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John III[1] (Portuguese: João III Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
and Queen Isabella I of Castile. John succeeded his father in 1521, at the age of nineteen. During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World
New World
through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India
India
(such as Goa) secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empire had a global dimension and spanned almost 1 billion acres (about 4 million square kilometers). During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty, and Japan, during the Muromachi period. He abandoned Muslim
Muslim
territories in North Africa in favor of trade with India
India
and investment in Brazil. In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic region
Baltic region
and the Rhineland, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Initial reign

2 Policy

2.1 International relations

3 Culture 4 Inquisition 5 Imperial management

5.1 Luso-African relations 5.2 Luso-Asian relations 5.3 Portuguese America

6 Death and issue 7 Style 8 Ancestry 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

Early life[edit]

Detail of Prince John from the Triptych of the Infantes; Master of Lourinhã, 1516.

John, the eldest son of King Manuel I to his second wife Maria of Aragon, was born in Lisbon
Lisbon
on 7 June 1502. The event was marked by the presentation of Gil Vicente's Visitation Play or the Monologue of the Cowherd (Auto da Visitação ou Monólogo do Vaqueiro) in the queen's chamber. The young prince was sworn heir to the throne in 1503, the year his youngest sister, Isabella of Portugal, Empress Consort of the Holy Roman Empire between 1527 and 1538, was born. John was educated by notable scholars of the time, including the astrologer Tomás de Torres, Diogo de Ortiz, Bishop of Viseu, and Luís Teixeira Lobo, one of the first Portuguese Renaissance humanists, rector of the University of Siena
University of Siena
(1476) and Professor of Law at Ferrara (1502). John's chronicler António de Castilho said that, "Dom João III faced problems easily, complementing his lack of culture with a practice formation that he always showed during his reign" (Elogio d'el rei D. João de Portugal, terceiro, do nome). In 1514, he was given his own house, and a few years later began to help his father in administrative duties. At the age of sixteen, John was chosen to marry his first cousin, the 20-year-old Eleanor of Austria, eldest daughter of Philip the Handsome of Austria-Burgundy and Queen Joanna of Castile, but instead she married his widowed father Manuel. John took deep offence at this: his chroniclers say he became melancholic and was never quite the same. Some historians also claim this was one of the main reasons that John later became fervently religious, giving him name the Pious (Portuguese: o Piedoso). Initial reign[edit] On 19 December 1521, John was crowned king in the Church of São Domingos in Lisbon, beginning a thirty-six-year reign characterized by intense activity in internal and overseas politics, especially in relations with other major European states. John III continued to centralize the absolutist politics of his ancestors. He called the Portuguese Cortes
Portuguese Cortes
only three times and at great intervals: 1525 in Torres Novas, 1535 in Évora
Évora
and 1544 in Almeirim. He also tried to restructure administrative and judicial life in his realm. The marriage of John's sister Isabella of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal
to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, enabled the Portuguese king to forge a stronger alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. To strengthen his ties with Austria, he married his maternal first cousin Catherine of Austria, younger sister of Charles V and his erstwhile fiancée Eleanor, in the town of Crato. John III had nine children from that marriage, but most of them died young. By the time of John's death, only his grandson Sebastian was alive to inherit the crown. Policy[edit]

King John III portrayed as the patron of the University of Coimbra.

