Joseph Ambrose Sestak Jr. (born December 12, 1951) is an American politician and retired U.S. Navy officer. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented Pennsylvania's 7th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 2007 to 2011 and was the Democratic nominee for the United States Senate in 2010, losing to Republican nominee Pat Toomey. A two-star admiral, he was the highest-ranking military official ever elected to the United States Congress at the time of his election.
Graduating near the top of his class at the United States Naval Academy, Sestak served in the United States Navy for over 30 years and rose to the rank of three-star admiral. He served as the Director for Defense on the National Security Council staff under President Bill Clinton and held a series of operational commands, including commanding the USS George Washington carrier strike group during combat operations in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean in 2002.
He declined to run for reelection in 2010, instead running for the Senate. In the Democratic primary he defeated incumbent Senator Arlen Specter, 54% to 46%. Specter had recently switched from a Republican to a Democrat to ensure that (once Al Franken was seated) Democrats had a filibuster-proof 60-vote majority, and in exchange, Democrats, including President Barack Obama and Governor Ed Rendell, promised to support Specter in 2010, in both the general election and the primary. Through Rendell, Specter also had the strong support of labor, Senator Bob Casey, and almost every Democratic interest group, but Sestak surged in one month from a 21% deficit to an 8% victory.
In the general election, Sestak was defeated by Republican nominee Pat Toomey, 51% to 49%, a margin of 80,229 votes out of almost four million cast. Sestak outperformed the Democratic gubernatorial nominee, who lost by 9%, as well as the four Democratic Representatives who lost reelection by broad margins (Patrick Murphy by 7%, Paul Kanjorski by 9%, Kathy Dahlkemper by 11%, and Chris Carney by 10%).
Sestak was born in Secane, Pennsylvania, the son of Kathleen L. and Joseph Sestak Sr. His grandfather, Martin, came to America from the Slovak village of Dolné Lovčice in 1922, after World War I, while his father was sent to America in 1924 to join Martin. Sestak's father graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1942, and then fought in both the Atlantic and the Pacific during World War II, rising to the rank of captain. He continued his service after the war as an engineering officer at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard.
Sestak attended Cardinal O'Hara High School in Springfield, Pennsylvania, where his mother worked as a math teacher. Sestak was deeply inspired by his father. He has recalled the time Joseph Sr. spent five hours fixing the family car in the freezing cold of a Philadelphia winter:
"I remember going to the window and watching him. And the admiration that I had—just that strong determination of his. Never give in."
Following in his father's footsteps, Sestak was accepted into the U.S. Naval Academy immediately after graduating from high school, during the Vietnam War. In 1974, Sestak graduated second in his class of over 900 midshipmen, with a Bachelor of Science degree in American political systems. Between tours at sea, Sestak earned a Master of Public Administration and a Ph.D. in political economy and government from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1980 and 1984, respectively.
As a surface warfare officer, Sestak served division officer tours as damage control assistant, combat information center officer and weapons officer on the guided missile destroyer USS Richard E. Byrd, and later as weapons officer on the guided missile destroyer USS Hoel. He then served as aide and flag lieutenant to the admiral in charge of United States Navy surface forces in the Pacific.
In January 1986, Sestak became executive officer of the guided missile frigate USS Underwood and was instrumental in the Underwood's winning the coveted battle E and the Battenberg Cup (awarded to the best ship in the Atlantic fleet). He then served in the Politico-Military Assessment Division of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. On August 30, 1991, Sestak took command of the guided missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts, which was named the Atlantic Fleet's best surface combatant in the 1993 Battenberg Cup competition.
In July 1993, Sestak became the head of the Strategy and Concepts Branch in the office of the Chief of Naval Operations. From November 1994 to March 1997, he was the Director for Defense Policy on the National Security Council staff at the White House, where he was responsible for national security and defense strategy, policies, programs, inter-agency and congressional coordination and regional political-military advice. In May 1997, he became the commander of Destroyer Squadron 14.
