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JOHN I (Portuguese : João, ; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433) was King of Portugal
King of Portugal
and the Algarve in 1385–1433. He was referred to as "the Good" (sometimes "the Great") or "of Happy Memory" in Portugal. More rarely, and especially in Spain, he was sometimes referred to as "the Bastard." He is recognized chiefly for his role in preserving the independence of the kingdom of Portugal from the kingdom of Castile . As part of his efforts to acquire Portuguese territories in Africa, he became the first king of Portugal to use the title "Lord of Ceuta."

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Acclamation * 3 Reign * 4 Marriages and descendants * 5 Ancestry * 6 Notes * 7 References

EARLY LIFE

John was born in Lisbon
Lisbon
as the natural son of King Peter I of Portugal by a woman named Teresa, who, according to the royal chronicler Fernão Lopes , was a noble Galician . In the 18th century, António Caetano de Sousa found a 16th-century document in the archives of the Torre do Tombo in which she was named as Teresa Lourenço. In 1364, by request of Nuno Freire de Andrade, a Galician Grand Master of the Order of Christ , he was created Grand Master of the Order of Aviz .

On the death without a male heir of his half-brother, King Ferdinand I , in October 1383, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for Beatrice , Ferdinand's only daughter. As heir presumptive , Beatrice had married king John I of Castile , but popular sentiment was against an arrangement in which Portugal would have been virtually annexed by Castile. The 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum followed, a period of political anarchy, when no monarch ruled the country.

ACCLAMATION

The wedding of João I of Portugal, 11 February 1387 with Philippa of Lancaster , by fifteenth century painter and manuscript illuminator Master of Wavrin , from around Lille
Lille
, now in France.

On 6 April 1385, the Council of the Kingdom (the Portuguese Cortes
Portuguese Cortes
) met in Coimbra
Coimbra
and declared John, then Master of Aviz, to be king of Portugal. This was followed by the liberation of almost all of the Minho in the course of two months as part of a war against Castile in opposition to its claims to the Portuguese throne. Soon after, the king of Castile again invaded Portugal with the purpose of conquering Lisbon
Lisbon
and removing John I from the throne. John I of Castile was accompanied by French allied cavalry while English troops and generals took the side of John of Aviz (see Hundred Years\' War ). John and Nuno Álvares Pereira
Nuno Álvares Pereira
, his constable and talented supporter, repelled the attack in the decisive Battle of Aljubarrota
Battle of Aljubarrota
on 14 August 1385. John I of Castile then retreated. The Castilian forces abandoned Santarém , Torres Vedras
Torres Vedras
and Torres Novas
Torres Novas
, and many other towns were delivered to John I by Portuguese nobles from the Castilian side. As a result, the stability of the Portuguese throne was permanently secured.

On 11 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster , daughter of John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
, who had proved to be a worthy ally. The marriage consolidated an Anglo-Portuguese Alliance that endures to the present day.

REIGN

See also: Conquest of Ceuta
Conquest of Ceuta
John I of Portugal
John I of Portugal
(center of table) dines with John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
(left side of table) during negotiations for the latter's invasion of Castile to enforce his claim as King. The negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Windsor which confirmed the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance and resulted in the marriage of the Portuguese King to John of Gaunt's daughter, Philippa of Lancaster .

John I of Castile died in 1390 without issue from his wife Beatrice, which meant that a competing legitimate bloodline with a claim to the throne of Portugal died out. John I of Portugal
John I of Portugal
was then able to rule in peace and concentrate on the economic development and territorial expansion of his realm. The most significant military actions were the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta by Portugal in 1415, and the successful defence of Ceuta from a Moroccan counterattack in 1419. These measure were intended to help seize control of navigation off the African coast and trade routes from the interior of Africa.

The raids and attacks of the Reconquista
Reconquista
in the Iberian Peninsula created captives on both sides who were either ransomed or sold as slaves. The Portuguese crown extended this practice to North Africa. After the attack on Ceuta, the king sought papal recognition of the military action as a Crusade . Such a ruling would have enabled those captured to be legitimately sold as slaves. In response to John's request, Pope Martin V issued the Papal bull
Papal bull
Sane charissimus of 4 April 1418, which confirmed to the king all of the lands he might win from the Moors. Under the auspices of Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry the Navigator
, voyages were organized to explore the African coast. These led to the discovery of the uninhabited islands of Madeira
Madeira
in 1417 and the Azores in 1427; all were claimed by the Portuguese crown.