The large and far-flung Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
was difficult and expensive to administer and was burdened with huge external debt and trade deficits. Portugal's Indian and Far Eastern interests grew increasingly chaotic under the poor administration of ambitious governors. John III responded with new appointments that proved troubled and short-lived: in some cases, the new governors even had to fight their predecessors to take up their appointments. The resulting failures in administration brought on a gradual decline of the Portuguese trade monopoly. In consideration of the challenging military situation faced by Portuguese forces worldwide, John III declared every male subject between 20 and 65 years old recruitable for military service on 7 August 1549. Among John III's many colonial governors in Asia were Vasco da Gama, Pedro Mascarenhas, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, Nuno da Cunha, Estêvão da Gama, Martim Afonso de Sousa, João de Castro
João de Castro
and Henrique de Meneses. Overseas, the Empire was threatened by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in both the Indian Ocean and North Africa, causing Portugal to increase spending on defense and fortifications. Meanwhile, in the Atlantic, where Portuguese ships already had to withstand constant attacks of Privateers, an initial settlement of French colonists in Brazil created yet another "front". The French made alliances with native South Americans against the Portuguese and military and political interventions were used. Eventually they were forced out, but not until 1565. In the first years of John III's reign, explorations in the Far East continued, and the Portuguese reached China and Japan; however, these accomplishments were offset by pressure from a strengthening Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent, especially in India, where attacks became more frequent. The expense of defending Indian interests was huge. To pay for it, John III abandoned a number of strongholds in North Africa: Safim, Azamor, Alcácer Ceguer
Alcácer Ceguer
and Arzila. John III achieved an important political victory in securing the control of the Maluku Islands, the "Spice Islands" claimed by Spain since the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation. After almost a decade of skirmishes in Southeast Asia, he signed the Treaty of Zaragoza
Treaty of Zaragoza
with Emperor Charles V on 22 April 1529. It defined the areas of Spanish and Portuguese influence in Asia and established the anti-meridian to the Treaty of Tordesillas.[2] International relations[edit] The reign of John III was marked by active diplomacy. With Spain, he made alliances through marriage that ensured peace in the Iberian Peninsula for a number of years. He himself married Catherine of Austria, the daughter of Philip I of Castile. His sister Isabella of Portugal married Charles V, the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. His daughter Maria Manuela married King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
- and there were others. However, the intermarriage of these closely related royal families may have been one of the factors that contributed to the poor health of John's children and of future King Sebastian of Portugal. John III remained neutral during the war between France and Spain, but stood firm in fighting the attacks of French privateers. He strengthened relations with the Papal States
Papal States
by introducing the Inquisition
Inquisition
in Portugal and the adhesion of the Portuguese clergy to the Counter-Reformation. This relationship with the Catholic Church made it possible for John to name whomever he wanted to important religious positions in Portugal: his brothers Henry and Afonso were made Cardinals, and his natural son Duarte was made Archbishop
Archbishop
of Braga. Commercial relations were intensified with England, the countries of the Baltic regions and Flanders
Flanders
during John III's reign. Meanwhile, at the other end of the world, Portugal was the first European nation to make contact with Japan. In China, Macau
Macau
was offered to the Portuguese, and soon Portugal controlled major trade routes in the area. In South Asia, the Portuguese continued its hostile stance against their Muslim
Muslim
rivals and insurgent Indian leaders. Culture[edit]

Portrait of the King D. João III of Portugal; Cristóvão Lopes, 1552.

John III's support for the humanist cause was significant. In literature, his active support of Gil Vicente, Garcia de Resende, Sá de Miranda, Bernardim Ribeiro, Fernão Mendes Pinto, João de Barros and Luís de Camões
Luís de Camões
was notable. In the sciences, John III supported the mathematician Pedro Nunes
Pedro Nunes
and the physician Garcia de Orta. Through his links to Portuguese humanists such as Luís Teixeira Lobo, Erasmus
Erasmus
dedicated his Chrysostomi Lucubrationes to John III of Portugal in 1527.[3][4] The monarch awarded many scholarships to universities abroad, mainly in the University of Paris, where fifty Portuguese students were sent to the Collège Sainte-Barbe
Collège Sainte-Barbe
headed by Diogo de Gouveia. He definitively transferred the Portuguese university from Lisbon
Lisbon
to Coimbra in 1537. In 1542 John III created in Coimbra a College of Arts (Liberal arts) for which he quickly recalled the many prominent Portuguese and European teachers headed by André de Gouveia at the College of Guienne in Bordeaux.[5] Those included George Buchanan, Diogo de Teive, Jerónimo Osório, Nicolas de Grouchy, Guillaume Guérante and Élie Vinet, who were decisive for the dissemination of the contemporary research of Pedro Nunes.[6] The king provided the university with excellent resources. However, the importance of the College was shadowed by rivalry between the orthodox views of the "Parisians" group headed by Diogo de Gouveia and the more secular views of the "Bordeaux" school headed by his nephew André de Gouveia, within the advent of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
and the influence of the Society of Jesus. The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
founded colleges and made education more widely available. Another noteworthy aspect of John III's rule was the support he gave to missionaries in the New World, Asia and Africa. In 1540, after successive appeals to Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
asking for missionaries for the Portuguese East Indies
East Indies
under the "Padroado" agreement, John III appointed Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
to take charge as Apostolic Nuncio. He had been enthusiastically endorsed by Diogo de Gouveia, his teacher at the Collège Sainte-Barbe, and advised the king to draw the youngsters of the newly formed Society of Jesus.[5] The Jesuits were particularly important for mediating Portuguese relations with native peoples. Inquisition[edit]

