HOME
The Info List - Joachim Murat


--- Advertisement ---



Joachim-Napoléon Murat (French pronunciation: ​[ʒoakim napoleɔ̃ myʁa]; born Joachim Murat; Italian: Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; German: Joachim- Napoleon
Napoleon
Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France
Marshal of France
and Admiral of France
Admiral of France
under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg
Grand Duke of Berg
from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples
King of Naples
from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring, brave, and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy
Dandy
King".

Contents

1 Early life 2 French Revolutionary Wars

2.1 13 Vendémiaire 2.2 Italian and Egyptian campaigns

3 Napoleonic wars 4 Death 5 Coats of arms 6 Titles and styles 7 Children 8 Relatives 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life[edit] Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
was born on 25 March 1767 in La Bastide-Fortunière,[1] (renamed Labastide-Murat
Labastide-Murat
after its renowned citizen), in Guyenne (present-day Lot department of France) to Pierre Murat-Jordy, (d. 27 July 1799), an affluent farmer and an innkeeper,[2] and his wife Jeanne Loubières (La Bastide Fortunière, b. 1722 – La Bastide Fortunière, d. 11 March 1806), daughter of Pierre Loubières and of his wife Jeanne Viellescazes. Pierre Murat-Jordy was the son of Guillaume Murat (1692–1754) and his wife Marguerite Herbeil (d. 1755); paternal grandson of Pierre Murat, born in 1634, and wife Catherine Badourès, who died in 1697; and maternal grandson of Bertrand Herbeil and wife Anne Roques. Joachim Murat's parents intended that he pursue a career in the church, and he was taught by the parish priest, after which he won a place at the College of Saint-Michel at Cahors
Cahors
when he was ten years old. He then entered seminary of the Lazarists at Toulouse, but when a regiment of cavalry passed through the city in 1787, he ran away from seminary and enlisted on 23 February 1787 in the Chasseurs des Ardennes, which the following year became known as the Chasseurs de Champagne, also known as the 12th Chasseurs. In 1789, an affair forced him to resign, and he returned to his family, becoming a clerk to a haberdasher at Saint-Ceré.[3] French Revolutionary Wars[edit] Further information: French Revolutionary Wars

Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
as a sous-lieutenant of the 12th Chasseur-à-cheval; portrait by Jean-Baptiste Paulin Guérin

By 1790, he had joined the National Guard, and when the Fête of the Nation was organized on 14 July 1790, the Canton of Montaucon sent Murat as its representative. Then he became reinstated into his old regiment. Part of the 12th Chasseurs had been sent to Montmédy to protect the royal family on its flight to Varennes, meaning regiment had to defend its honor and loyalty to the Republic; Murat and the regiment's adjutant made a speech to the assembly at Toul to that effect.[4] In 1792, he joined the Constitutional Guard, but left it that same year; his departure was attributed to various causes, including his constant quarreling and dueling, although he claimed he left to avoid punishment for being absent without leave.[5] An ardent Republican, Murat wrote to his brother in 1791 stating he was preoccupied with revolutionary affairs and would sooner die than cease to be a patriot. Upon his departure from the Constitutional Guard, he reported to the Committee of Surveillance of the Constitutional Assembly that the Guard was guilty of treason and that his Lieutenant Colonel, a man named Descours, had encouraged him to serve in the émigré army of Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé, then stationed in Koblenz.[6] This garnered for him the support of the Republicans, for he rejoined his former regiment and was promoted to Corporal in April of that year, and to Sergeant in May.[7] By 19 November 1792, he was 25 years old and elated at his latest promotion. As a sous-lieutenant, he thought, his family must recognize that he had no great tendency for the priesthood, and he was hoping to prove that he had not been wrong in wishing to be a soldier. One of the Ministers had accused him of being an aristocrat, confusing him with the noble family of Murat d'Auvergne, an accusation that continued to haunt him for the next several years.[8] 13 Vendémiaire[edit] Further information: 13 Vendémiaire In the autumn of 1795, three years after King Louis XVI of France
France
was deposed, royalist and counter-revolutionaries organised an armed uprising. On 3 October, General Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, who was stationed in Paris, was named commander of the French National Convention's defending forces. This constitutional convention, after a long period of emergency rule, was striving to establish a more stable and permanent government in the uncertain period after the Reign of Terror. Bonaparte tasked Murat with the gathering of artillery from a suburb outside the control of the government's forces. Murat managed to take the cannons of the Camp des Sablons and transport them to the centre of Paris
Paris
while avoiding the rioters. The use of these cannons – the famous "whiff of grapeshot" – on 5 October allowed Bonaparte to save the members of the National Convention.[9] For this success, Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
was made chef de brigade (colonel) and thereafter remained one of Napoleon's best officers. Italian and Egyptian campaigns[edit] Further information: Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars and French campaign in Egypt and Syria

