortes
only three times and at great intervals: 1525 in Torres Novas
Torres Novas
, 1535 in Évora
Évora
and 1544 in Almeirim
Almeirim
. He also tried to restructure administrative and judicial life in his realm.

The marriage of John's sister Isabella of Portugal to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V , enabled the Portuguese king to forge a stronger alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. To strengthen his ties with Austria
Austria
, he married his maternal first cousin Catherine of Austria
Austria
, younger sister of Charles V and his erstwhile fiancée Eleanor, in the town of Crato . John III had nine children from that marriage, but most of them died young. By the time of John's death, only his grandson Sebastian was alive to inherit the crown.

POLICY

King John III portrayed as the patron of the University of Coimbra .

The large and far-flung Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
was difficult and expensive to administer and was burdened with huge external debt and trade deficits . Portugal's Indian and Far Eastern interests grew increasingly chaotic under the poor administration of ambitious governors. John III responded with new appointments that proved troubled and short-lived: in some cases, the new governors even had to fight their predecessors to take up their appointments. The resulting failures in administration brought on a gradual decline of the Portuguese trade monopoly. In consideration of the challenging military situation faced by Portuguese forces worldwide, John III declared every male subject between 20 and 65 years old recruitable for military service on 7 August 1549.

Among John III's many colonial governors in Asia were Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
, Pedro Mascarenhas , Lopo Vaz de Sampaio , Nuno da Cunha
Nuno da Cunha
, Estêvão da Gama , Martim Afonso de Sousa , João de Castro and Henrique de Meneses. Overseas, the Empire was threatened by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in both the Indian Ocean and North Africa, causing Portugal to increase spending on defense and fortifications. Meanwhile, in the Atlantic , where Portuguese ships already had to withstand constant attacks of Privateers , an initial settlement of French colonists in Brazil created yet another "front". The French made alliances with native South Americans against the Portuguese and military and political interventions were used. Eventually they were forced out, but not until 1565.

In the first years of John III's reign, explorations in the Far East continued, and the Portuguese reached China and Japan; however, these accomplishments were offset by pressure from a strengthening Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
, especially in India, where attacks became more frequent. The expense of defending Indian interests was huge. To pay for it, John III abandoned a number of strongholds in North Africa: Safim , Azamor , Alcácer Ceguer
Alcácer Ceguer
and Arzila .

John III achieved an important political victory in securing the control of the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
, the "Spice Islands" claimed by Spain since the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation . After almost a decade of skirmishes in Southeast Asia, he signed the Treaty of Zaragoza
Treaty of Zaragoza
with Emperor Charles V on 22 April 1529. It defined the areas of Spanish and Portuguese influence in Asia and established the anti-meridian to the Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

The reign of John III was marked by active diplomacy. With Spain, he made alliances through marriage that ensured peace in the Iberian Peninsula for a number of years. He himself married Catherine of Austria
Austria
, the daughter of Philip I of Castile
Philip I of Castile
. His sister Isabella of Portugal married Charles V , the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. His daughter Maria Manuela married King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
- and there were others. However, the intermarriage of these closely related royal families may have been one of the factors that contributed to the poor health of John's children and of future King Sebastian of Portugal
Sebastian of Portugal
.

John III remained neutral during the war between France and Spain, but stood firm in fighting the attacks of French privateers.

He strengthened relations with the Papal States
Papal States
by introducing the Inquisition
Inquisition
in Portugal and the adhesion of the Portuguese clergy to the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
. This relationship with the Catholic Church made it possible for John to name whomever he wanted to important religious positions in Portugal: his brothers Henry and Afonso were made Cardinals , and his natural son Duarte was made Archbishop
Archbishop
of Braga
Braga
.

Commercial relations were intensified with England, the countries of the Baltic regions and Flanders
Flanders
during John III's reign. Meanwhile, at the other end of the world, Portugal was the first European nation to make contact with Japan. In China, Macau
Macau
was offered to the Portuguese, and soon Portugal controlled major trade routes in the area. In South Asia, the Portuguese continued its hostile stance against their Muslim
Muslim
rivals and insurgent Indian leaders.

CULTURE

Portrait of the King D. João III of Portugal; Cristóvão Lopes , 1552.

John III's support for the humanist cause was significant. In literature, his active support of Gil Vicente
Gil Vicente
, Garcia de Resende
Garcia de Resende
, Sá de Miranda
Sá de Miranda
, Bernardim Ribeiro , Fernão Mendes Pinto , João de Barros and Luís de Camões
Luís de Camões
was notable. In the sciences, John III supported the mathematician Pedro Nunes
Pedro Nunes
and the physician Garcia de Orta . Through his links to Portuguese humanists such as Luís Teixeira Lobo, Erasmus
Erasmus
dedicated his Chrysostomi Lucubrationes to John III of Portugal in 1527.