An auto-da-fé of the Portuguese Inquisition, in the Terreiro do Paço in front of Ribeira Palace
Ribeira Palace
in Lisbon.

The Inquisition
Inquisition
was introduced into Portugal in 1536. As in Spain, the Inquisition
Inquisition
was placed under the authority of the king. The Grand Inquisitor, or General Inquisitor, was named by the Pope after being nominated by the king, and he always came from within the royal family. The Grand Inquisitor
Grand Inquisitor
would later nominate other inquisitors. In Portugal, the first Grand Inquisitor
Grand Inquisitor
was Cardinal Henry, the king's brother (who would later himself become king). There were Courts of the Inquisition
Inquisition
in Lisbon, Coimbra and Évora and, from 1560 onwards, in Goa. The Goa
Goa
Inquisition
Inquisition
changed the demographics of Goa
Goa
considerably. Goa
Goa
was called the " Lisbon
Lisbon
of the Far East" and trade reached a new level. The Portuguese did not leave Goa
Goa
undeveloped, rather they introduced modern architecture and built strong roads and bridges that have stood the test of time even till today. The activities of the Inquisition
Inquisition
extended to book censorship, repression and trial for divination, witchcraft and bigamy, as well as the prosecution of sexual crimes, especially sodomy. Originally created to punish religious deviance, the Inquisition
Inquisition
came to have influence in almost every aspect of Portuguese society: politics, culture and social customs. It did serve to spare Portugal the civil upheavals of religious warfare of the sort that occurred in France and elsewhere in Europe during the 16th century. Imperial management[edit]

Map of Portugal and its colonial empire, alongside its military and trade outposts, at the height of the reign of King John III of Portugal.

Luso-African relations[edit] In John III's time, trade between the Portuguese and Africans was extremely intense in feitorias such Arguim, Mina, Mombasa, Sofala
Sofala
or Mozambique.[7] Under John III, several expeditions started in coastal Africa and advanced to the interior of the continent. These expeditions were formed by groups of navigators, merchants, adventurers and missionaries. Missions in Africa were established by the College of Arts of Coimbra. The objective was to increase the king's dominion, develop peaceful relations and to Christianize
Christianize
the indigenous peoples. Relations with local rulers were often complicated by trade in slaves, as shown by John's correspondence with them.[8] John III refused to abandon all of the Portuguese North African strongholds, but he had to make choices based on the economic or strategic value of each possession. John III decided to abandon Safim and Azamor
Azamor
in 1541, followed by Arzila and Alcácer Ceguer
Alcácer Ceguer
in 1549. The fortresses of Ceuta, Tangiers
Tangiers
and Mazagan
Mazagan
were strengthened "to face the new military techniques, imposed by the generalization of heavy artillery, combined with light fire weapons and blades".[9] John III's court jester was João de Sá Panasco, a black African, who was eventually admitted to the prestigious Order of Saint James based on his service in the Conquest of Tunis (1535).[10][11] Luso-Asian relations[edit] Main article: Nanban trade

Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
asking King John III for the Evangalization of Asia; Avelar Rebelo, 1635.

