Jainism , a JIVA (
Sanskrit : जीव, jīva,
alternative spelling jiwa; Hindi : जीव, jīv, alternative
spelling jeev) is a living being, or any entity imbued with a life
In Jainism, jiva is the immortal essence or soul of a living organism
(human, animal, fish or plant etc.) which survives physical death.
The concept of Ajiva in
Jainism means "not soul", and represents
matter (including body), time, space, non-motion and motion. In
Jiva is either samsari (mundane, caught in cycle of
rebirths) or mukta (liberated).
The concept of jiva in
Jainism is similar to atman in Hinduism.
However, some Hindu traditions differentiate between the two concepts,
with jiva considered as individual self, while atman as that which is
universal unchanging self that is present in all living beings and
everything else as the metaphysical
Brahman . The latter is
sometimes referred to as jiva-atman (a soul in a living body).
The word itself originates from the
Sanskrit jivás, with the root
jīv- "to breathe". It has the same Indo-European root as the Latin
word vivus, meaning "alive".
* ^ Matthew Hall (2011). Plants as Persons: A Philosophical Botany.
State University of New York Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4384-3430-8 .
* ^ A B J Jaini (1940). Outlines Of Jainism. Cambridge University
Press. pp. xxii–xxiii.
* ^ Jaini, Jagmandar-lāl (1927), Gommatsara Jiva-kanda, p. 54,
archived from the original on 2006
* ^ Sarao, K. T. S.; Long, Jeffery D., eds. (2017). "Jīva
(Jainism)". Buddhism and Jainism. Encyclopedia of Indian Religions.
Springer Netherlands. pp. 594–594. ISBN 97894024