General Murat at the battle of Abukir, where 11,000 Ottoman soldiers drowned in the Nile

In 1796, with the situation in the capital and government apparently stabilised and the war going poorly (See also: French Revolutionary Wars), Napoleon
Napoleon
lobbied to join the armies attempting to secure the revolution against the invading monarchist forces. Murat then went with Bonaparte to northern Italy, initially as his aide-de-camp, and was later named commander of the cavalry during the many campaigns against the Austrians and their allies. These forces were waging war on France
France
and seeking to restore a monarchy in revolutionary France. His valour and his daring cavalry charges later earned him the rank of général in these important campaigns, the battles of which became famous as Bonaparte constantly used speed of maneuver to fend off and eventually defeat individually superior opposing armies closing in on the French forces from several directions. Thus, Murat's skills in no small part helped establish Bonaparte's legendary fame and enhance his popularity with the French people. Murat commanded the cavalry of the French Egyptian expedition of 1798, again under Bonaparte. In the 1799, some remaining staff officers, including Murat, and Bonaparte returned to France, eluding various British fleets in five frigates. A short while later, Murat played an important, even pivotal, role in Bonaparte's "coup within a coup" of 18 Brumaire
18 Brumaire
(9 November 1799), when Napoleon
Napoleon
first assumed national power. Along with two others (including Director Abbé Sieyès), Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte set aside the five-man directory government, establishing the three-man French Consulate
French Consulate
government.

Marriage certificate of Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
and Caroline Bonaparte. Archives nationales

Murat married Caroline Bonaparte
Caroline Bonaparte
in a civil ceremony on 20 January 1800 at Mortefontaine and religiously on 4 January 1802 in Paris, thus becoming a son-in-law of Letizia Ramolino
Letizia Ramolino
as well as brother-in-law to Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon I
Napoleon I
of France, Lucien Bonaparte, Elisa Bonaparte, Louis Bonaparte, Pauline Bonaparte
Pauline Bonaparte
and Jérôme Bonaparte. Napoleonic wars[edit] Further information: Napoleonic wars

Murat leads a charge at the Battle of Jena, 14 October 1806.

Napoleon
Napoleon
made Murat a Marshal of France
Marshal of France
on 18 May 1804, and also granted him the title of "First Horseman of Europe". He was created Prince of the Empire in 1805, appointed Grand Duke of Berg
Grand Duke of Berg
and Cleves on 15 March 1806 and held this title until 1 August 1808, when he was named King of Naples. He was in charge of the French Army in Madrid when the popular 2 May uprising that started the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
broke out. Murat was equally useful in Russian Campaign
Russian Campaign
of 1812 and during the German Campaign of 1813
German Campaign of 1813
in the Battle of Leipzig. However, after France's defeat at Leipzig, Murat reached an agreement with the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
in order to save his own throne. During the Hundred Days, he realized that the European powers, meeting as the Congress of Vienna, had the intention to remove him and return the Kingdoms of Naples to their pre-Napoleonic rulers. Murat deserted his new allies before the War of the Seventh Coalition
War of the Seventh Coalition
and, after issuing a proclamation to the Italian patriots in Rimini, moved north to fight against the Austrians in the Neapolitan War
Neapolitan War
to strengthen his rule in Italy by military means. He was defeated by Frederick Bianchi, a general of Francis I of Austria, in the Battle of Tolentino
Battle of Tolentino
(2–3 May 1815).

