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Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
(浄土真宗, "The True Essence of the Pure Land Teaching"[1]), also known as Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
or True Pure Land Buddhism, is a school of Pure Land Buddhism. It was founded by the former Tendai Japanese monk Shinran. Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
is considered the most widely practiced branch of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Shinran
Shinran
(founder) 1.2 Revival and formalization

2 Doctrine

2.1 Nembutsu 2.2 The Pure Land 2.3 Shinjin

3 Tannishō 4 In Japanese culture 5 Outside Japan 6 Shin patriarchs 7 Traditional branch lineages 8 Major holidays 9 Major modern Shin figures 10 See also 11 References 12 Literature 13 External links

History[edit] Shinran
Shinran
(founder)[edit]

Standing portrait of the founder of the Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
school of Pure Land Buddhism
Buddhism
located at Nishi Honganji, Kyoto. The painting has been designated as National Treasure of Japan

Shinran
Shinran
(1173–1263) lived during the late-Heian early-Kamakura period (1185–1333), a time of turmoil for Japan
Japan
when the emperor was stripped of political power by the shōguns. Shinran's family had a high rank at the Imperial court in Kyoto, but given the times, many aristocratic families were sending sons off to be Buddhist monks instead of having them participate in the Imperial government. When Shinran
Shinran
was nine (1181), he was sent by his uncle to Mount Hiei, where he was ordained as a śrāmaṇera in the Tendai
Tendai
sect. Over time, Shinran
Shinran
became disillusioned with how Buddhism
Buddhism
was practiced, foreseeing a decline in the potency and practicality of the teachings espoused. Shinran
Shinran
left his role as a dosō ("practice-hall monk") at Mount Hiei and undertook a 100-day retreat at Rokkaku-dō
Rokkaku-dō
in Kyoto, where he had a dream on the 95th day. In this dream, Prince Shōtoku
Prince Shōtoku
appeared to him, espousing a pathway to enlightenment through verse. Following the retreat, in 1201, Shinran
Shinran
left Mount Hiei
Mount Hiei
to study under Hōnen
Hōnen
for the next six years. Hōnen
Hōnen
(1133–1212) another ex- Tendai
Tendai
monk, left the tradition in 1175 to found his own sect, the Jōdo-shū
Jōdo-shū
or "Pure Land School". From that time on, Shinran
Shinran
considered himself, even after exile, a devout disciple of Hōnen
Hōnen
rather than a founder establishing his own, distinct Pure Land school. During this period, Hōnen
Hōnen
taught the new nembutsu-only practice to many people in Kyoto
Kyoto
society and amassed a substantial following but also came under increasing criticism by the Buddhist establishment there. Among his strongest critics was the monk Myōe
Myōe
and the temples of Enryaku-ji
Enryaku-ji
and Kōfuku-ji. The latter continued to criticize Hōnen and his followers even after they pledged to behave with good conduct and to not slander other Buddhists.[2] In 1207, Hōnen's critics at Kōfuku-ji
Kōfuku-ji
persuaded Emperor Toba II to forbid Hōnen
Hōnen
and his teachings after two of Imperial ladies-in-waiting converted to his practices.[2] Hōnen
Hōnen
and his followers, among them Shinran, were forced into exile and four of Hōnen's disciples were executed. Shinran
Shinran
was given a lay name, Yoshizane Fujii, by the authorities but called himself Gutoku "Stubble-headed One" instead and moved to Echigo Province
Echigo Province
(today Niigata Prefecture).[3] It was during this exile that Shinran
Shinran
cultivated a deeper understanding of his own beliefs based on Hōnen's Pure Land teachings. In 1210 he married Eshinni, the daughter of an Echigo aristocrat. Shinran
Shinran
and Eshinni had several children. His eldest son, Zenran, was alleged to have started a heretical sect of Pure Land Buddhism
Buddhism
through claims that he received special teachings from his father. Zenran demanded control of local monto (lay follower groups), but after writing a stern letter of warning, Shinran
Shinran
disowned him in 1256, effectively ending Zenran's legitimacy. In 1211 the nembutsu ban was lifted and Shinran
Shinran
was pardoned, but by 1212, Hōnen
Hōnen
had died in Kyoto. Shinran
Shinran
never saw Hōnen
Hōnen
following their exile. In the year of Hōnen's death, Shinran
Shinran