Before the reign of John III, the Portuguese had already reached Siam (1511), the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
(1512), the Chinese littoral (1513), Canton (1517) and Timor
Timor
(1515). During John's rule, the Portuguese reached Japan, and at the end of John's reign, Macau
Macau
was offered to Portugal by China. From India, John III imported an amazing variety of spices, herbs, minerals, and fabrics; from Malacca, exotic woods and spice; from Bengala, fabrics and exotic foodstuffs; from Alexandria and Cairo, exotic woods, metals, minerals, fabrics, and boullion; and from China, musk, rhubarb, & silk in exchange for gromwells, pearls, horses from Arabia and Persia, non-worked silk, silk embroidery threads, fruits of the date palm, raisins, salt, sulphur and many other goods.[12] As Muslims and other peoples constantly attacked Portuguese fleets in India, and because India
India
was so far from mainland Portugal, it was extremely difficult for John III to secure Portuguese dominion in this area. A viceroy (or Governor-General with extensive powers) was nominated, but this was not enough to defend the Portuguese possessions in India. The Portuguese started by creating feitorias – commercial strongholds in Cochin, Cannanore, Coulão, Cranganore
Cranganore
and Tanor – with the initial objective of establishing just a commercial dominion in the region. The hostility of many Indian kingdoms and alliances between sultans and zamorins to expel the Portuguese made it necessary for the Europeans to establish a sovereign state. Portugal thus militarily occupied some key cities on the Indian coast, and Goa
Goa
became the headquarters of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
in the East as of 1512. Goa became a starting point for the introduction of European cultural and religious values in India, and churches, schools and hospitals were built. Goa
Goa
remained an overseas possession of Portugal until India reclaimed it in 1961. The Portuguese arrived in Japan in 1543. Japan had been known in Portugal since the time of Marco Polo, who called it "Cipango". Whether Portuguese nationals were the first Europeans to arrive in Japan is debatable. Some say the first Portuguese arrival was the writer Fernão Mendes Pinto, and others say it was the navigators António Peixoto, António da Mota and Francisco Zeimoto. Portuguese traders started negotiating with Japan earlier than 1550 and established a base there at Nagasaki. By then, trade with Japan was a Portuguese monopoly under the rule of a Captain. Because the Portuguese established themselves in Macau, Chinese commercial relations, mainly the silver trade with Japan, were improved under John III's rule. After the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan, the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
claimed the recently discovered Maluku Islands. In 1524, a conference of experts (cartographers, cosmographers, pilots, etc.) was held to solve the dispute caused by the difficulty of determining the meridian agreed to in the Treaty of Tordesillas. The Portuguese delegation sent by John III included names such as António de Azevedo Coutinho, Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, Lopo Homem
Lopo Homem
and Simão Fernandes. The dispute was settled in 1529 by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed by John III and Charles I of Spain. The Portuguese paid 350,000 gold ducados to Spain and secured their presence in the islands, which not have been a necessity, as Portugal was actually entitled to the islands according to the Treaty of Tordesillas. In 1553, Leonel de Sousa obtained authorization for the Portuguese to establish themselves in Canton and Macau. Macau
Macau
was later offered to John III as a reward for Portuguese assistance against maritime piracy in the period between 1557 and 1564. Malacca, which controlled the eponymous Strait of Malacca, was vital to Portuguese interests in the Far East. After an unsuccessful expedition in 1509, Malacca
Malacca
was finally conquered by Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese viceroy of India, on 24 August 1511. Malacca
Malacca
was later taken by the Dutch in 1641. In order to follow its trade routes to the Far East, Portugal depended on the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean. In winter, the prevailing northeasterly monsoon impeded travel to India; in summer, the southwest monsoon made departure from India
India
difficult. As a result, Portugal determined that it needed permanent bases in India, in addition to its ports of call in Africa, to pass the time while the wind changed. In addition to Goa, they established themselves in Ceylon (in what is now Sri Lanka) through the conquest of several Ceylonese kingdoms in the sixteenth century. Portuguese Ceylon remained in Portuguese hands until 1658, when it was seized by the Dutch after an epic siege. Portuguese America[edit]