Death[edit]

This section is incomplete. (November 2016)

Murat fled to Corsica
Corsica
after Napoleon's fall. Joined by around a thousand followers, he hoped to regain control of Naples by fomenting an insurrection in Calabria. Arriving at the port of Pizzo, Murat attempted to rally support in the town square, but his plan turned awry. The crowd was hostile and he was attacked by an old woman blaming him for the loss of her son. Calabria
Calabria
had been badly hit by Murat's repression of local piracy and brigandage during his reign. Soon he was captured by forces of King Ferdinand IV of Naples. He was imprisoned in the Castello di Pizzo, the small castle in the harbor, from where he wrote several letters, especially to his family. He was tried for treason and sentenced to death by firing squad. On 13 October, King Ferdinand, under the advice of the British ambassador, issued a decree by which "the condemned shall be granted only half an hour to receive the aid of religion."

When the fatal moment arrived, Murat walked with a firm step to the place of execution, as calm, as unmoved, as if he had been going to an ordinary review. He would not accept a chair, nor suffer his eyes to be bound. Before his death, he said; "I have braved death too often to fear it." He stood upright, proudly and undauntedly, with his countenance towards the soldiers; and when all was ready, he kissed a cameo on which the head of his wife was engraved, and gave the word — thus,

« Soldats! Faites votre devoir ! Droit au cœur mais épargnez le visage. Feu ! »

"Soldiers! Do your duty! Straight to the heart but spare the face. Fire!"[10]

Pizzo Calabro
Pizzo Calabro
Castle, Murat's imprisonment and execution place.

Murat's death sentence, shown in Naples State Archive.

Murat met a fearless death, taking the shots standing and un-blindfolded.

St.George's Church in Pizzo Calabro, Murat's burial place.

The gravestone in the centre of the nave in St.George's Church in Pizzo Calabro
Pizzo Calabro
honouring Joachim Murat's burial place.

Portraits of Joachim Murat

Murat in French uniform

Murat in hussar uniform and a black page.

Murat in Polish uniform.

Murat as a Marshal of the Empire.

Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
entering Florence, 19 January 1801

Murat as King of Naples.

Coats of arms[edit]

Coat of arms as Grand Duke of Berg.

Coat of arms as King of Naples.

Titles and styles[edit]

25 March 1767 – 1 February 1805: Mr Joachim Murat 1 February 1805 – 15 March 1806: His Imperial Highness Joachim-Napoleon, French Prince 15 March 1806 – 12 July 1806: Duke of Berg 12 July 1806 – 1 Aug 1808: Grand Duke of Berg
Grand Duke of Berg
and Cleves 1 August 1808 – 19 May 1815: His Majesty, by the Grace of God and the Constitution of the State, King of Naples

Children[edit] Murat and Caroline had four children:

Achille Charles Louis Napoléon Murat, Hereditary Prince of Berg, Prince of Naples, 2nd Prince Murat
Prince Murat
(Paris, 21 January 1801 – Jefferson County, Florida, 15 April 1847), m. Tallahassee, Florida, 12 July 1826 Catherine Daingerfield Willis (near Fredericksburg, Virginia, 17 August 1803 – Tallahassee, Florida, 7 August 1867), daughter of Colonel
Colonel
Byrd C. Willis (29 August 1781 – 1846) and wife Mary Lewis, and great-grandniece of George Washington, without issue. Princess Marie Letizia Josephine Annonciade Murat (it) (Paris, 26 April 1802 – Bologna, 12 March 1859), m. Venice, 27 October 1823 Guido Taddeo Pepoli, Marchese Pepoli, Conte di Castiglione (Bologna, 7 September 1789 – Bologna, 2 March 1852), and had issue. Lucien Charles Joseph Napoléon Murat, 2nd Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, 3rd Prince Murat
Prince Murat
(Milan, 16 May 1803 – Paris, 10 April 1878), m. Bordentown, New Jersey, 18 August 1831 Caroline Georgina Fraser (Charleston, South Carolina, 13 April 1810 – Paris, 10 February 1879), daughter of Thomas Fraser and wife Anne Lauton, and had issue; he was an associate of his first cousin Napoleon
Napoleon
III of France. Ancestor of René Auberjonois (actor). Princess Louise Julie Caroline Murat (Paris, 21 March 1805 – Ravenna, 1 December 1889), m. Trieste, 25 October 1825 Giulio Conte Rasponi (it) (Ravenna, 19 February 1787 – Florence, 19 July 1876) and had issue.