set out for the Kantō region, where he established a substantial following and began committing his ideas to writing. In 1224 he wrote his most significant book, the Kyogyoshinsho ("The True Teaching, Practice, Faith and Attainment of the Pure Land"), which contained excerpts from the Three Pure Land sutras and the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra
Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra
along with his own commentaries[3] and the writings of the Jodo Shinshu Patriarchs Shinran
Shinran
drew inspiration from. In 1234, at the age of sixty, Shinran
Shinran
left Kantō for Kyoto
Kyoto
(Eshinni stayed in Echigo and she may have outlived Shinran
Shinran
by several years), where he dedicated the rest of his years to writing. It was during this time he wrote the Wasan, a collection of verses summarizing his teachings for his followers to recite. Shinran's daughter, Kakushinni, came to Kyoto
Kyoto
with Shinran, and cared for him in his final years and his mausoleum later became Hongan-ji, "Temple of the Original Vow". Kakushinni was instrumental in preserving Shinran's teachings after his death, and the letters she received and saved from her mother, Eshinni, provide critical biographical information regarding Shinran's earlier life. These letters are currently preserved in the Nishi Hongan temple in Kyoto. Shinran
Shinran
died at the age of 90 in 1263.[3] Revival and formalization[edit] Following Shinran's death, the lay Shin monto slowly spread through the Kantō and the northeastern seaboard. Shinran's descendents maintained themselves as caretakers of Shinran's gravesite and as Shin teachers, although they continued to be ordained in the Tendai
Tendai
School. Some of Shinran's disciples founded their own schools of Shin Buddhism, such as the Bukko-ji and Kosho-ji, in Kyoto. Early Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
did not truly flourish until the time of Rennyo (1415–1499), who was 8th in descent from Shinran. Through his charisma and proselytizing, Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
was able to amass a greater following and grow in strength. In the 16th-century, during the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
the political power of Honganji led to several conflicts between it and the warlord Oda Nobunaga, culminating in a ten-year conflict over the location of the Ishiyama Hongan-ji, which Nobunaga coveted because of its strategic value. So strong did the sect become that in 1602, through mandate of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main temple Hongan-ji
Hongan-ji
in Kyoto
Kyoto
was broken off into two sects to curb the its power. These two sects, the Nishi (Western) Honganji and the Higashi (Eastern) Honganji, exist separately to this day. During the time of Shinran, followers would gather in informal meeting houses called dojo, and had an informal liturgical structure. However, as time went on, this lack of cohesion and structure caused Jōdo Shinshū to gradually lose its identity as a distinct sect, as people began mixing other Buddhist practices with Shin ritual. One common example was the Mantra of Light
Mantra of Light
popularized by Myōe
Myōe
and Shingon Buddhism. Other Pure Land Buddhist practices, such as the nembutsu odori[4] or "dancing nembutsu" as practiced by the followers of Ippen and the Ji School, may have also been adopted by early Shin Buddhists. Rennyo
Rennyo
ended these practices by formalizing much of the Jōdo Shinshū ritual and liturgy, and revived the thinning community at the Honganji temple while asserting newfound political power. Rennyo
Rennyo
also proselytized widely among other Pure Land sects, and consolidated most of the smaller Shin sects. Today, there are still ten distinct sects of Jōdo Shinshū, Nishi Hongan-ji
Hongan-ji
and Higashi Hongan-ji
Hongan-ji
being the two largest. Rennyo
Rennyo
is generally credited by Shin Buddhists for reversing the stagnation of the early Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
community, and is considered the "Second Founder" of Jōdo Shinshū. His portrait picture, along with Shinran's, are present on the onaijin (altar area) of most Jōdo Shinshū temples. However, Rennyo
Rennyo
has also been criticized by some Shin scholars for his engagement in medieval politics and his alleged divergences from Shinran's original thought. After Rennyo, Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