The monarch awarded many scholarships to universities abroad, mainly in the University of Paris
University of Paris
, where fifty Portuguese students were sent to the Collège Sainte-Barbe
Collège Sainte-Barbe
headed by Diogo de Gouveia . He definitively transferred the Portuguese university from Lisbon
Lisbon
to Coimbra in 1537. In 1542 John III created in Coimbra a College of Arts ( Liberal arts
Liberal arts
) for which he quickly recalled the many prominent Portuguese and European teachers headed by André de Gouveia at the College of Guienne in Bordeaux
Bordeaux
. Those included George Buchanan
George Buchanan
, Diogo de Teive , Jerónimo Osório , Nicolas de Grouchy, Guillaume Guérante and Élie Vinet , who were decisive for the dissemination of the contemporary research of Pedro Nunes
Pedro Nunes
. The king provided the university with excellent resources. However, the importance of the College was shadowed by rivalry between the orthodox views of the "Parisians" group headed by Diogo de Gouveia and the more secular views of the "Bordeaux" school headed by his nephew André de Gouveia, within the advent of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
and the influence of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
. The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
founded colleges and made education more widely available.

Another noteworthy aspect of John III's rule was the support he gave to missionaries in the New World
New World
, Asia and Africa. In 1540, after successive appeals to Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
asking for missionaries for the Portuguese East Indies
East Indies
under the " Padroado " agreement, John III appointed Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
to take charge as Apostolic Nuncio . He had been enthusiastically endorsed by Diogo de Gouveia, his teacher at the Collège Sainte-Barbe, and advised the king to draw the youngsters of the newly formed Society of Jesus. The Jesuits were particularly important for mediating Portuguese relations with native peoples.

INQUISITION

An auto-da-fé of the Portuguese Inquisition, in the Terreiro do Paço in front of Ribeira Palace in Lisbon.

The Inquisition
Inquisition
was introduced into Portugal in 1536. As in Spain, the Inquisition
Inquisition
was placed under the authority of the king.

The Grand Inquisitor
Grand Inquisitor
, or General Inquisitor, was named by the Pope after being nominated by the king, and he always came from within the royal family . The Grand Inquisitor
Grand Inquisitor
would later nominate other inquisitors. In Portugal, the first Grand Inquisitor
Grand Inquisitor
was Cardinal Henry, the king's brother (who would later himself become king).

There were Courts of the Inquisition
Inquisition
in Lisbon, Coimbra and Évora and, from 1560 onwards, in Goa. The Goa
Goa
Inquisition
Inquisition
changed the demographics of Goa
Goa
considerably. Goa
Goa
was called the " Lisbon
Lisbon
of the Far East" and trade reached a new level.

The Portuguese did not leave Goa
Goa
undeveloped, rather they introduced modern architecture and built strong roads and bridges that have stood the test of time even till today.

The activities of the Inquisition
Inquisition
extended to book censorship, repression and trial for divination , witchcraft and bigamy , as well as the prosecution of sexual crimes, especially sodomy . Book censorship proved to have a strong influence in Portuguese cultural evolution , serving to keep the country in ignorance and cultural backwardness.

Originally created to punish religious deviance, the Inquisition
Inquisition
came to have influence in almost every aspect of Portuguese society: politics, culture and social customs. It did serve to spare Portugal the civil upheavals of religious warfare of the sort that occurred in France and elsewhere in Europe during the 16th century.

IMPERIAL MANAGEMENT

Map of Portugal and its colonial empire , alongside its military and trade outposts, at the height of the reign of King John III of Portugal.

LUSO-AFRICAN RELATIONS

In John III's time, trade between the Portuguese and Africans was extremely intense in feitorias such Arguim , Mina , Mombasa
Mombasa
, Sofala or Mozambique . Under John III, several expeditions started in coastal Africa and advanced to the interior of the continent. These expeditions were formed by groups of navigators , merchants , adventurers and missionaries . Missions in Africa were established by the College of Arts of Coimbra. The objective was to increase the king's dominion , develop peaceful relations and to Christianize the indigenous peoples . Relations with local rulers were often complicated by trade in slaves , as shown by John's correspondence with them.

John III refused to abandon all of the Portuguese North African strongholds, but he had to make choices based on the economic or strategic value of each possession. John III decided to abandon Safim and Azamor in 1541, followed by Arzila and Alcácer Ceguer
Alcácer Ceguer
in 1549. The fortresses of Ceuta
Ceuta
, Tangiers
Tangiers
and Mazagan were strengthened "to face the new military techniques, imposed by the generalization of heavy artillery, combined with light fire weapons and blades".