Relatives[edit] He had a brother named Pierre Murat (La Bastide-Fortunière, 27 November 1748 – La Bastide-Fortunière, 8 October 1792), who married at La Bastide-Fortunière on 26 February 1783 Louise d'Astorg (La Bastide-Fortunière, 23 October 1762 – 31 May 1832), daughter of Aymeric d'Astorg, born in 1721, and wife Marie Alanyou, paternal granddaughter of Antoine d'Astorg, born 18 November 1676, and wife Marie de Mary (4 May 1686 – 7 October 1727) and maternal granddaughter of Jean Alanyou and wife Louise de Valon. His other brother named André Murat (1760–1841) was created 1st Count Murat in 1810. Pierre and Louise were the parents of Marie Louise, Pierre Adrien (d.1805), Marie Radegonde (d.1800), Thomas Joachim and Marie Antoinette Murat, whom Emperor Napoleon I
Napoleon I
arranged to marry Charles, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen; Karl III and Marie were the parents of Charles Anthony, Prince of Hohenzollern
Charles Anthony, Prince of Hohenzollern
from whom descended Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Queen of Portugal; her brother Carol I of Romania
Carol I of Romania
and Carol I nephew Albert I of Belgium. Another descendant of note is his great-great-great-grandson, the American actor René Auberjonois. Footnotes[edit]

^ Chavanon, Jules and Georges Saint-Yves, Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
(1767–1815), (Libraire Hachette, 1905), 4. ^ Ramsey Weston Phipps. Armies of the First French Republic. London: Greenwood Publishers, 1926, vol. 1, pp. 146–47. ^ Phipps, p. 146 ^ Phipps, p. 146. ^ Phipps, p. 147. ^ Phipps, p. 147. ^ Phipps, p. 147. ^ Phipps, pp. 148–49. ^ Connelly, pp. 20–21. ^ Murat, Caroline (1910). My Memoirs. London. p. 23. 

References[edit]

Bonar, Hugh S. (Jr.), Joachim Murat : lieutenant of the Emperor, Consortium on Revolutionary Europe 1750–1850 (University of Florida), Articles relatifs totalement ou partiellement à la période 1795–1815, Proceedings 1989. Chavanon, Jules and Georges Saint-Yves, Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
(1767–1815), Libraire Hachette, 1905. Connelly, Owen, Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns, Scholarly Resources Imprint, 1987. Phipps, Ramsey Weston. Armies of the First French Republic. London: Greenwood Publishers, 1926, vol. 1.

Further reading[edit]

Potocka-Wąsowiczowa, Anna z Tyszkiewiczów. Wspomnienia naocznego świadka. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1965.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joachim Murat.

Napoleonic Literature "Murat," in Naples Encyclopedia. Friends of the Musée Murat Map of Battle of Valutina Gora (Valutino, Loubino) 1812: Murat and Ney vs Russians

Joachim Murat House of Murat Born: 25 March 1767 Died: 13 October 1815

Regnal titles

New title Grand Duke of Berg 15 Mar 1806 – 1 Aug 1808 Succeeded by Louis I

Preceded by Joseph I King of Naples 1 Aug 1808 – 19 May 1815 Succeeded by Ferdinand IV

French nobility of the First French Empire

New title Prince Murat Succeeded by Achille Murat

v t e

Imperial House of France
France
of the First French Empire

Emperor and immediate family

Napoleon, Emperor of the French Joséphine, Empress of the French Marie Louise, Empress of the French Napoleon, King of Rome