was still persecuted in some regions. Secret Shin groups called kakure nenbutsu would meet in mountain caves to perform chanting and traditional rituals. Following the unification of Japan
Japan
during the Edo period, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism
Buddhism
adapted, along with the other Japanese Buddhist schools, into providing memorial and funeral services for its registered members under the Danka system, which was legally required by the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
in order to prevent the spread of Christianity in Japan. The danka seido system continues to exist today, although not as strictly as in the premodern period, causing Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism
to also be labeled as "Funeral Buddhism" since it became the primary function of Buddhist temples. The Honganji also created an impressive academic tradition, which led to the founding of Ryukoku University
Ryukoku University
in Kyoto
Kyoto
and formalized many of the Jōdo Shinshū traditions which are still followed today. Following the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
and the subsequent persecution of Buddhism
Buddhism
(haibutsu kishaku) of the late 1800s due to a revived nationalism and modernization, Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
managed to survive intact due to the devotion of its monto. During World War II, the Honganji, as with the other Japanese Buddhist schools, was compelled to support the policies of the military government and the cult of State Shinto. It subsequently apologized for its wartime actions.[5] In contemporary times, Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
is one of the most widely followed forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan, although like other schools, it faces challenges from many popular Japanese new religions
Japanese new religions
or shinshinkyō which emerged following World War II
World War II
as well as from the growing secularization and materialism of Japanese society All ten schools of Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
Buddhism
Buddhism
commemorated the 750th memorial of their founder, Shinran, in 2011 in Kyoto. Doctrine[edit] Shinran's thought was strongly influenced by the doctrine of Mappō, a largely Mahayana
Mahayana
eschatology which claims humanity's ability to listen to and practice the Buddha- Dharma
Dharma
(the Buddhist teachings) deteriorates over time and loses effectiveness in bringing individual practitioners closer to Buddhahood. This belief was particularly widespread in early medieval China
China
and in Japan
Japan
at the end of the Heian. Shinran, like his mentor Hōnen, saw the age he was living in as being a degenerate one where beings cannot hope to be able to extricate themselves from the cycle of birth and death through their own power, or jiriki (自力). For both Hōnen
Hōnen
and Shinran, all conscious efforts towards achieving enlightenment and realizing the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
ideal were contrived and rooted in selfish ignorance; for humans of this age are so deeply rooted in karmic evil as to be incapable of developing the truly altruistic compassion that is requisite to becoming a Bodhisattva. Due to his awareness of human limitations, Shinran
Shinran
advocates reliance on tariki, or other power (他力)—the power of Amitābha
Amitābha
(Japanese Amida) made manifest in his Primal Vow—in order to attain liberation. Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
can therefore be understood as a "practiceless practice," for there are no specific acts to be performed such as there are in the "Path of Sages" (the other Buddhist schools of the time that advocated 'jiriki' ['self-power']). In Shinran's own words, Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
is considered the "Easy Path" because one is not compelled to perform many difficult, and often esoteric, practices in order to attain higher and higher mental states. Nembutsu[edit] Main article: nianfo As in other Pure Land Buddhist schools, Amitābha
Amitābha
is a central focus of the Buddhist practice, and Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
expresses this devotion through a chanting practice called nembutsu, or " Mindfulness of the Buddha [Amida]. The nembutsu is simply reciting the phrase Namu Amida Butsu ("I take refuge in Amitābha
Amitābha
Buddha"). Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