Sestak then directed the CNO's Strategy and Policy Division (N51), and led the navy's efforts toward the 2000 Quadrennial Defense Review, for which he analyzed the economic value of U.S. defense spending. After September 11th, he became the first director of the Navy Operations Group (Deep Blue), which sought to redefine strategic, operational and budgetary policies in the Global War on Terrorism. He reported directly to the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Admiral Vern Clark, as policy adviser and administrator. Under Clark, Sestak worked to rein in military spending by maximizing fleet efficiency.
In the summer of 2005, Sestak was administratively removed from his position as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Warfare Requirements and Programs (N6/N7), the three-star position in which he had served since 2004. His removal was one of the first changes made by Admiral Michael Mullen when he took over as the new Chief of Naval Operations in July 2005, according to Navy Times.
Sestak was reassigned as a special assistant to the Vice Chief of Naval Operations, and then opted to retire when his three-year-old daughter was diagnosed with malignant brain cancer. Controversy ensued over his departure: it was reported that he was pushed out because he "ruffled feathers" within the Bush Administration and came into conflict with Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld over Sestak's advocacy for spending cuts. In an investigative report by The Philadelphia Inquirer, Chief of Naval Operations Vern Clark stated that Sestak:
"wanted straight talk, and this put him in the crosshairs. People are going to say what they want to say, but [Sestak] challenged people who did not want to be challenged. The guy is courageous, a patriot’s patriot."
Sestak's decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal, two Legion of Merit awards, two Meritorious Service Medals, Joint Service Commendation Medal, three Navy Commendation Medals and the Navy Achievement Medal.
Sestak was the second Democrat to win in Pennsylvania's traditionally Republican 7th congressional district since the Civil War. The race was in the national spotlight, as it was profiled in Time magazine as the harbinger of the national political climate of the 2006 elections and the most-watched swing district in the country.
In 2006, with his daughter's recovery going smoothly, Sestak was motivated to run for Congress by the benefits he received under the United States Military's TRICARE health care program, which gave his daughter the care she needed to treat her brain tumor. Sestak stated that, during his travels to find the best treatment for his daughter, he saw children who didn't have the same quality of care, or couldn't afford the necessary care. Sestak made health-care reform a pillar of his campaign in hopes of giving everyone the same care his family had. He called his congressional service a continuation of his military service, "paying back" the country that took care of his daughter.
Sestak began laying the groundwork for a Congressional run in his home district in Pennsylvania as a Democrat. He was then told he had to first receive the endorsement of the "DCCC." Sestak first thought this meant his hometown's Delaware County Community College, but he was eventually steered toward the correct DCCC, the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, and informed its head, Rahm Emanuel, of his candidacy. Emanuel told Sestak he was not ready for the election. Pennsylvania's 7th district is heavily conservative, Republicans outnumbering Democrats 2:1. Sestak decided to run anyway and turned to his brother, Richard, and sisters, Elizabeth and Margaret, who served as his campaign manager, top fundraiser and treasurer, respectively. Sestak challenged ten-term Republican incumbent Curt Weldon in the race, and proved a capable fundraiser. In the second quarter of 2006, he raised $704,000 to Weldon's $692,000; in the third, $1.14 million to $912,000. As of September 30, 2006, Sestak had $1.53 million cash on hand, while Weldon had $1.12 million in the bank after making a $500,000 TV ad buy that had not started as of the close of the third quarter. Sestak received campaign donations from people around the world, including performer Jimmy Buffett, John Grisham, Bill and Hillary Clinton, and many Naval officers.
A poll released in late September 2006 showed Sestak and Weldon locked in a statistical dead heat. Sestak led Weldon 44-43 among likely voters in a Franklin & Marshall College Keystone Poll released September 29. The poll also found that 49 percent of registered voters in the district felt it was time for change in the district and only 37 percent said Weldon deserved reelection. The numbers suggested Sestak had seriously eroded Weldon's previous lead; a poll conducted in April 2006 by the pro-Democratic Party organization Democracy Corps had Weldon leading 51 percent to 41 percent. On October 6, the nonpartisan Cook Political Report moved the race from "Lean Republican" to "Toss Up." An October 8–10 survey by nonpartisan pollster Constituent Dynamics put Sestak ahead 51–44. On October 13, CQPolitics moved the race from "Leans Republican" to "No Clear Favorite." The race remained a dead heat until late October, when FBI special agents raided the homes of Weldon's daughter and a close friend in connection with a federal corruption probe (though as of 2009 neither Weldon nor his daughter had been charged with a crime). Sestak won by 13 points.