Contemporaneous writers describe John as a man of wit who was very keen on concentrating power on himself, but at the same time possessed a benevolent and kind demeanor. His youthful education as master of a religious order made him an unusually learned king for the Middle Ages. His love for knowledge and culture was passed on to his sons, who are often referred to collectively by Portuguese historians as the "illustrious generation " (Ínclita Geração): Edward , the future king, was a poet and a writer; Peter , the Duke of Coimbra, was one of the most learned princes of his time; and Prince Henry the Navigator, the duke of Viseu, invested heavily in science and the development of nautical pursuits. In 1430, John's only surviving daughter, Isabella , married Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy , and enjoyed an extremely refined court culture in his lands; she was the mother of Charles the Bold .

MARRIAGES AND DESCENDANTS

Main article: Illustrious Generation
Illustrious Generation

On 2 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster , daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
, in Porto
Porto
. From that marriage were born several famous princes and princesses of Portugal (infantes ) that became known as the "illustrious generation."

NAME BIRTH DEATH NOTES

BY PHILIPPA OF LANCASTER (1359– 19 July 1415; married on 2 February 1387)

Infanta Blanche 13 July 1388 6 March 1389

Infante
Infante
Afonso 30 July 1390 22 December 1400

King Edward 31 October 1391 13 September 1438 Who succeeded him as King of Portugal
King of Portugal
.

Infante
Infante
Peter 9 December 1392 20 May 1449 Duke of Coimbra
Coimbra
. Died in the Battle of Alfarrobeira .

Infante
Infante
Henry 4 March 1394 13 November 1460 Known as Henry the Navigator. Duke of Viseu
Duke of Viseu
and Grand Master of the Order of Christ .

Infanta Isabella 21 February 1397 11 December 1471 Duchess consort of Burgundy by marriage to Philip III, Duke of Burgundy .

Infanta Blanche 11 April 1398 27 July 1398

Infante
Infante
John 13 January 1400 18 October 1442 Constable
Constable
of the Kingdom and grandfather of Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
.

Infante
Infante
Ferdinand 29 September 1402 5 June 1443 Grand Master of the Order of Aviz . Died in captivity in Fes , Morocco.

BY INêS PERES (c. 1350–1400?)

Afonso 10 August 1377 15 December 1461 Natural son and 1st Duke of Braganza
Duke of Braganza
.

Branca 1378 1379 Natural daughter.

Beatrice c. 1382 25 October 1439 Natural daughter. Countess of Arundel by marriage to Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel . Countess of Huntingdon by marriage to John Holland, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon , later Duke of Exeter .

ANCESTRY

ANCESTORS OF JOHN I OF PORTUGAL

16. Afonso III of Portugal
Afonso III of Portugal

8. Denis, King of Portugal
King of Portugal

17. Beatrice of Castile

4. Afonso IV of Portugal

18. Peter III of Aragon
Peter III of Aragon

9. Elizabeth of Aragon
Elizabeth of Aragon

19. Constance of Sicily

2. Peter I of Portugal

20. Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X of Castile

10. Sancho IV of Castile

21. Violant of Aragon
Violant of Aragon

5. Beatrice of Castile

22. Alfonso of Molina
Alfonso of Molina

11. María de Molina
María de Molina

23. Mayor Alfonso de Meneses

1. JOHN I OF PORTUGAL

12. Martim Lourenço

6. Lourenço Martins

3. Teresa Lourenço

7. Sancha Martins

NOTES

* ^ Rendered as Joam in Archaic Portuguese * ^ A B Spain and Portugal, Graeme Mercer Adam ed., J. D. Morris, 1906 * ^ Prestage, Edgar. "Portugal." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 27 Jul. 2014 * ^ Metcalf, Alida C. (2005). Go-betweens and the Colonization of Brazil: 1500–1600. University of Texas Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-292-71276-6 . * ^ Beasley, C. Raymond (1910). "Prince Henry of Portugal and the African Crusade of the Fifteenth Century". The American Historical Review . 16 (1): 11–23 . JSTOR
JSTOR
1834305 .

REFERENCES

* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John I. of Portugal". Encyclopædia Britannica . 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 443. * Williamson, D. 1988. Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe * Ana Echevarría Arsuaga: Catalina de Lancaster, edit. Nerea, 2002. ISBN 84-89569-79-7 ).