is not the first school of Buddhism
Buddhism
to practice the nembutsu but it is interpreted in a new way according to Shinran. The nembutsu becomes understood as an act that expresses gratitude to Amitābha; furthermore, it is evoked in the practitioner through the power of Amida's unobstructed compassion. Therefore, in Shin Buddhism, the nembutsu is not considered a practice, nor does it generate karmic merit. It is simply an affirmation of one's gratitude. Indeed, given that the nembutsu is the Name, when one utters the Name, that is Amitābha
Amitābha
calling to the devotee. This is the essence of the Name-that-calls.[6] Note that this is in contrast to the related Jōdo-shū, which promoted a combination of repetition of the nembutsu and devotion to Amitābha
Amitābha
as a means to birth in his pure land of Sukhavati. It also contrasts with other Buddhist schools in China
China
and Japan, where nembutsu recitation was part of a more elaborate ritual. The Pure Land[edit] In another departure from more traditional Pure Land schools, Shinran advocated that birth in the Pure Land was settled in the midst of life. At the moment one entrusts oneself to Amitābha, one becomes 'established in the stage of the truly settled'. This is equivalent to the stage of non-retrogression along the bodhisattva path. Many Pure Land Buddhist schools in the time of Shinran
Shinran
felt that birth in the Pure Land was a literal rebirth that occurred only upon death, and only after certain preliminary rituals. Elaborate rituals were used to guarantee rebirth in the Pure Land, including a common practice wherein the fingers were tied by strings to a painting or image of Amida Buddha. From the perspective of Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
such rituals actually betray a lack of trust in Amida Buddha, relying on jiriki ("self-power"), rather than the tariki or "other-power" of Amida Buddha. Such rituals also favor those who could afford the time and energy to practice them or possess the necessary ritual objects—another obstacle for lower-class individuals. For Shinran Shonin, who closely followed the thought of the Chinese monk Tan-luan, the Pure Land is synonymous with nirvana. Shinjin[edit] The goal of the Shin path, or at least the practicer's present life, is the attainment of shinjin in the Other Power of Amida. Shinjin is sometimes translated as "faith", but this does not capture the nuances of the term and it is more often simply left untranslated.[7] The receipt of shinjin comes about through the renunciation of self effort in attaining enlightenment through tariki. It should be noted, however, that shinjin arises from jinen (自然 naturalness, spontaneous working of the Vow) and cannot be achieved solely through conscious effort. One is letting go of conscious effort in a sense, and simply trusting Amida Buddha, and the nembutsu. For Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
practitioners, shinjin develops over time through "deep hearing" (monpo) of Amitābha's call of the nembutsu. According to Shinran, "to hear" means "that sentient beings, having heard how the Buddha's Vow arose - its origin and fulfillment -, are altogether free of doubt."[8] Jinen also describes the way of naturalness whereby Amitābha's infinite light illumines and transforms the deeply rooted karmic evil of countless rebirths into good karma. It is of note that such evil karma is not destroyed but rather transformed: Shin stays within the Mahayana
Mahayana
tradition's understanding of śūnyatā and understands that samsara and nirvana are not separate. Once the practicer's mind is united with Amitābha
Amitābha
and Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
gifted to the practicer through shinjin, the practicer attains the state of non-retrogression, whereupon after his death it is claimed he will achieve instantaneous and effortless enlightenment. He will then return to the world as a Bodhisattva, that he may work towards the salvation of all beings. Tannishō[edit] The Tannishō is a 13th-century book of recorded sayings attributed to Shinran, transcribed with commentary by Yuien-bo, a disciple of Shinran. The word Tannishō is a phrase which means "A record [of the words of Shinran] set down in lamentation over departures from his [Shinran's] teaching". While it is a short text, it is one of the most popular because practitioners see Shinran
Shinran