French Princes

Joseph Bonaparte Louis Bonaparte Joachim Murat Eugène de Beauharnais Elisa Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Lucien Bonaparte

Several family members held additional titles in vassal states

v t e

Napoleonic Wars

Third Coalition Fourth Coalition Peninsular War Fifth Coalition French Invasion of Russia Sixth Coalition Seventh Coalition

Belli- gerents

France, client states and allies

France Polish Legions Italy Holland Etruria Swiss Confederation Naples Confederation of the Rhine

Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg

Denmark–Norway Ottoman Empire Persia Spain

Coalition forces

United Kingdom Austria Russia Prussia Spain Portugal Sicily Papal States Ottoman Empire Persia Sardinia Sweden Netherlands Brunswick Hanover Nassau French Royalists

Major battles

Prelude

French Revolution First Coalition Second Coalition 18 Brumaire Planned invasion of the United Kingdom Duc d'Enghien Execution Coronation of Napoleon

1805

Diamond Rock Cape Finisterre Wertingen Günzburg Haslach-Jungingen Elchingen Ulm Verona Trafalgar Caldiero Cape Ortegal Amstetten Dürenstein Schöngrabern Austerlitz

1806

Gaeta Campo Tenese Maida Schleiz Saalfeld Jena–Auerstedt Erfurt Halle Magdeburg Prenzlau Pasewalk Stettin Waren-Nossentin Lübeck Greater Poland Uprising Hameln Czarnowo Golymin Pułtusk

1807

Mohrungen Stralsund Eylau Ostrołęka Kolberg Danzig Mileto Guttstadt-Deppen Heilsberg Friedland Copenhagen Invasion of Portugal

1808

Dos de Mayo Bruch Rosily Squadron Cabezón 1st Zaragoza Valencia Medina de Rioseco Bailén Roliça Vimeiro Pancorbo Valmaseda Burgos Espinosa Tudela Somosierra 2nd Zaragoza Sahagún Benavente

1809

Castellón Uclés Corunna Valls Tyrolean Rebellion Villafranca Yevenes/Yébenes Ciudad Real 1st Porto Medellín Bergisel Sacile Teugen-Hausen Raszyn Abensberg Landshut Eckmühl Ratisbon Neumarkt-Sankt Veit Dalmatian Campaign Ebelsberg Gerona Piave River Grijó 2nd Porto Wörgl Tarvis Aspern-Essling Alcañiz Sankt Michael Stralsund Raab María Graz Wagram Korneuburg Stockerau Gefrees Hollabrunn Schöngrabern Armistice of Znaim Talavera Walcheren Campaign Ölper Almonacid Tamames Ocaña Alba de Tormes

1810

Cádiz Astorga Ciudad Rodrigo Barquilla Côa Almeida Bussaco

1811

Gebora Barrosa Pombal Redinha Casal Novo Campo Maior Sabugal Almeida Fuentes de Oñoro Tarragona Albuera Usagre Saguntum Arroyo dos Molinos Valencia

1812

Ciudad Rodrigo Badajoz Villagarcia Almaraz Maguilla Mir Salamanca García Hernández Saltanovka Ostrovno Vitebsk Klyastitsy Majadahonda Smolensk 1st Polotsk Valutino Mesoten Borodino Burgos Tarutino 2nd Polotsk Venta del Pozo Maloyaroslavets Chashniki Vyazma Smoliani Krasnoi Berezina

1813

Castalla Lützen Bautzen Tarragona Luckau Vitoria San Sebastián Pyrenees Sorauren Großbeeren Katzbach Dresden 1st Kulm San Marcial Dennewitz 2nd Kulm Göhrde Bidassoa Leipzig Hanau Nivelle Bornhöved Sehested

1814

Brienne La Rothière Mincio River Champaubert Montmirail Château-Thierry Vauchamps Garris Mormant Montereau Orthez Bar-sur-Aube Laon Reims Craonne Arcis-sur-Aube Fère-Champenoise Saint-Dizier Montmartre Paris Toulouse Bayonne