In 2008, Sestak faced Republican nominee Wendell Craig Williams, a U.S. Marine and attorney. Sestak defeated him by a 20-point margin (59.6 percent to 40.4 percent), a full 8 points more than his 2006 margin, considered by many a landslide victory. He did not purchase any advertisements, and his largest expense was lawn signs. Sestak became the second Democrat in the district's history to be reelected.
Sestak wrote various pieces of bipartisan legislation that successfully passed Congress. In 2008, the National Journal identified him as "at the ideological center of the House." House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer named Sestak the most productive freshman member of Congress in 2007. In the 111th United States Congress, Sestak's last term in office, Congress passed more bills written by Sestak than bills written by both of Pennsylvania's senators combined.
Most significantly, Sestak created the House Pediatric Cancer Caucus, which he co-chaired; extended benefits for those seeking work (COBRA) as a part of the JOBS bill; co-wrote the amendment to give small businesses tax credits, as a part of health care reform, and moved the first significant federals funds into autism care and research, nicknamed the "Sestak Amendment."
As Congress's senior veteran, he was an original cosponsor of the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell as well as the repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act. Sestak also heavily advocated ending bailouts to banks in the Wall Street Reform Bill. Sestak voted for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, but lamented that it did not provide enough accountability measures. He also voted for the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, the American Clean Energy and Security Act, and the Affordable Health Care for America Act.
Some of his legislation that generated attention but eventually failed included researching potential adoption and expansion of thorium-based nuclear power, and the first legislation to restrict the effects of Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission.
In 2007, Sestak's campaign was the first federal campaign to create a Facebook Fan Page. Sestak joined Twitter shortly before he was sworn in for his second term. His congressional account made him the first congressperson on Twitter to use it for an official basis. After leaving office, his social networks were merged with his personal accounts, which have been verified.
Sestak is said to have been a prime example of the Colbert Bump. After appearing on "The Colbert Report" in 2008, Sestak spoke of the positive impact of social media and viral video clips of the appearance. He appeared on the show even after Democratic leaders Rahm Emanuel and Nancy Pelosi instructed Democrats not to. After his first appearance, Sestak won his election in a landslide in a Republican majority district, and after appearing again in 2009 as a part of his announcement to run against incumbent Senator Arlen Specter in the 2010 Democratic primary, Sestak won by a surprising eight points. Sestak did not appear on the show during the 2010 general election, which he narrowly lost. The day after the loss, host Stephen Colbert lamented the loss and called Sestak a "friend" on air.
Sestak and his staff were recognized for their successful tenure and he was voted "The Most Productive Member of Congress."
Sestak expressed pride in the constituent services his office provided, handling over 10,000 cases since he was elected. "Every person who has worked for me has been tremendous," he said. His staff serviced four times the constituent cases than that of the average Congressional office, while hosting an average of 15 large summit gatherings in his district each year on key issues.
Some critics were quick to cite Sestak's handling of his Congressional staff as supporting "the perception that he is a taskmaster with a prickly streak." During his first term in office, Sestak employed 61 people as staff in his official congressional office, while comparable representatives employed a total of 28, 26, and 25 staff members, indicating that Sestak had a high turnover rate. The Hill reported that several former staffers said that "aides are expected to work seven days a week, including holidays, often 14 hours each day, going for months without a day off. These are very long hours even by Capitol Hill standards". A former aide added that Sestak's staff turnover was not as much of a drawback as one might expect. "Other Members rely on their staff to keep themselves informed, but with him, it's top-down," the former aide said. "He knows what he wants to accomplish, so in a sense, he just needs people to dictate to." Sestak acknowledged that his aides spend long hours on duty and that the work is "pretty demanding." He added that the staff was becoming stabler over time.