Captaincies of the Governorate General of Brazil

During the reign of King John III, the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
established itself in South America with the foundation of the twelve Captaincy Colonies of Brazil (from 1534 onwards). Each with its own donatary captain, the twelve colonies struggled independently. In 1549, John III established the Governorate General of Brazil, and the twelve captaincy colonies became subordinate to it. The first Governor-General appointed by John III, Tomé de Sousa, founded the city of Salvador, Bahia
Salvador, Bahia
(São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos) in 1549. Immediately following the discovery of Brazil in 1500, the Portuguese imported brazilwood, Indian slaves and exotic birds from there. Brazilwood
Brazilwood
was a much appreciated product in Europe, because it could be used to produce a red dye. During John III's rule, after the initial colonization, Portuguese explorers intensified the search for brazilwood and began the cultivation of sugarcane, which was well suited to the climate of Brazil, especially around Recife
Recife
and Bahía. In the final years of John's reign, Portugal's colony of Brazil was just beginning its rapid development as a producer of sugar that compensated for the gradual decline of revenues from Asia, a development that would continue during the reign of his grandson and successor, Sebastian (1557-1578). Since Brazil lacked a large native population, and the Indians did not make good plantation workers, the Portuguese colonists began to import African slaves to work their plantations. The first slaves, from the region of Guinea, arrived in Brazil in 1539. Most of them worked in the sugarcane fields or served as house servants. Death and issue[edit] From 1539, the heir to the throne was João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, who married Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal, daughter of Charles V. The sole son of John III to survive childhood, Prince John was sickly and died young (of juvenile diabetes), eighteen days before his wife gave birth to Prince Sebastian on 20 January 1554. When John III died of apoplexy in 1557, his only heir was his three-year-old grandson, Sebastian. Today, John III's body rests in the Monastery of Jerónimos in Lisbon.

Name Birth Death Notes

By Catherine of Austria
Austria
(married 10 February 1525)

Prince Afonso 24 February 1526 March 1526 Prince of Portugal
Prince of Portugal
(1526).

Princess Maria Manuela 15 October 1527 12 August 1545 Princess of Portugal (1527–1531). Princess consort of Asturias by marriage to King Philip II of Spain, then Prince of Asturias. She had one deformed child, Prince Carlos, and she died a few days after his birth.

Infanta Isabel 28 April 1529 28 April 1529  

Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice) 15 February 1530 15 February 1530  

Prince Manuel 1 November 1531 14 April 1537 Prince of Portugal
Prince of Portugal
(1531–1537). Declared heir in 1535.

Prince Filipe (Philip) 25 March 1533 29 April 1539 Prince of Portugal
Prince of Portugal
(1537–1539). Declared heir in 1537.

Infante Dinis (Denis) 6 April 1535 1 January 1537  

Prince João Manuel 3 June 1537 2 January 1554 Prince of Portugal
Prince of Portugal
(1537–1554). Declared heir in 1539. Married Joan of Spain. Their son became King Sebastian I.

Infante António (Anthony) 9 March 1539 20 January 1540  

By Isabel Moniz

Duarte, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Braga 1529 11 November 1543 Natural son.

Style[edit] Like his predecessors John III used the style "El-rei" (the king) followed by "Dom" (abbreviated to D.), a mark of high esteem for a distinguished Christian nobleman. The official style was the same used by his father Manuel I: "Dom João, by the grace of God, King of Portugal, of the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea, & of the Conquest, Navigation, & Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, & India" (Dom João, por graça de Deus, Rei de Portugal, e dos Algarves, d'aquém e d'além mar em África, Senhor da Guiné, e da Conquista, Navegação, & Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, & Índia). This style would only change in the 19th century when Brazil became a Vice-Kingdom. Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of John III of Portugal

16. John I of Portugal

8. Edward I of Portugal

17. Philippa of Lancaster

4. Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu

18. Ferdinand I of Aragon

9. Eleanor of Aragon

19. Eleanor of Alburquerque

2. Manuel I of Portugal

20. John I of Portugal
John I of Portugal
(= 16)

10. John, Constable of Portugal

21. Philippa of Lancaster
Philippa of Lancaster
(= 17)

5. Beatrice of Portugal

22. Afonso I, Duke of Braganza

11. Isabel of Barcelos

23. Beatriz Pereira de Alvim

1. John III of Portugal

24. Ferdinand I of Aragon
Ferdinand I of Aragon
(= 18)

12. John II of Aragon

25. Eleanor of Alburquerque
Eleanor of Alburquerque
(= 19)

6. Ferdinand II of Aragon

26. Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza

13. Juana Enríquez

27. Mariana Fernández de Córdoba

3. Maria of Aragon

28. Henry III of Castile

14. John II of Castile

29. Catherine of Lancaster

7. Isabella I of Castile

30. John, Constable of Portugal
John, Constable of Portugal
(= 10)

15. Isabella of Portugal

31. Isabel of Barcelos
Isabel of Barcelos
(= 11)

See also[edit]

Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal

Notes[edit]

^ Rendered as Joam in Archaic Portuguese ^ "The New Cambridge Modern History, Geoffrey Rudolph Elton, Volume 2 of Reformation, 1520–1559", p. 632, Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-521-34536-7 ^ John C. Olin, Desiderius Erasmus, "Six essays on Erasmus
Erasmus
and a translation of Erasmus' letter to Carondelet, 1523", p.47 Fordham Univ Press, 1979 ISBN 0-8232-1024-3 ^ Marcel Bataillon, "Études sur le Portugal au temps de l'humanisme", pp.73–77 UC Biblioteca Geral 1, 1952 ^ a b Lach, Donald Frederick (1994). Asia in the making of Europe: A century of wonder. The literary arts. The scholarly disciplines (University of Chicago Press, 1994 ed.). ISBN 0-226-46733-3. Retrieved 2010-12-06.  ^ Hooykaas, Reijer (1979). The Erasmian influence on D. João de Castro (1st, UC Biblioteca Geral 1, 1979 ed.). Retrieved 2010-12-06.  ^ "Common products were salt, wheat, horses, carpets, fabric, Irish and English clothing, blades, tin for African natives' coins, copper or tin vases, shells from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
that Ethiopians carry on their necks as an amulet against lightning, yellow and green beads from Nuremberg, and brass armlets" (Basílio Vasconcelos, "Itinerário" de Jerónimo Münzer, 1932), in exchange for gold, slaves, ivory and bush redpepper brought by the Portuguese. ^ Here is a passage from a letter to Manikongo, the King of the Congo: "Now, I say, like you said that there was no capture of slaves in your Kingdom, I just want to provide you with flour and wine for your Eucharistic rites, and for that it would only be needed a caravel each year; if it seems right to you, in exchange for 10,000 slaves and 10,000 armlets and 10,000 ivory tooth, that, it is said, in the Congo there is not much, not even a ship per year; so, this and more shall be as you want." ^ "José Mattoso dir., História de Portugal, 1993. ^ Goodwin, Stefan (1955). Africa in Europe: Antiquity into the Age of Global Exploration. Lexington Books. p. 167. ISBN 9780739129944.  ^ Dutra, Francis A. (2011). "Ser mulato em Portugal nos primórdios da época moderna". Tempo. 16 (30): 101–114. doi:10.1590/S1413-77042011000100005. ISSN 1413-7704.  ^ Fernão Lopes de Castanheda, História do Descobrimento e Conquista da Índia pelos Portugueses, 1979.

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to John III of Portugal.

Serrão, Joel (dir.) (1971). Dicionário da História de Portugal, Vol. II. Lisboa: Iniciativas Editoriais Domingues, Mário (1962). D. João III O Homem e a Sua Época. Lisboa: Edição Romano Torres Serrão, Joaquim Veríssimo (1978). História de Portugal, Vol. III. Lisboa: Verbo Mattoso, José (dir.) (1993). História de Portugal, Vol. III.Círculo de Leitores Paulo Drummond Braga, D. João III (Lisbon: Hugin, 2002) is the most recent and best biography. Cambridge History of Latin America, ed. Leslie Bethell (Cambridge, 1984): chapter by Harold Johnson for the early history of Brasil. Alexandre Herculano, História da Origem e Estabelecimento da Inquisição em Portugal, 3 vols. (Lisbon, 1879–80) for the negotiations leading to the creation of the Inquisition.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John III. of Portugal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 444. 

John III of Portugal House of Aviz Cadet branch of the House of Burgundy Born: 7 June 1502 Died: 11 June 1557

Regnal titles

Preceded by Manuel I King of Portugal and the Algarves 1521–1557 Succeeded by Sebastian

Portuguese royalty

Vacant Title last held by Miguel da Paz Prince of Portugal 1502–1521 Vacant Title next held by Afonso

v t e

Monarchs of Portugal

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)

Afonso I Sancho I Afonso II Sancho II Afonso III Dinis I Afonso IV Pedro I Fernando I Beatriz I

House of Aviz
House of Aviz
(1385–1580)

João I Duarte I Afonso V João II Manuel I João III Sebastião I Henrique I António I

House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
(1581–1640)

Filipe I Filipe II Filipe III

House of Braganza
House of Braganza
(1640–1910)

João IV Afonso VI Pedro II João V José I Maria I with Pedro III João VI Pedro IV Maria II Miguel I Maria II with Fernando II Pedro V Luís I Carlos I Manuel II

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Monarchs of Brazil

Kingdom of Brazil

Maria I João VI*

Empire of Brazil

Pedro I Pedro II

*Also titular Emperor of Brazil.

v t e

Infantes of Portugal

The generations indicate descent from Afonso I, and continues through the House of Aviz, the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
through Infanta Isabel, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Spain, and the House of Braganza
House of Braganza
through Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza.