1815

Panaro Occhiobello Carpi Casaglia Ronco Cesenatico Pesaro Scapezzano Tolentino Ancona Castel di Sangro San Germano Gaeta Quatre Bras Ligny Waterloo Wavre Rocheserviere La Suffel Rocquencourt Issy

Info

French and ally military and political leaders

Napoleon Louis-Alexandre Berthier Joachim Murat Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean Lannes Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Michel Ney Jean-de-Dieu Soult Marshal Victor Jean-Baptiste Bessières Pierre-Charles Villeneuve Joseph I Louis Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Prince Poniatowski Prince Eugène Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick I of Württemberg Frederick VI of Denmark

Coalition military and political leaders

Duke of Wellington Rowland Hill John Moore Horatio Nelson Thomas Cochrane Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Manuel Lapeña Archduke Charles Prince von Schwarzenberg Archduke John of Austria Alexander I of Russia Mikhail Kutuzov Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Count Bennigsen Pyotr Bagration Frederick William III of Prussia Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe Ferdinand VII of Spain Miguel de Álava Maria I of Portugal Prince Regent John of Portugal Count of Feira William, Prince of Orange Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden Prince Charles John of Sweden Louis XVIII of France

Related conflicts

Anglo-Russian War Anglo-Spanish War Anglo-Swedish War Anglo-Turkish War English Wars

Gunboat War Dano-Swedish War

Finnish War Pomeranian War (Franco-Swedish War) Russo-Persian War Russo-Turkish War Spanish American Wars of Independence Swedish–Norwegian War War of 1812

Treaties

Campo Formio Lunéville Amiens Artlenburg Pressburg Finckenstein Tilsit Cintra Schönbrunn Paris
Paris
(1810) Tauroggen Ried Chaumont Kiel Mantua Casalanza Paris
Paris
(1815)

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Bourbon Restoration Casualties Congress of Erfurt Continental System England expects that every man will do his duty Grande Armée Longwood House

Portal Military History definition media quotes

v t e

Monarchs of Naples

Charles I* Charles II Robert Joanna I with Louis I Charles III Ladislaus (1st reign) Louis II Ladislaus (2nd reign) Joanna II René I Alfonso I* Ferdinand I Alfonso II Ferdinand II Frederick Louis III Ferdinand III* Joanna III* Charles IV* Philip I* Philip II* Philip III* Charles V* Charles VI* Charles VII* Ferdinand IV* (1st reign) Parthenopean Republic Ferdinand IV* (2nd reign) Joseph I Joachim I Ferdinand IV* (3rd reign)

*Also Monarch of Sicily

v t e

Monarchs of Berg

County of Berg
County of Berg
(1071–1380)

Adolf I Adolf II Adolf III Adolf IV Adolf V Engelbert I Adolf VI Engelbert II Henry I Adolf VII Adolf VIII William I Adolf IX Gerhard I William II

Duchy of Berg
Duchy of Berg
(1380–1806)

William I Adolf Gerhard I William II John I William III John William I Wolfgang William Philip William John William II Charles Philip Charles Theodore Maximilian Joseph

Grand Duchy of Berg
Grand Duchy of Berg
(1806–1813)

Joachim I Louis I

v t e

Marshals of the First French Empire

Augereau Bernadotte Berthier Bessières Brune Davout Gouvion Saint-Cyr Grouchy Jourdan Kellermann Lannes Lefebvre MacDonald Marmont Masséna Moncey Mortier Murat Ney Oudinot Pérignon Poniatowski Sérurier Soult Suchet Victor

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71399783 LCCN: n50040041 ISNI: 0000 0001 2138 665X GND: 118746928 SELIBR: 211628 SUDOC: 02764121X BNF: cb119639427 (data) ULAN: 500322997 NLA: 51934024 NKC: jn20000701279 Léonore: LH/1967/64 ICCU: ITICCULO1V134810 BNE: XX1439

.