in a more informal setting. For centuries, the text was almost unknown to the majority of Shin Buddhists. In the 15th century, Rennyo, Shinran's descendent, wrote of it, "This writing is an important one in our tradition. It should not be indiscriminately shown to anyone who lacks the past karmic good". Rennyo
Rennyo
Shonin's personal copy of the Tannishō is the earliest extant copy. Kiyozawa Manshi (1863–1903) revitalized interest in the Tannishō, which indirectly helped to spawn the Ohigashi schism of 1962.[3] In Japanese culture[edit] Earlier schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
that came to Japan, including Tendai
Tendai
and Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism, gained acceptance because of honji suijaku practices. For example, a kami could be seen as a manifestation of a bodhisattva. It is common even to this day to have Shinto shrines within the grounds of Buddhist temples. By contrast, Shinran
Shinran
had distanced Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
from Shinto because he believed that many Shinto practices contradicted the notion of reliance on Amitābha. However, Shinran
Shinran
taught that his followers should still continue to worship and express gratitude to kami, other buddhas and bodhisattvas despite the fact that Amitābha
Amitābha
should be the primary buddha that Pure Land believers focus on. [9] Furthermore, under the influence of Rennyo
Rennyo
and other priests, Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
later fully accepted honji suijaku beliefs and the concept of kami as manifestations of Amida Buddha and other buddhas and bodhisattvas.[10] Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
traditionally had an uneasy relationship with other Buddhist schools because it discouraged the majority of traditional Buddhist practices except the nembutsu. Relations were particularly hostile between the Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
and Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism. On the other hand, newer Buddhist schools in Japan, such as Zen, tended to have a more positive relationship and occasionally shared practices, although this is still controversial. In popular lore, Rennyo, the 8th Head Priest of the Hongan-ji
Hongan-ji
sect, was good friends with the famous Zen master Ikkyū. Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
drew much of its support from lower social classes in Japan
Japan
who could not devote the time or education to other esoteric Buddhist practices or merit-making activities. Outside Japan[edit] During the 19th century, Japanese immigrants began arriving in Hawaii, the United States, Canada, Mexico and South America (especially in Brazil). Many immigrants to North America came from regions in which Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
was predominant, and maintained their religious identity in their new country. The Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii, the Buddhist Churches of America and the Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Temples of Canada (formerly Buddhist Churches of Canada) are several of the oldest Buddhist organizations outside of Asia. Jōdo Shinshū continues to remain relatively unknown outside the ethnic community because of the history of Japanese American and Japanese-Canadian internment during World War II, which caused many Shin temples to focus on rebuilding the Japanese-American Shin sangha rather than encourage outreach to non-Japanese. Today, many Shinshū temples outside Japan
Japan
continue to have predominantly ethnic Japanese members, although interest in Buddhism
Buddhism
and intermarriage contribute to a more diverse community. There are also active Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
sanghas in the United Kingdom,[11] Europe, Australia, and Africa, with members of diverse ethnicities.[citation needed] The practice of Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
ritual and liturgy may be very different outside Japan, as many temples, like ones in Hawai'i and the US, now use English as the primary language for Dharma
Dharma
talks and there are attempts to create an English-language chanting liturgy. In the United States, Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
temples have also served as refuges from racism and as places to learn about and celebrate Japanese language and culture. Shin patriarchs[edit]