Sestak endorsed Hillary Clinton for president in the 2008 Democratic primaries and served as her campaign national security adviser, specializing in veterans. He told Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report that he trusted her leadership after serving with her in the White House. In addition to being Clinton's foreign policy adviser, Sestak served as her superdelegate and was a surrogate throughout the primary, appearing in several rallies and TV appearances for her, including an ad emphasizing Clinton's foreign policy strengths.
Whispers of a possible U.S. Senate campaign appeared in 2008 after Sestak's landslide victory and $3 million campaign surplus after his reelection. Even before Arlen Specter's announcement to switch parties, draft efforts were organized. However, once Specter switched, nationwide support mounted for a possible senatorial campaign. Most prominent was a straw poll conducted by the Progressive Change Campaign Committee titled "Should a Draft Sestak movement be created to take on Sen. Arlen Specter in the Pennsylvania Democratic primary?" Nationwide, almost 8000 votes were cast with 86 percent responding yes, including 85 percent of Pennsylvanians.
Sestak faced significant opposition to his candidacy from President Obama, the national Democratic Party and the state party. Then-Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell appeared on national television and said, "Joe Sestak should not run for the Senate in the Democratic primary." Sestak responded, "there’s no more kings, there’s no more kingmakers in America," and proceeded to visit all 67 counties of Pennsylvania.
On May 27, 2009, Sestak indicated that he intended to challenge Specter in the 2010 Democratic primary (pending a final family decision because he hadn't "had the time to sit down with my eight-year-old daughter or my wife to make sure that we are all ready to get in"). In June, he was overheard saying "[i]t would take an act of God for me to not get in now". In a Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll conducted May 20–26, Specter led the Democratic primary with 50 percent, with Sestak at 21 percent and 27 percent undecided. Despite the gap, it was noted that Sestak did not have much statewide recognition at the time, as he represented only one of Pennsylvania's 19 congressional districts.
On August 4, Sestak officially announced his candidacy. His brother, Richard, was his campaign manager. In discussing Specter's switch from the Republican to the Democratic Party, Sestak has said that the switch was "100 percent" motivated by politics.
Throughout the primary election, the Obama administration and the Democratic Party campaigned heavily against Sestak, as the President, Vice President, and numerous cabinet members and Senators hosted many fundraisers and events for Specter. On September 19, 2009, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid even shut down the entire United States Senate, as he, the President, and many Senators instead flew to Philadelphia to host a prominent fundraiser for Specter. The event drew controversy for closing federal business and because the money raised during the event would be given to Republicans and conservative PACs that asked for refunds of contributions given before Specter's party switch. Obama's presidential campaign, called "Organizing for America" during the off years, also led efforts against Sestak. Even the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (DSCC) decided to spend the maximum "coordinated funds" for Specter, which differ from most party spending in that the committee can use the money to work with the candidate and supplement his or her ad buys.
In a February 2010 interview, Sestak responded affirmatively when asked if the Obama administration had offered him a high-level White House job if he would end his candidacy for the Senate. Sestak stated that he had quickly refused the offer. When asked to give the specifics of the offer on Midweek Politics with David Pakman, he refused. He continued to offer no further details until the Obama administration released White House Counsel Robert F. Bauer's official report on the incident on May 28, clarifying that White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel enlisted former President Bill Clinton to approach Sestak about potential, uncompensated executive branch positions on senior advisory boards and stating Bauer's official opinion that nothing inappropriate, illegal or unethical had taken place. The official report also stated that Clinton had made the offer on behalf of the Obama administration. After the report's release, Sestak issued a statement essentially confirming it.
Specter held a 20-point lead in polls as late as April 2010, and enjoyed support from the Democratic establishment, including Rendell and Philadelphia Mayor Michael Nutter, with the latter trying to mobilize voters in that city for Specter. A moderate Republican, Specter had switched parties after polls showed him going down to certain defeat against the more conservative Pat Toomey in the Republican primary, a rematch of the 2004 nomination contest where Specter narrowly defeated Toomey. Sestak attacked Specter's switch as "self-interested", and the move was disapproved of by a majority of registered Democrats in Pennsylvania, while a "fervent anti-incumbent mood" prevailed nationwide in the 2010 midterm elections. The Sestak campaign also ran an ad that showing Specter with President George W. Bush, which seriously damaged Specter's standing. Sestak gained momentum in the last days of the primary contest as the turnout in Philadelphia for Specter failed to meet expectations.
