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In Hinduism and Jainism
Jainism
, a JIVA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: जीव, jīva, alternative spelling jiwa; Hindi : जीव, jīv, alternative spelling jeev) is a living being, or any entity imbued with a life force.

In Jainism, jiva is the immortal essence or soul of a living organism (human, animal, fish or plant etc.) which survives physical death. The concept of Ajiva in Jainism
Jainism
means "not soul", and represents matter (including body), time, space, non-motion and motion. In Jainism, a Jiva
Jiva
is either samsari (mundane, caught in cycle of rebirths) or mukta (liberated).

The concept of jiva in Jainism
Jainism
is similar to atman in Hinduism. However, some Hindu traditions differentiate between the two concepts, with jiva considered as individual self, while atman as that which is universal unchanging self that is present in all living beings and everything else as the metaphysical Brahman . The latter is sometimes referred to as jiva-atman (a soul in a living body).

The word itself originates from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
jivás, with the root jīv- "to breathe". It has the same Indo-European root as the Latin word vivus, meaning "alive".

SEE ALSO

* Indian religions * Ātman (Hinduism)
Ātman (Hinduism)
* Brahman * Consciousness * Tirthankara
Tirthankara
* Vedanta

REFERENCES

* ^ Matthew Hall (2011). Plants as Persons: A Philosophical Botany. State University of New York Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4384-3430-8 . * ^ A B J Jaini (1940). Outlines Of Jainism. Cambridge University Press. pp. xxii–xxiii. * ^ Jaini, Jagmandar-lāl (1927), Gommatsara Jiva-kanda, p. 54, archived from the original on 2006 * ^ Sarao, K. T. S.; Long, Jeffery D., eds. (2017). "Jīva (Jainism)". Buddhism and Jainism. Encyclopedia of Indian Religions. Springer Netherlands. pp. 594–594. ISBN 97894024