LUSO-ASIAN RELATIONS

Main article: Nanban trade
Nanban trade
Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
asking King John III for the Evangalization of Asia; Avelar Rebelo , 1635.

Before the reign of John III, the Portuguese had already reached Siam (1511), the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
(1512), the Chinese littoral (1513), Canton (1517) and Timor
Timor
(1515). During John's rule, the Portuguese reached Japan, and at the end of John's reign, Macau
Macau
was offered to Portugal by China. From India, John III imported an amazing variety of spices, herbs, minerals, and fabrics; from Malacca, exotic woods and spice; from Bengala, fabrics and exotic foodstuffs; from Alexandria and Cairo, exotic woods, metals, minerals, fabrics, and boullion; and from China, musk, rhubarb, in summer, the southwest monsoon made departure from India
India
difficult. As a result, Portugal determined that it needed permanent bases in India, in addition to its ports of call in Africa, to pass the time while the wind changed. In addition to Goa, they established themselves in Ceylon (in what is now Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
) through the conquest of several Ceylonese kingdoms in the sixteenth century. Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
remained in Portuguese hands until 1658, when it was seized by the Dutch after an epic siege .

PORTUGUESE AMERICA

Captaincies of the Governorate General of Brazil
Governorate General of Brazil

During the reign of King John III, the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
established itself in South America with the foundation of the twelve Captaincy Colonies of Brazil (from 1534 onwards). Each with its own donatary captain, the twelve colonies struggled independently. In 1549, John III established the Governorate General of Brazil
Governorate General of Brazil
, and the twelve captaincy colonies became subordinate to it. The first Governor-General appointed by John III, Tomé de Sousa , founded the city of Salvador, Bahia
Salvador, Bahia
(São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos) in 1549.

Immediately following the discovery of Brazil in 1500, the Portuguese imported brazilwood , Indian slaves and exotic birds from there. Brazilwood
Brazilwood
was a much appreciated product in Europe, because it could be used to produce a red dye. During John III's rule, after the initial colonization , Portuguese explorers intensified the search for brazilwood and began the cultivation of sugarcane , which was well suited to the climate of Brazil, especially around Recife
Recife
and Bahía .

In the final years of John's reign, Portugal's colony of Brazil was just beginning its rapid development as a producer of sugar that compensated for the gradual decline of revenues from Asia, a development that would continue during the reign of his grandson and successor, Sebastian (1557-1578). Since Brazil lacked a large native population, and the Indians did not make good plantation workers, the Portuguese colonists began to import African slaves to work their plantations. The first slaves, from the region of Guinea
Guinea
, arrived in Brazil in 1539. Most of them worked in the sugarcane fields or served as house servants.

DEATH AND ISSUE

From 1539, the heir to the throne was João Manuel, Prince of Portugal , who married Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal
Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal
, daughter of Charles V . The sole son of John III to survive childhood, Prince John was sickly and died young (of juvenile diabetes ), eighteen days before his wife gave birth to Prince Sebastian on 20 January 1554. When John III died of apoplexy in 1557, his only heir was his three-year-old grandson, Sebastian . Today, John III's body rests in the Monastery of Jerónimos in Lisbon.

NAME BIRTH DEATH NOTES

BY CATHERINE OF AUSTRIA (married 10 February 1525)

Prince Afonso 24 February 1526 March 1526 Prince of Portugal (1526).

Princess Maria Manuela 15 October 1527 12 August 1545 Princess of Portugal (1527–1531). Princess consort of Asturias by marriage to King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
, then Prince of Asturias. She had one deformed child, Prince Carlos , and she died a few days after his birth.

Infanta Isabel 28 April 1529 28 April 1529

Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice) 15 February 1530 15 February 1530

Prince Manuel 1 November 1531 14 April 1537 Prince of Portugal (1531–1537). Declared heir in 1535.

Prince Filipe (Philip) 25 March 1533 29 April 1539 Prince of Portugal (1537–1539). Declared heir in 1537.

Infante Dinis (Denis) 6 April 1535 1 January 1537

Prince João Manuel 3 June 1537 2 January 1554 Prince of Portugal (1537–1554). Declared heir in 1539. Married Joan of Spain . Their son became King Sebastian I .

Infante António (Anthony) 9 March 1539 20 January 1540

BY ISABEL MONIZ

Duarte, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Braga 1529 11 November 1543 Natural son.

STYLE

Like his predecessors John III used the style "El-rei" (the king) followed by "Dom" (abbreviated to D. ), a mark of high esteem for a distinguished Christian nobleman .