At a little after 10 p.m. on May 18, the Associated Press called the primary for Sestak, 53% to 47%.
Many cited the Pennsylvania Senate general election as the "marquee race of 2010," a bellwether of the national stage. After securing the Democratic Party's nomination, calling it "a win for the people, over the establishment, over the status quo, even over Washington, DC," Sestak enjoyed a slight lead in the polls against the Republican Party's candidate, former Congressman and Club for Growth President Pat Toomey. But while Sestak tried to recoup his financial losses after a long primary, Toomey had not faced a competitive primary and aired TV ads much earlier than Sestak. Toomey's effective fundraising and advertising allowed him to rise in the polls, at one point gaining a double-digit lead, causing political pundits to move the race from "Toss Up" to "Lean Republican." Many stopped short of calling the race "Solid Republican" as Sestak had a reputation for campaigning until he "sees the whites of their eyes" and 11th-hour comebacks.
Sestak began airing ads in mid-fall and overcame his deficit in opinion polls, closing to within the margin of error. At the beginning of election night, Sestak led in the exit polls by a large margin, but as more votes were counted and central Pennsylvania's "red T" area began reporting, Toomey caught up. Counting continued until early morning, as the numbers were too close for a winner to be declared. As the percentages stabilized, it became clear Toomey was the winner. Sestak conceded the race to a ballroom full of his supporters at the Radnor Hotel. He lost by 80,000 votes out of four million cast, a margin large enough to avoid a recount. It was the smallest losing margin of any Pennsylvania Democratic candidate in 2010.
The total spent on the race was $20 million, the most of any federal election in 2010. After Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission was decided, conservative Political Action Committees and corporations broke the record for outside spending, airing ads on Toomey's behalf and causing Sestak to be outspent 3 to 1. Sestak responded to this outside spending at Philadelphia Constitution Hall, arguing, "It is we, the people. Not we, the corporations, nor we, Wall Street."
After his defeat, Sestak served as a Distinguished Practice Professor at Carnegie Mellon University's Heinz College. In May 2013 he was named the 2013-14 recipient of the General Omar N. Bradley Chair in Strategic Leadership, a joint initiative among the United States Army War College, Dickinson College and the Pennsylvania State University – Dickinson School of Law. Previous recipients of the Bradley Chair include former Assistant Secretary of State Philip J. Crowley and retired Major General John D. Altenburg.
The same month, Sestak launched an exploratory committee for a rematch with Toomey. He did not officially declare his candidacy as that would contravene the rules of his new appointment. In September 2014, as he campaigned with 2014 gubernatorial nominee Tom Wolf, he said that he would make an official announcement soon. In November 2014, he sent out an email confirming that he would run and officially launched his campaign in March 2015 by walking 422 miles across Pennsylvania from the New Jersey to the Ohio borders.
If Sestak had been nominated to run against Toomey in 2016 it would have been the first rematch for a United States Senate seat in Pennsylvania history. But starting in early 2015 after he refused to hire a party-approved campaign manager, he faced considerable opposition from the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee. Many establishment Democrats also resented Sestak for defeating Arlen Specter in the 2010 primary. National Democrats including President Obama encouraged six candidates to challenge Sestak in the primary, with Katie McGinty emerging as the establishment's preferred nominee, and spent millions in support of McGinty's primary campaign. Sestak's initial lead in polls dwindled and McGinty won the April 26 Democratic primary. The national Democrats' move was largely unpopular with their liberal base, as Sestak consistently polled higher than McGinty in a hypothetical matchup against Toomey. In the most expensive election for a U.S. Senate seat ever, Toomey narrowly defeated McGinty to win reelection.