John I of Portugal
John I of Portugal
HOUSE OF AVIZ Cadet branch of the HOUSE OF BURGUNDY BORN: 11 April 1358 DIED: 14 August 1433

REGNAL TITLES

VACANT Title last held by FERDINAND I KING OF PORTUGAL AND THE ALGARVE 1385–1433 Succeeded by Edward

POLITICAL OFFICES

Preceded by Leonor Teles REGENT OF PORTUGAL 1383–1385 VACANT Title next held by ELEANOR OF ARAGON

MILITARY OFFICES

Preceded by Martim Martins de Avelar GRAND MASTER OF THE ORDER OF AVIZ 1364–1387 Succeeded by Fernando Rodrigues de Siqueira

* v * t * e

Monarchs of Portugal

HOUSE OF BURGUNDY (1139–1383)

* Afonso I * Sancho I * Afonso II * Sancho II * Afonso III * Dinis I * Afonso IV * Pedro I * Fernando I * Beatriz I

HOUSE OF AVIZ (1385–1580)

* João I * Duarte I * Afonso V * João II * Manuel I * João III * Sebastião I * Henrique I * António I

HOUSE OF HABSBURG (1581–1640)

* Filipe I * Filipe II * Filipe III

HOUSE OF BRAGANZA (1640–1910)

* João IV * Afonso VI * Pedro II * João V * José I * Maria I with Pedro III * João VI * Pedro IV * Maria II * Miguel I * Maria II with Fernando II * Pedro V * Luís I * Carlos I * Manuel II

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

* v * t * e

House of Aviz
House of Aviz

JOãO I (1385–1433)

SPOUSE(S)

* Philippa of Lancaster

CHILDREN

* Duarte I * Peter, Duke of Coimbra * Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
* Isabella, Duchess of Burgundy * John, Constable of Portugal * Ferdinand the Holy Prince

DUARTE I (1433–1438)

SPOUSE(S)

* Eleanor of Aragon

CHILDREN

* Afonso V * Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
Duke of Viseu
* Eleanor, Holy Roman Empress * Catherine * Joan, Queen of Castile

AFONSO V (1438–1481)

SPOUSE(S)

* Isabel of Coimbra
Coimbra
* Joanna la Beltraneja
Joanna la Beltraneja

CHILDREN

* John, Prince of Portugal * Joanna * João II

JOãO II (1481–1495)

SPOUSE(S)

* Eleanor of Viseu
Eleanor of Viseu

CHILDREN

* Afonso, Prince of Portugal
Afonso, Prince of Portugal

MANUEL I (1495–1521)

SPOUSE(S)

* Isabella of Aragon * Maria of Aragon * Eleanor of Austria
Eleanor of Austria

CHILDREN

* Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal
Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal
* João III * Isabella, Holy Roman Empress * Beatrice, Duchess of Savoy * Louis, Duke of Beja * Ferdinand, Duke of Guarda * Cardinal- Infante
Infante
Afonso * Henrique I * Edward, Duke of Guimarães * Maria, Duchess of Viseu

JOãO III (1521–1557)

SPOUSE(S)

* Catherine of Austria

CHILDREN

* Afonso, Prince of Portugal
Afonso, Prince of Portugal
* Maria Manuela, Princess of Asturias * Manuel, Prince of Portugal * Filipe, Prince of Portugal * João Manuel, Prince of Portugal
João Manuel, Prince of Portugal

SEBASTIãO I (1557–1578)

HENRIQUE I (1578–1580)

Notes The House of Aviz
House of Aviz
is a cadet branch of the House of Burgundy and was succeeded by the House of Habsburg

* v * t * e

Portuguese House of Burgundy
Portuguese House of Burgundy

HENRY, COUNT OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Theresa of León

CHILDREN

* Urraca Henriques, wife of Bermudo Pérez de Traba * Sancha Henriques, Lady of Braganza de Langroiva and Noman * Teresa Henriques * Henrique Henriques * Afonso Henriques * Pedro Henriques

GRANDCHILDREN

* Infante
Infante
Henrique * Infanta Mafalda * Urraca, Queen of Léon * Infanta Sancha * Sancho I * Infante
Infante
João * Theresa, Countess of Flanders and Duchess of Burgundy

AFONSO I OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Mafalda of Savoy, Queen of Portugal

CHILDREN

* Infante
Infante
Henrique * Infanta Mafalda * Urraca, Queen of Léon * Infanta Sancha * Sancho I * Infante
Infante
João * Theresa, Countess of Flanders and Duchess of Burgundy

GRANDCHILDREN

* Theresa, Queen of León * Infanta Sancha, Lady of Alenquer * Infante
Infante
Raimundo * Infanta Constance * Afonso II of Portugal * Peter I, Count of Urgell * Ferdinand, Count of Flanders
Ferdinand, Count of Flanders
* Infante
Infante
Henrique * Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara
Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara
* Berengaria, Queen of Denmark * Mafalda, Queen of Castile

SANCHO I OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Dulce of Aragon
Dulce of Aragon

CHILDREN

* Theresa, Queen of León * Infanta Sancha, Lady of Alenquer * Infante
Infante
Raimundo * Infante
Infante
Constance * Afonso II of Portugal * Peter I, Count of Urgell * Ferdinand, Count of Flanders
Ferdinand, Count of Flanders
* Infante
Infante
Henrique * Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara
Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara
* Berengaria, Queen of Denmark * Mafalda, Queen of Castile

GRANDCHILDREN

* Sancho II * Afonso III * Eleanor, junior Queen of Denmark * Fernando, Lord of Serpa * Infanta Maria

AFONSO II OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Urraca of Castile

CHILDREN

* Sancho II * Afonso III * Eleanor, junior Queen of Denmark * Fernando, Lord of Serpa

GRANDCHILDREN

* Infanta Blanche, Lady of Las Huelgas * Denis I of Portugal * Afonso of Portugal, Lord of Portalegre * Infanta Sancha * Infanta Maria * Infanta Constança * Infante
Infante
Vicente * Infante
Infante
Fernando

SANCHO II OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Mécia Lopes de Haro

NOTES

* Sancho had no children; he was deposed in 1247 and died the following year.

AFONSO III OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Matilda II of Boulogne * Beatrice of Castile

CHILDREN

* Infanta Branca, Lady of Las Huelgas * Denis I of Portugal * Afonso of Portugal, Lord of Portalegre * Infanta Sancha * Infanta Maria * Infanta Constança * Infante
Infante
Vicente * Infante
Infante
Fernando

GRANDCHILDREN

* Constance, Queen of Castile * Afonso IV * Infante
Infante
Afonso, Lord of Leiria * Infanta Maria, Lady of Meneses and Orduña * Infanta Isabel, Lady of Penela * Infanta Constança * Infanta Beatriz, Lady of Lemos

DENIS OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Saint Elizabeth of Portugal

CHILDREN

* Constance, Queen of Castile * Afonso IV

GRANDCHILDREN

* Maria, Queen of Castile * Infante
Infante
Afonso * Infante
Infante
Denis * Peter I * Infanta Isabel * Infante
Infante
João * Eleanor, Queen of Aragon

AFONSO IV OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Beatrice of Castile

CHILDREN

* Maria, Queen of Castile * Infante
Infante
Afonso * Infante
Infante
Denis * Peter I * Infanta Isabel * Infante
Infante
João * Eleanor, Queen of Aragon

GRANDCHILDREN

* Infante
Infante
Luís * Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa * Ferdinand I * Infante
Infante
Afonso * Infanta Beatrice, Countess of Alburquerque * Infante
Infante
John, Duke of Valencia de Campos * Infante
Infante
Denis, Lord of Cifuentes

PETER I OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Blanche of Castile * Constanza Manuel * Inês de Castro
Inês de Castro

CHILDREN

* Infante
Infante
Luís * Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa * Ferdinand I * Infante
Infante
Afonso1 * Infanta Beatrice, Countess of Alburquerque 1 * Infante
Infante
John, Duke of Valencia de Campos 1 * Infante
Infante
Denis, Lord of Cifuentes 1

Illegitimate children included

* John, Grand Master of the Order of Aviz (future John I)

GRANDCHILDREN

* Beatrice, titular Queen of Portugal * Infante
Infante
Pedro * Infante
Infante
Afonso * Infante
Infante
Fernando, Lord of Eça 1 * Infanta Maria Brites, Countess of Valencia de Campos1 * Infanta Isabel Brites, Countess of Cigales and Buelna1 * Infanta Joana, Lady of Buendía1 * Infante
Infante
Fernando, Lord of Cifuentes1 * Infante
Infante
Pedro, Lord of Colmenarejo1 * Infanta Beatrice1

FERDINAND I OF PORTUGAL

SPOUSE(S)

* Leonor Telles de Menezes

CHILDREN

* Beatrice, titular Queen of Portugal * Infante
Infante
Pedro * Infante
Infante
Afonso

Notes 1 the descendants of King Peter I and Ines de Castro's children were recognized as legitimate and were Infantes and Infantas 2 also an Infante
Infante
of Castile

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 73863505 * LCCN : n83021767 * ISNI : 0000 0001 2102 3410 * GND : 100948170 * SUDOC : 028027248 * BNF : cb11994546c (data) * BIBSYS
BIBSYS
: 90407123 * IATH : w6w3992z

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