1st generation

Infante Henrique Sancho I Infante João

2nd generation

Afonso II Infante Raimundo Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders Infante Henrique

3rd generation

Sancho II Afonso III Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa

4th generation

Infante Fernando Dinis I Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre Infante Vicente

5th generation

Afonso IV Infante Afonso, Lord of Leiria

6th generation

Infante Afonso Infante Dinis Pedro I Infante João

7th generation

Infante Luís Fernando I Infante Afonso Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos Infante Dinis, Lord of Cifuentes

8th generation

Infante Pedro Infante Afonso (1382) Infante Afonso (1390–1400) Duarte I Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu Infante João, Constable of Portugal Infante Fernando

9th generation

Infante João Afonso V Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu Infante Duarte Infante Pedro, Constable of Portugal Infante João, Prince of Antioch Cardinal-Infante Jaime of Coimbra Infante Diogo, Constable of Portugal

10th generation

João, Prince of Portugal João II Infante João, Duke of Viseu Infante Diogo, Duke of Viseu Infante Duarte of Viseu Infante Dinis of Viseu Infante Simão of Viseu Infante Afonso of Viseu Manuel I

11th generation

Afonso, Prince of Portugal Infante João Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal
Prince of Portugal
and Asturias* João III Infante Luís, Duke of Beja Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda Cardinal-Infante Afonso Henrique I (The Cardinal-King) Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães Infante António Infante Carlos

12th generation

Afonso, Prince of Portugal Manuel, Prince of Portugal Filipe, Prince of Portugal Infante Dinis João Manuel, Prince of Portugal Infante António Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães

13th generation

Sebastião I Carlos, Prince of Asturias§# Diogo, Prince of Portugal
Prince of Portugal
and Asturias§# Filipe II§# Manuel, Hereditary Prince of Portugalƒ

14th generation

Filipe III§# Infante Carlos§# Cardinal-Infante Fernando§# Infante Alfonso Mauricio§#

15th generation

Baltasar Carlos, Prince of Portugal
Prince of Portugal
and Asturias§# Infante Francisco Fernando§# Teodósio, Prince of Brazil Afonso VI Pedro II

16th generation

João, Prince of Brazil João V Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja Infante António Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém

17th generation

Pedro, Prince of Brazil José I Infante Carlos Pedro III Infante Alexandre

18th generation

None

19th generation

José, Prince of Brazil Infante João (1762) Infante João Francisco João VI

20th generation

Francisco António, Prince of Beira Pedro I of Brazil
Pedro I of Brazil
& IV of Portugal Miguel I Infante Pedro Carlos§

21st generation

Miguel, Prince of Beira João Carlos, Prince of Beira Infante Miguel, Duke of Braganza Infante Sebastião§

22nd generation

Pedro V¶ Luís I¶ Infante João, Duke of Beja¶ Infante Fernando¶ Infante Augusto, Duke of Coimbra¶ Infante Leopoldo¶ Infante Eugénio¶ Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu Infante Francisco José Infante Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza

23rd generation

Carlos I¶ Infante Afonso, Duke of Porto¶ Infante Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra

24th generation

Luís Filipe, Prince Royal¶ Manuel II¶ Afonso, Prince of Beira Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto

* also an infante of Castile and León, Aragon, Sicily and Naples,  § also an infante of Spain,  # also an archduke of Austria,  ‡ also an imperial prince of Brazil,  ¶ also a prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke in Saxony  ƒ claimant infante

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59093168 LCCN: n83132129 ISNI: 0000 0001 2134 8266 GND: 118974173 SUDOC: 028181115 BNF: cb120068034 (data) BIB

.