The official style was the same used by his father Manuel I: "Dom João, by the grace of God, King of Portugal, of the Algarves , of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea
Guinea
, & of the Conquest , Navigation
Navigation
, & Commerce of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Arabia , Persia , & India
India
" (Dom João, por graça de Deus, Rei de Portugal, e dos Algarves, d'aquém e d'além mar em África, Senhor da Guiné, e da Conquista, Navegação, & Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, height: 0.5em;">

16. John I of Portugal
John I of Portugal

8. Edward, King of Portugal
Edward, King of Portugal

17. Philippa of Lancaster

4. Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu

18. Ferdinand I of Aragon

9. Eleanor of Aragon

19. Eleanor of Alburquerque
Eleanor of Alburquerque

2. Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I of Portugal

20. John I of Portugal
John I of Portugal
(= 16)

10. John, Constable of Portugal

21. Philippa of Lancaster (= 17)

5. Beatriz of Portugal

22. Afonso I, Duke of Braganza

11. Isabel of Barcelos

23. Beatriz Pereira de Alvim
Beatriz Pereira de Alvim

1. JOHN III OF PORTUGAL

24. Ferdinand I of Aragon (= 18)

12. John II of Aragon

25. Eleanor of Alburquerque
Eleanor of Alburquerque
(= 19)

6. Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon

26. Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza

13. Juana Enríquez

27. Mariana Fernández de Córdoba

3. Maria of Aragon

28. Henry III of Castile
Henry III of Castile

14. John II of Castile
John II of Castile

29. Catherine of Lancaster
Catherine of Lancaster

7. Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile

30. John, Constable of Portugal (= 10)

15. Isabella of Portugal

31. Isabel of Barcelos (= 11)

SEE ALSO

* Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I of Portugal

NOTES

* ^ Rendered as Joam in Archaic Portuguese * ^ "The New Cambridge Modern History, Geoffrey Rudolph Elton, Volume 2 of Reformation, 1520–1559", p. 632, Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-521-34536-7 * ^ John C. Olin, Desiderius Erasmus, "Six essays on Erasmus
Erasmus
and a translation of Erasmus\' letter to Carondelet, 1523", p.47 Fordham Univ Press, 1979 ISBN 0-8232-1024-3 * ^ Marcel Bataillon, "Études sur le Portugal au temps de l\'humanisme", pp.73–77 UC Biblioteca Geral 1, 1952 * ^ A B Lach, Donald Frederick (1994). Asia in the making of Europe: A century of wonder. The literary arts. The scholarly disciplines (University of Chicago Press, 1994 ed.). ISBN 0-226-46733-3 . Retrieved 2010-12-06. * ^ Hooykaas, Reijer (1979). The Erasmian influence on D. João de Castro (1st, UC Biblioteca Geral 1, 1979 ed.). Retrieved 2010-12-06. * ^ "Common products were salt, wheat, horses, carpets, fabric , Irish and English clothing, blades , tin for African natives' coins, copper or tin vases, shells from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
that Ethiopians carry on their necks as an amulet against lightning, yellow and green beads from Nuremberg
Nuremberg
, and brass armlets " (Basílio Vasconcelos, "Itinerário" de Jerónimo Münzer, 1932), in exchange for gold, slaves , ivory and bush redpepper brought by the Portuguese. * ^ Here is a passage from a letter to Manikongo , the King of the Congo: "Now, I say, like you said that there was no capture of slaves in your Kingdom, I just want to provide you with flour and wine for your Eucharistic rites, and for that it would only be needed a caravel each year; if it seems right to you, in exchange for 10,000 slaves and 10,000 armlets and 10,000 ivory tooth, that, it is said, in the Congo there is not much, not even a ship per year; so, this and more shall be as you want." * ^ "José Mattoso dir., História de Portugal, 1993. * ^ Fernão Lopes de Castanheda , História do Descobrimento e Conquista da Índia pelos Portugueses, 1979.

REFERENCES

* Serrão, Joel (dir.) (1971). Dicionário da História de Portugal, Vol. II. Lisboa: Iniciativas Editoriais * Domingues, Mário (1962). D. João III O Homem e a Sua Época. Lisboa: Edição Romano Torres * Serrão, Joaquim Veríssimo (1978). História de Portugal, Vol. III. Lisboa: Verbo * Mattoso, José (dir.) (1993). História de Portugal, Vol. III.Círculo de Leitores * Paulo Drummond Braga, D. João III (Lisbon: Hugin, 2002) is the most recent and best biography. * Cambridge History of Latin America, ed. Leslie Bethell (Cambridge, 1984): chapter by Harold Johnson for the early history of Brasil. * Alexandre Herculano, História da Origem e Estabelecimento d