Jodo shinshu buddhist altar with the Seven Masters enshrined.

The "Seven Patriarchs of Jōdo Shinshū" are seven Buddhist monks venerated in the development of Pure Land Buddhism
Pure Land Buddhism
as summarized in the Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
hymn Shoshinge. Shinran
Shinran
quoted the writings and commentaries of the Patriarchs in his major work, the Kyogyoshinsho, to bolster his teachings. The Seven Patriarchs, in chronological order, and their contributions are:[12][13][14][15]

Name Dates Japanese Name Country of Origin Contribution

Nagarjuna 150–250 Ryūju (龍樹) India First one to advocate the Pure Land as a valid Buddhist path.

Vasubandhu ca. 4th century Tenjin (天親) or Seshin (世親) India Expanded on Nagarjuna's Pure Land teachings, commentaries on Pure Land sutras.

Tan-luan 476–542(?) Donran (曇鸞) China Developed the six-syllable nembutsu chant commonly recited, emphasized the role of Amitabha Buddha's vow to rescue all beings.

Daochuo 562–645 Dōshaku (道綽) China Promoted the concept of "easy path" of the Pure Land in comparison to the tradition "path of the sages". Taught the efficacy of the Pure Land path in the latter age of the Dharma.

Shandao 613–681 Zendō (善導) China Stressed the importance of verbal recitation of Amitabha Buddha's name.

Genshin 942–1017 Genshin
Genshin
(源信) Japan Popularized Pure Land practices for the common people, with emphasis on salvation.

Hōnen 1133–1212 Hōnen
Hōnen
(法然) Japan Developed a specific school of Buddhism
Buddhism
devoted solely to rebirth in the Pure Land, further popularized recitation of name of Amitabha Buddha in order to attain rebirth in the Pure Land.

In Jodo Shinshu temples, they seven masters are usually collectivity enshrined on the far left. Traditional branch lineages[edit]

Hongan-ji
Hongan-ji
School ( Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
Hompa Honganji-ha) a.k.a. 'Nishi Hongan-ji' Otani-ha
Otani-ha
School ( Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
Otani-ha) a.k.a. 'Higashi Hongan-ji' Takada School Bukkō-ji
Bukkō-ji
School Kosho-ji School Kibe-ji School Izumo-ji School Jōshō-ji School

Major holidays[edit] The following holidays are typically observed in Jōdo Shinshū temples:[16]

Holiday Japanese Name Date

New Year's Day Service Gantan'e January 1

Memorial Service for Shinran Hōonkō November 28, or January 9–16

Spring Equinox Higan March 17–23

Buddha's Birthday Hanamatsuri April 8

Birthday of Shinran Gotan'e May 20–21

Bon Festival Urabon'e around August 15, based on solar calendar

Autumnal Equinox Higan September 20–26

Bodhi
Bodhi
Day Rohatsu December 8

New Year's Eve Service Joyae December 31

Major modern Shin figures[edit]

Nanjo Bunyu (1848–1927) Saichi Asahara (1850-1932) Kasahara Kenju (1852–1883) Kiyozawa Manshi (1863–1903) Jokan Chikazumi (1870–1941) Eikichi Ikeyama (1873–1938) Soga Ryojin (1875–1971) Otani Kozui (1876–1948) Akegarasu Haya
Akegarasu Haya
(1877–1954) Kaneko Daiei (1881–1976) Zuiken Saizo Inagaki (1885–1981) Takeko Kujo (1887–1928) William Montgomery McGovern (1897–1964) Rijin Yasuda (1900–1982) Shuichi Maida (1906–1967) Harold Stewart
Harold Stewart
(1916-1995) Alfred Bloom (1926–present) Zuio Hisao Inagaki (1929–present) Shojun Bando (1932–2004) Taitetsu Unno (1935–2014) Eiken Kobai (1941–present) Dennis Hirota (1946–present)

See also[edit]

Ohigashi schism Hongan-ji Kenryo Kanamatsu

References[edit]

^ "The Essentials of Jodo Shinshu from the Nishi Honganji
Nishi Honganji
website". Retrieved 2016-02-25.  ^ a b "JODO SHU English". Jodo.org. Retrieved 2013-09-27.  ^ a b c d Popular Buddhism
Buddhism
In Japan: Shin Buddhist Religion & Culture by Esben Andreasen / University of Hawaii Press 1998, ISBN 0-8248-2028-2 ^ Moriarty, Elisabeth (1976). Nembutsu Odori, Asian Folklore Studies Vol. 35, No. 1 , pp. 7-16 ^ Zen
Zen
at War (2nd ed.) by Brian Daizen Victoria / Rowman and Littlefield 2006, ISBN 0-7425-3926-1 ^ Deep Religious Pluralism - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2013-09-27.  ^ Hisao Inagaki (2008). ”Questions and Answers on Shinjin", Takatsuki, Japan. See Question 1: What is shinjin? ^ Collected Works of Shinran, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, p. 112 ^ Lee, Kenneth Doo. (2007). The Prince and the Monk: Shotoku Worship in Shinran's Buddhism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791470220. ^ Dobbins, James C. (1989). Jodo Shinshu: Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
in Medieval Japan. Bloomington, Illinois: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253331861. See especially pp. 142-143. ^ "Front page". Three Wheels Shin Buddhist House. Retrieved 2 May 2015. In 1994 Shogyoji established Three Wheels ('Sanrin shoja' in Japanese), in London, in response to the deep friendship between a group of English and Japanese people. Since then the Three Wheels community has grown considerably and serves as the hub of a lively multi-cultural Shin Buddhist Samgha.  ^ Watts, Jonathan; Tomatsu, Yoshiharu (2005). Traversing the Pure Land Path. Jodo Shu Press. ISBN 488363342X.  ^ Buswell, Robert; Lopez, Donald S. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3.  ^ "Buddhas, bodhisattvas, and teachers". Archived from the original on August 2, 2013. Retrieved 2015-05-26.  ^ "The Pure Land Lineage". Retrieved 2015-05-26.  ^ "Calendar of Observances, Nishi Hongwanji". Retrieved 2015-05-29. 

Literature[edit]

Bandō, Shojun; Stewart, Harold; Rogers, Ann T. and Minor L.; trans. (1996) : Tannishō: Passages Deploring Deviations of Faith and Rennyo
Rennyo
Shōnin Ofumi: The Letters of Rennyo, Berkeley: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. ISBN 1-886439-03-6 Bloom, Alfred (1989). Introduction to Jodo Shinshu, Pacific World Journal, New Series Number 5, 33-39 Dessi, Ugo (2010), Social Behavior and Religious Consciousness among Shin Buddhist Practitioners, Japanese Journal of Religious Siudies, 37 (2), 335-366 Dobbins, James C. (1989). Jodo Shinshu: Shin Buddhism
Buddhism
in Medieval Japan. Bloomington, Illinois: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253331861; OCLC 470742039 Inagaki Hisao, trans., Stewart, Harold (2003). The Three Pure Land Sutras, 2nd ed., Berkeley, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. ISBN 1-886439-18-4 Lee, Kenneth Doo (2007). The Prince and the Monk: Shotoku Worship in Shinran's Buddhism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791470220. Matsunaga, Daigan, Matsunaga, Alicia (1996), Foundation of Japanese Buddhism, Vol. 2: The Mass Movement (Kamakura and Muromachi Periods), Los Angeles; Tokyo: Buddhist Books International, 1996. ISBN 0-914910-28-0 Takamori/Ito/Akehashi (2006). "You Were Born For A Reason: The Real Purpose of Life," Ichimannendo Publishing Inc; ISBN 9780-9790-471-07 S. Yamabe and L. Adams Beck (trans.): Buddhist Psalms of Shinran Shonin, John Murray, London 1921. e-book Galen Amstutz, Review of Fumiaki, Iwata, Kindai Bukkyō to seinen: Chikazumi Jōkan to sono jidai and Ōmi Toshihiro, Kindai Bukkyō no naka no Shinshū: Chikazumi Jōkan to kyūdōshatachi, in H-Japan, H-Net Reviews July, 2017.

External links[edit]

List of Jodo Shinshu Organisations with Links Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, Dharma
Dharma
for the Modern Age A basic portal with links. Homepage for Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha Hongwanji International Center - English Buddhist Churches of America Includes basic information, shopping for Shin Buddhist ritual implements, and links to various Shin churches in America. Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Temples of Canada
Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Temples of Canada
National website, includes links and addresses of Shin temples throughout Canada. Institute of Buddhist Studies: Seminary and Graduate School Jodo Shinshu Honganji-ha. Shinran
Shinran
Works The collected works of Shinran, including the Kyōgōshinshō. nembutsu.info: Journal of Shin Buddhism Notes on the Nembutsu: Reflections on the Wasan of Shinran
Shinran
Shonin

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

Category Portal

Authority control

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