Sestak is pro-choice, holding a 100 percent rating from NARAL Pro-Choice America and a 0 percent rating from the National Right to Life Committee. NARAL endorsed Sestak over Specter in the 2010 Democratic primary because of Sestak's opposition to a ban on partial-birth abortion. In 2009, Sestak's invitation to speak to students at the Catholic Malvern Preparatory School was rescinded after parents and alumni objected. The cancellation was protested by many Malvern Seniors who staged a class walkout on the day of the scheduled talk.
Sestak supports requiring Congress to offset the cost of all new spending. He also supports expanding middle-class tax cuts and letting the Bush tax cuts expire. He voted for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Stimulus) and the Tax Extenders and Alternative Minimum Tax Relief Act of 2008.
Sestak voted for the Waxman Markey American Clean Energy and Security Act (Cap and Trade) program. He has a 96 percent lifetime rating from League of Conservation Voters and a 100 percent rating from PennEnvironment. Sestak was endorsed by the Sierra Club in his 2006 and 2008 Congressional election campaigns. He voted for the Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation Tax Act of 2007 and the New Direction for Energy Independence, National Security and Consumer Protection Act, and was an original cosponsor of the Climate Stewardship Act (H.R. 620) and the Safe Climate Act.
Sestak credits his support for health care reform as "payback" to the country that gave him and his family health care while he was in the Navy (the TRICARE program), especially for successfully treating his daughter's brain tumor. He supports state-provided preventive care and voted for the CHAMP Act. Sestak originally co-sponsored the Medicare Prescription Drug Price Negotiations Act, the Caroline Pryce Walker Conquer Childhood Cancer Act and co-sponsored H.R. 3800, which establishes a public-private Partnership for Health Care Improvement. He also announced the Pediatric Cancer Caucus, which he will co-chair. He is also a member of the Autism Caucus, Diabetes Caucus, 21st Century Health Care Caucus, Congressional Mental Health Caucus, Nursing Caucus, and Cystic Fibrosis Caucus.
Sestak is an original cosponsor of the Employee Free Choice Act and supports the original version that includes card check. He created the Labor Advisory Committee to address the challenges facing working families in his district.
Sestak voted to allow states to regulate medical marijuana by voting for the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2008, which would have barred the Department of Justice from preventing the implementation of state laws regarding the distribution, possession, and cultivation of medical marijuana. The bill was defeated 165–262.
As a candidate, Sestak campaigned to end the war in Iraq. Once in office in 2007, he supported Congressional efforts to redeploy forces but also voted for the war supplemental the House constructed after President Bush's veto, a bill many critics of the Bush administration called a "blank check" for the continuation of administration policies in the Middle East. In response, Sestak and other veterans argued that they should not punish soldiers for the President's actions, and supported the bill in order to give the armed forces adequate protection and equipment.
Sestak supported the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which critics contended continued the Bush administration's policy of warrantless wiretapping and provided retroactive immunity to telecommunications companies who participated in the National Security Agency's "terrorist surveillance program."
Sestak supported the deployment of additional troops to Afghanistan in late 2009, and military actions such as drone strikes in northwest Pakistan. He supports the gradual drawdown of troops from Iraq.
Sestak was an opponent of "don't ask, don't tell", the policy that excludes gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the military, saying that the policy means "[w]e're absolutely not adhering to the ideals of our nation". Sestak was instrumental in bringing to light a two-year pattern of abuse, including anti-gay hazing, that took place within a Military Working Dog unit stationed in Bahrain, sparking an investigation that turned up nearly 100 instances of abuse.
|Republican||Curt Weldon (incumbent)||114,056||43.6||-15.2|
|Democratic gain from Republican||Swing|
|Democratic||Joe Sestak (incumbent)||209,955||59.6||+3.2|
|Republican||Wendell Craig Williams||142,362||40.4||N/A|
|Democratic||Arlen Specter (incumbent)||487,217||46.1|
|Republican gain from Democratic||Swing|
As of 2017, Sestak was president of FIRST Global, a nonprofit founded by Dean Kamen with the objective of promoting STEM education and careers in the developing world through Olympics-style robotics competitions.
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|U.S. House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 7th congressional district
|Party political offices|
|Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania