Coordinates: 36°40′N 116°59′E / 36.667°N 116.983°E /
Clockwise from top: Jinan's Skyline, Quancheng Square, Daming Lake,
Furong Street, and Five Dragon Pool
Nickname(s): City of Springs (泉城)
Jinan City within Shandong
Location in China
Coordinates: 36°40′N 116°59′E / 36.667°N 116.983°E /
• Party Secretary
• Sub-provincial city
8,177 km2 (3,157 sq mi)
3,304 km2 (1,276 sq mi)
3,304 km2 (1,276 sq mi)
23 m (75 ft)
• Sub-provincial city
830/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
• Urban density
1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
• Metro density
3,300/km2 (8,600/sq mi)
China Standard (UTC+8)
License plate prefixes
鲁A and 鲁W
CNY 610 billion
- per capita
City tree: Chinese Willow; City flower: Lotus
"Jǐnán" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese
"South of the Ji [River]"
Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan,[a] is the capital of Shandong
province in Eastern China. The area of present-day
Jinan has played
an important role in the history of the region from the earliest
beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national
administrative, economic, and transportation hub. The city has held
sub-provincial administrative status since 1994.
Jinan is often
called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs. Its
population was 6.8 million at the 2010 census.
2.1 Early history
2.2 Republican era
2.3 After World War II
2.4 Cultural Revolution
2.5 Post 1990s
3 Geography and climate
3.3 Air quality
4 Administrative divisions
7 Culture and contemporary life
7.3 Shopping centers
8.1 Healthcare system
8.2.4 Public transportation
9 Main tourist attractions
9.1 Springs and lakes
9.2 Buddhist sites
9.3 Museums and libraries
10.1 Universities and colleges
10.2 Provincial high schools
13 Twin towns and sister cities
14 See also
17 External links
The modern-day name
Jinan literally means "south of the Ji" and refers
to the old
Ji River that had flowed to the north of the city until the
middle of the 19th century. The
Ji River disappeared in 1852 when
Yellow River changed its course northwards and took over its bed.
The current pronunciation of the character "Ji" with the third tone
("jǐ") was established in the late 1970s. Prior to this, it was
pronounced with the fourth tone ("jì"). Older texts spell the name as
Wade-Giles romanization) or "Chi-nan".
During the times of the
Zhou dynasty (1045 BC to 256 BC), the city of
Lixia (simplified Chinese: 历下; traditional Chinese: 歷下;
pinyin: Lìxià) was the major settlement in the area. The name
"Lixia" refers to the location of
Jinan at the foot of Mount Li, which
lies to the south of the city). Today, Lixia is the name of one of the
The Battle of An, which was fought in the area during the Spring and
Autumn period (in 589 BCE) between the states of Qi and Jin, is named
for the ancient city of Ān (Chinese: 鞍) which stood within the city
limits of present-day Jinan.
Marco Polo gives a brief description of
Jinan under the name "Chingli" or "Chinangli". 19th and early
20th century texts frequently give the name of the city as "Tsinan Fu"
where the additional "Fu" (Chinese: 府) comes from the dated Chinese
term for a provincial capital (Chinese: 省府).
Jinan is also referred to by the nickname "City of Springs" (Chinese:
泉城), because of the many artesian springs in the urban city centre
and its surroundings.
The area of present-day
Jinan has been inhabited for more than 4000
Longshan Culture was first discovered at the
Chéngzǐyá (城子崖) site to the east of
Zhangqiu City) in
1928. One of the characteristic features of the
Longshan Culture are
the intricate wheel-made pottery pieces it produced. Most renowned is
the black "egg-shell pottery" with wall thicknesses that can go below
Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period (722–481 BCE) and Warring States
period (475–221 BCE), the area of
Jinan was split between two
states: the state of Lu in the west and the state of Qi in the east.
In 685 BCE, the state of Qi started to build the Great Wall of
Qi(齐长城) across Changqing county. Portions of the wall still
remain today and are accessible as open air museums. Biǎn
Què(扁鹊), according to the legend the earliest Chinese physician
and active around 500 BCE, is said to have been a native of
present-day Changqing County.
Zou Yan (Chinese: 邹衍; pinyin: Zōu
Yǎn, 305–240 BCE), a native of
Zhangqiu City, developed the
Yin-Yang and the Five Elements (阴阳五行说). Joseph
Needham, a British sinologist, describes Zou as "The real founder of
all Chinese scientific thought."
During the times of the
Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE),
the capital of the Kingdom of Jibei (济北国/濟北國; pinyin:
Jǐbĕi Guó) and evolved into the cultural and economic hub of the
Han dynasty tomb where the last king of Jibei, Liú Kuān
(刘宽/劉寬), was buried at Shuangru Mountain was excavated by
Shandong University in 1995 and 1996. More
than 2000 artifacts such as jade swords, jade masks, and jade pillows
have been recovered within the 1,500 square meter excavation site,
emphasizing the wealth of the city during the period. Cáo Cāo
(曹操, 155 – 220 CE) was an official in
Jinan before he became the
de facto ruler of the Han dynasty. His son, Cao Pi, overthrew the
last emperor of the Han and founded the Wei Kingdom (220 – 265 CE)
of the Three Kingdoms Period.
Beginning in the 5th century CE,
Buddhism flourished in Jinan. The
Langgong Temple (朗公寺; pinyin: Lǎnggōng Sì, later renamed
Shentong Temple, (神通寺; pinyin: Shéntōng Sì, and now in ruins)
in the southern county of Licheng was one of the most important
temples in northern
China at that time. The same period witnessed
extensive construction of Buddhist sites in the southern counties of
Licheng and Changqing such as the Lingyan Temple (灵岩寺) and the
Thousand-Buddha Cliff (千佛崖). In particular, a large number of
cave temples were established in the hills south of Jinan.
Jinan remained the cultural center of the region during the Song
dynasty (960 – 1279 CE). The Song rulers promoted
Jinan to a
superior prefecture in 1116 CE. Two of the most important poets of the
Southern Song were both born in Jinan:
Li Qingzhao (李清照,
1084–1151 CE), the most renown female poet in Chinese history, and
Xin Qiji (辛弃疾, 1140–1207 CE), who was also a military leader
Southern Song dynasty. Both poets witnessed a series of
crushing defeats of the
Song dynasty at the hands of the Jurchens who
gained control over almost half of the Song territories and
established the Jin dynasty in northern China. After
Jinan came under
control of the Jin dynasty, both
Li Qingzhao and
Xin Qiji had to
abandon their homes and reflected this experience in their works.
During the Civil War that followed the proclamation of
Kublai Khan as
Great Khan in 1260 CE,
Jinan was at the center of a rebellion by
Yizhou governor Li Tan against Mongol rule in 1262 CE. The rebellion
was crushed in a decisive battle that was fought not far from
late March or early April 1262 CE. After losing 4000 of his troops in
the battle, Li Tan retreated to
Jinan to make his last stand. After
defections of his defenders had made his position untenable, Li Tan
tried to commit suicide by drowning himself in Daming Lake. However,
he was rescued by the Mongols in order to execute him by trampling him
to death with their horses.
Despite such violent conflicts, culture in
Jinan continued to thrive
during the Jin (1115–1234) and Yuan (1271–1368) dynasties: One of
the most renowned artists of the Yuan dynasty,
Zhao Mengfu (赵孟頫,
1254–1322) was appointed to the post of governor of
Jinan in 1293
and spent three years in the city. Among the extraordinary art works
he completed during his stay in Jinan, the best known painting is
"Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains" (《鹊华秋色》).
Geographer Yú Qīn (于钦/于欽, 1284–1333) also served as an
Jinan and authored his geography book Qí Chéng (齐乘)
Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains (鹊华秋色)
Shandong Province was established under the Ming dynasty, Jinan
became its capital.
In 1852, the northward shift of the
Yellow River into a new bed close
to the city triggered the modern expansion of Jinan. The new course of
Yellow River connected the city to the Grand Canal and regional
waterways in northern
Shandong and southern Hebei.
German influence in
Jinan grew after the
Qing dynasty ceded
the German Empire in 1897. A German concession area was established to
the west of the historical city center (in the vicinity of the Jinan
Railway Station first established by the Germans). The Jiaoji
(Qingdao–Jinan) railway was built by the Germans against local
resistance. Discontent over the construction of the railway was
one of the sources fueling the
Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901).
During the rebellion, foreign priests were evacuated from
Chinese Christians became a target of violence. The Jiaoji railway was
completed in 1904, three years after the
Boxer Rebellion had been put
down, and opened the city to foreign trade. The importance of Jinan
as a transportation hub was cemented with the completion of the
Jinpu railway from
Pukou in 1912. Jinan
became a major trading center for agricultural goods in northern
China. Traded commodities included cotton, grain, peanuts, and
Jinan also developed into a major industrial center,
second in importance to
Qingdao in the province.
In 1919, after the First World War, the Japanese took over the German
sphere of influence in Shandong, including control of the Jiaoji
railway, and established a significant Japanese influence in Jinan.
According to estimates by a contemporary Japanese government official,
about 2,000 Japanese were living in
Jinan in 1931, about half of whom
were involved in the opium trade for which the Japanese had a loosely
controlled monopoly that was exploited with the participation of
Warlord era of the Republic of China, Zhang Zongchang,
nicknamed the "Dogmeat General", ruled
Jinan for a
period that lasted from April 1925 until May 1928. Zhang was unpopular
for his heavy-handed rule and in particular his heavy taxation.
Besides heavy taxes, he relied financially on opium to finance his
periodic wars. Zhang even planned to use some of the wealth
extracted from these sources for building a living shrine and a large
bronze statue for himself on the shore of Daming Lake, but these plans
were not realized as his rule came to an end.
In the spring of 1928, the Kuomintang's
Northern Expedition reached
Jinan. On May 3, 1928, clashes developed between Japanese troops
Jinan and the
Kuomintang troops moving into the city
Jinan Incident). Cai Gongshi, a
Kuomintang emissary sent to
negotiate and 16 members of his entourage were cruelly executed by the
Japanese. Japanese officers placed an order to slice off his nose and
ears, and to gouge out his eyes and tongue. Sixteen other members of
his negotiation team were also striped naked, recklessly whipped,
dragged to the back-lawn, and slaughtered by machine guns on the same
day. After the incident, Japanese reinforcements were sent to
Shandong and by 11 May, Japanese troops pushed the Chinese troops from
the area, inflicted thousands of casualties and killed over 2000
Chinese civilians. The Japanese occupied
Jinan for more than six
months until they withdrew to their garrison in Tsingtao on the 28th
of March 1929. When Chiang lectured a group of Chinese army cadets, he
urged them to turn their energies to washing away the shame of Jinan,
but to conceal their hatred until the last moment. The Kuomintang
government later decreed that May 3 be designated a "National
Humiliation Memorial Day."
Nanjing decade of the Republic of China, Han Fuju, a
military commander from the warlord era who had aligned himself with
the Kuomintang, was rewarded with the military governorship of
Shandong, after fighting against the rebel troops of
Yen Hsi-shan and
his former commander
Feng Yu-hsiang in the
Central Plains War
Central Plains War in
1930. He established his base in
Jinan and is credited with
curtailing banditry and drug trading, thereby bringing a measure of
peace and prosperity to the city. However, from 1935 onwards Han
was under heavy pressure from the Japanese consul in
Jinan to declare
Shandong an "independent state" allied with Japan.
After the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese invasion
force crossed the
Yellow River 60 km (37 mi) north-east of
Jinan on December 23, 1937.
Han Fuju abandoned
Jinan the next day
against orders to hold the city to the death. He ordered the
offices of the provincial government and the Japanese consulate in
Jinan to be burned down and the ensuing power vacuum led to
widespread looting in the city. Japanese troops from the 10th
Division of the Manchurian Area Army entered
Jinan on December 27,
Han Fuju was arrested and executed for disobeying orders
from superior commanders and retreating on his own accord by
Chiang Kai-Shek's chief of staff, General Hu Zongnan.
Monument commemorating the war dead of the battle of
Jinan on Hero
After World War II
Japanese troops controlled
Jinan until their defeat in 1945. After
Kuomintang regained short-lived control of the city during
the period from 1946 to 1948. The provincial government during this
time was led by Lieutenant-General Wang Yaowu, who also commanded the
KMT army in the region. KMT rule over
Jinan ended in September 1948
Battle of Jinan
Battle of Jinan in which units of the People's Liberation
Army under the command of Chen Yi took the city. The battle for Jinan
took a decisive turn in favor of the attackers when KMT
Lieutenant-General Wú Huàwén (吴化文) defected to the Communist
side with about 8,000 of his troops. The most likely explanation
for his defection is that he had been pressured through relatives of
his who were held captive by the Communist forces.
Lieutenant-General Wu had been in charge of the vital outer ring of
defenses that protected the main airfield, the railroad station, and
the commercial district. With these critical assets lost, the
situation of the city's defenders became untenable. Following the
weakening of the city's defenses, the People's Liberation Army
breached the city wall and entered
Jinan on September 24, 1948.
In March 1966, the largest among the drawn-out sequence of earthquakes
that made up the
Xingtai earthquake damaged about 36,000 houses in
Entrance to Water Lily Street，a historical shopping street in Jinan.
On May 27, 1966, the
Cultural Revolution started in
Jinan with an
article in the local newspaper "
Jinan Evening News" (济南晚报)
that denounced vice-governor Yu Xiu as a Bourgeois agent within the
government. Starting from early June 1966, the schools in Jinan
were closed down by strikes as teachers were "struggled against". At
the same time, big-character posters started to appear in the
city. Red Guards took to the streets of
Jinan from late August
1966 onwards, damaging cultural heritage and setting up courts to
prosecute perceived enemies of the revolution. In the spring of 1967,
the "May 7th Incident" took place: When
Zhang Chunqiao and Yao
Wenyuan, both later reviled as members of the Gang of Four, visited
Jinan to support the
Cultural Revolution and its local leader Wang
Xiao Yu, fighting erupted in the front of the provincial government
between two rival factions of the Cultural Revolution, the "April 22nd
Group" and Wang Xiao Yu's "April 28th Group". In the end, more than
10,000 people had been involved in the fighting. On October 11,
1967, the tallest statue of
Mao Zedong in
Shandong province was
erected on the campus of
Shandong Normal University. On September
17, 1968, a large assembly of
Jinan workers celebrated the arrival of
a mango fruit in the "August 1st" Meeting Hall. The fruit had been a
gift to the workers in
Beijing by Mao and was subsequently passed on
to the workers in Jinan. In November 1968, Wang Xiao Yu began to
agitate against the local army units in
By then unrest due to the
Cultural Revolution had severely damaged the
city's governmental and industrial infrastructure, with about 80
percent of all government institutions shut down. Large public
protests were staged on April 4 and 5, 1969, in which approximately
500,000 people protested the occupation of
Zhenbao Island by the
Soviet Union. On July 29, 1970, the leadership of the Cultural
Revolution passed a resolution to make sweeping changes to the city's
educational system: The liberal arts departments of Shandong
University were moved to
Qufu and combined with
Qufu Normal College to
form a new
Shandong University. The biology department was moved to
Tai'an and merged into the
Shandong Agricultural College. The rest of
the sciences were to form the
Shandong Science and Technology
Shandong Normal University was to be moved to Liaocheng.
Shandong Medical College and
Shandong College of Traditional Chinese
Medicine were to be merged and moved to Tai'an. Shandong
University was restored in its original form and the "
and Technology University" was abolished in early 1974. The first
Cultural Revolution policies started in early 1971: On
May 23 of that year, the
Shandong Provincial Museum was reopened after
having been closed for about 5 years (since May 1966). In the next
Jinan Committee for the
Cultural Revolution officially
reverted the name changes of four city districts enacted in 1966.
During the 6 years between the name change and its reversal, Lixia
District had been known officially as "Hongwei", Tianqiao as "Face the
Sun", Huaiyin as "East Wind", and Shizhong as "Red Flag". As the
Cultural Revolution came to an end,
Jinan started to receive visitors
from abroad. For example, it was visited by a delegation from the
United States Congress
United States Congress between August 8 and 11, 1975. On September
18, 1976, Mao's death was mourned by about 600,000 people at an
official service in Jinan's August 1 Square.
Jinan was the host of the 11th All
China Games during October 2009.
These games are the selection games for the Chinese Olympic champions.
For this occasion, security was heightened and a full volunteer force
was out on the streets directing visitor traffic. The city conducted
major renovations in its transportation and recreation services in
anticipation of the Games' visitors.
Geography and climate
Jinan and vicinities
Jinan is located in the north-western part of
Shandong province at
36° 40′ northern latitude and 116° 57′ east of Greenwich, about
400 kilometres (250 mi) south of the national capital of Beijing.
Liaocheng to the southwest,
Dezhou to the northwest,
Binzhou to the northeast,
Zibo to the east,
Laiwu to the southeast,
Tai'an to the south. In the relief of the region, the city
occupies a transition zone between the northern foothills of the
Taishan Massif to the south of the city and the valley of the Yellow
River to the north.
Karst aquifers in limestone formations sloping
down from the south to the north give rise to many artesian springs in
the city center as well as in surrounding areas.
Jinan has a humid subtropical (Köppen: Cwa), considering a normal
isotherm of −3 °C, or a humid continental climate (Köppen:
Dwa), considering an isotherm of 0 °C but favoring the former,
with four well-defined seasons. The city is dry and nearly rainless in
spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold
(with little snow) in winter. The average annual temperature is
14.70 °C (58.5 °F), and the annual precipitation is around
slightly above 670 millimetres (26.4 in), with a strong summer
maximum, and high variability from year to year. January is the
coldest and driest month, with a mean temperature of −0.4 °C
(31.3 °F) and 5.7 millimetres (0.22 in) of equivalent
rainfall. July is the hottest and wettest month, the corresponding
numbers are 27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and 201.3 mm
(7.93 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48
percent in July to 63 percent in May, the city receives 2,547 hours of
bright sunshine annually.
Due to the mountains to the south of the city, temperature inversions
are common, occurring on about 200 days per year. The high
precipitation for northern Chinese standards, in tandem with the
topography (mountains surrounding the city on three sides), leads to
particularly oppressive summer weather and the city being named as a
candidate for the fourth "furnace", c.e. Three Furnaces. Extremes
since 1951 have ranged from −19.7 °C (−3 °F) on 17
January 1953 to 42.5 °C (109 °F) on 24 July 1955.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
China Meteorological Administration
7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China
See also: 2013 Eastern
According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua
University and The Asian Development Bank in January 2013,
one of ten most air polluted cities in the world. Also according to
this report, 7 of 10 most air polluted cities are in China, including
Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing,
Shijiazhuang. As air pollution in
China is at an all-time high,
several northern cities are among the most polluted cities and has one
of the worst air quality in China. Reporting on China's air quality
has been accompanied by what seems like a monochromatic slideshow of
the country's several cities smothered in thick smog. According to a
survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013,
Jinan is among
China's 10 most polluted cities, and is the only
Shandong city to be
on this list. Other cities on the blacklist includes major Chinese
cities like Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Zhengzhou, and 6 other prefectural
cities all in
Hebei Province. These cities are all situated in
traditional geographic subdivision of "Huabei (North China) Region".
A dense wave of smog began in the Central and Eastern part of
2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 kilometres
(750 mi), including
Jinan and surrounding
Shandong area. A
lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying
industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick
layer of smog over the region. Officials blamed the dense
pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air
pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in North China
region. Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory
emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.
The sub-provincial city of
Jinan has direct jurisdiction over 7
districts and 3 counties:
These are further divided into 146 township-level divisions, including
65towns, 27 townships and 54 subdistricts.
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Skyline seen from the Thousand Buddha Mountain
With the shift of the
Yellow River to a new bed right to the north of
Jinan (in 1852) and the establishment of a railroad hub, the city
became a major market for agricultural products from the productive
farming regions to the north. Following the trade in agricultural
goods, the city developed a textile and clothing industry, flour
mills, oil presses, as well as factories producing paper, cement, and
matches. In the 1950s, large iron and steel works as well as
chemical factories were established around Jinan. The large metal
works produce pig iron, ingot steel, as well as finished steel. In
2008, steel manufacturing was restructured with the formation of the
Shandong Iron and Steel Group. In the 1970s,
factories for the production of trucks and construction vehicles
(Sinotruk) were added.
Jinan has a pool of high-quality labor resources. There are 18
universities and colleges in the city where more than 200,000 students
are studying. Among the over 200 research institutes in the city, 10
are national laboratories.
The focus on technology intensive industries has transformed Jinan
from a city supported by heavy industry and textiles to a city with
more diverse industrial structure. Information Technology,
transportation tools, home appliances, and bio-engineered products,
among others, have become important components of the area's industry.
Jinan's IT-related economic output was ranked to be in the fourth
place nationally in 2004.
Industrial zones include:
Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone
Founded in 1991, the
Jinan High-tech Industrial Development zone was
one of the first of its kind approved by the State Council. The zone
is located to the east of the city and covers a total planning area of
83 km2 (32 sq mi) that is divided into a central area
covering 33 km2 (13 sq mi), an export processing
district of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi), and an eastern
extension area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi). Since its
Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone has
attracted enterprises as LG, Panasonic, Volvo, and Sanyo. In 2000, it
joined the world science and technology association and set up a
Ukraine High-tech Cooperation Park. The Qilu Software Park
became the sister park of Bangalore park of India.
Jinan Export Processing Zone
The export processing zone is located in the eastern suburbs of Jinan,
to the east of the
Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone and to
the north of the Jiwang highway. The distances to the Jiqing Highway
Jinan Airport are 9 km (5.6 mi) and 18 km
(11 mi) respectively.
Liaocheng Economic Development Zone
China National Heavy Duty Truck Group (Sinotruk) has its
headquarters in the city.
The Great Southern Mosque, the oldest mosque in Jinan.
In 2005, the estimated population of the entire area under the
Jinan City was 5.69 million, with a total of 2.54
million living in urban areas. By 2009, the total population had grown
to about six million. The census in 2010 counted 6.814 million
inhabitants out of which about 4.335 million were living in 6 urban
districts which made up the built-up area.
The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as
of 2010[update], a population of 11 million.
The population is predominantly Han (98.3 percent), with very small
portions of Hui and
Jinan has a significant Muslim
community centred in the city's Muslim quarter, located to the west of
the historical center.
Culture and contemporary life
Local residents in the city proper, as well as in the surrounding
areas, have traditionally spoken the
Jinan dialect of Mandarin that is
not readily understood even by native speakers of standard Mandarin.
The younger people of
Jinan are more likely to speak standard
Mandarin, whereas many older residents retain strong local dialect
elements in their speech. Nevertheless, even the younger residents of
Jinan tend to retain a strong local accent and mix local vocabulary
into the standardized Mandarin vocabulary. Due to the influx of
migrant workers during the past decade of China's economic boom, many
of the current population that are of working age are not natives of
Jinan but have learned to understand the
Jinan has its own cuisine, the
Jinan style of the Lu cuisine
(Simplified Chinese: 鲁菜/ Traditional Chinese: 魯菜; pinyin:
Lǔcài), one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China. One of its
features is the use of soup in its dishes. Modern cuisines in northern
Tianjin and the northeastern regions including
Jilin and Liaoning— are all branches of Shandong
Most shopping malls in
Jinan are in the downtown area centered around
Spring City Square
Spring City Square (泉城广场) and Spring City Road (泉城路).
Spring City Square
Spring City Square was built by the municipal government beside the
city moat in the early 21st century; at the center is the statue
"Spring" which has become a symbol of Jinan. The square borders on the
ancient city moat. It has a music fountain, a 46,000 square meter
underground shopping center and a memorial hall with statues of famous
people from Shandong.
Spring City Road was rebuilt at the same time that Spring City Square
was created. The government's intention was to create a modern
business district and yet preserve the traditional Chinese culture.
Therefore, newly built shopping malls with traditional Chinese
architectural styles and modern western skyscrapers can be found
side-by-side along Spring City Road. Notable retail businesses are
Quancheng Bookstore – the largest bookstore of the city – and
Walmart (near the western end of Spring City Road). Major shopping
malls along the road are the Guihe Shopping Center (贵和商厦), the
Sofitel Silver Plaza, the Shimao international shopping center, and
the Wanda Shopping Mall (万达集团). Parc 66 (济南恒隆广场)
to the south of Spring City Road (opposite of Water Lily Street),
opened in August 2011, is Jinan's largest shopping mall with seven
levels of retail space and a total gross floor area of 171,000 square
Shandong Provincial Hospital (SPH, 山东省立医院), address: 324
Jingwu Weiqi Road (36°39′24.6″N 116°58′39.7″E /
36.656833°N 116.977694°E / 36.656833; 116.977694)
Second Hospital Attached to
Stomatological Hospital Attached to
Central Hospital of
Jinan City (济南市中心医院), address: 105
Jiefang Road (36°40′01″N 117°02′30″E / 36.667°N
117.0417°E / 36.667; 117.0417)
Qilu Hospital (山东大学齐鲁医院), address: 107 Wenhuaxi Road
(36°39′25.6″N 117°0′41.25″E / 36.657111°N
117.0114583°E / 36.657111; 117.0114583)
Jinan No. 1 People's Hospital (济南市第一人民医院), address:
132 Daminghu Road
Jinan No. 2 People's Hospital (济南市第二人民医院), also
known as "Eye Hospital of Jinan" (济南眼科医院)
Jinan No. 3 People's Hospital (济南市第三人民医院)
Jinan No. 4 People's Hospital (济南市第四人民医院), address:
50 Shīfàn Road
Jinan No. 5 People's Hospital (济南市第五人民医院), address:
447 Jīngshí Road
No. 456 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army
Pediatric Hospital of
Jinan City (济南市儿童医院)
Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital (济南市传染病医院), address:
173 Jīngshí Road (36°38′56″N 116°59′17″E / 36.649°N
116.98805°E / 36.649; 116.98805)
Qianfoshan Hospital (千佛山医院), address: 66 Jingshi Road
(36°38′52.04″N 117°2′13.33″E / 36.6477889°N
117.0370361°E / 36.6477889; 117.0370361)
Jinan military hospital 济南军区总医院
Jinan Railway Station
Jinan West Railway Station
Jinan is positioned at the intersection of two major railways: The
Jinghu Railway that runs from
Shanghai is the major
north–south backbone of the railway system in eastern China. In
Jinan, it intersects with the
Jiaoji Railway that connects
the sea port of
Qingdao to the east. In addition, the Hanji Railway
Jinan to the city of
Hebei Province) in the west.
Shandong province, the
Jinghu Railway connects
Jinan with the
cities of Dezhou, Tai'an, Jining, and Zaozhuang; the Jiaoji Railway
provides a link to the cities of Zibo, Qingdao, and Weifang; the Hanji
Railway serves the cities of
Yancheng and Liaocheng. Central
served by the
Jinan Railway Station
Jinan Railway Station and the
Jinan East Railway Station
(just by Daming Lake).
Shanghai High-Speed Railway calls at the new
Railway Station, which is outside the central metropolitan center and
is in suburban western Jinan's Huaiyin District. Since it opened for
public service on 30 June 2011, it has become a future hub with
west-east running high speed railways to Taiyuan,
Major expressways include
China National Highway 104,
Highway 220, and
China National Highway 309. Because of Jinan's
location and role as a road and rail transportation hub, the Jinan
Coach Terminus has one of the largest passenger flows nationally. On
peak travel days, as many as 92,000 passengers per day have been
counted, on off-peak days the number is around 42,000 passengers per
Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport
Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is located about 33 km
(21 mi) northeast of the city center and to the north of the town
of Yaoqiang (遥墙镇) from which the name of the airport is derived.
The airport is connected to the city center of
Jinan by expressways.
It has domestic flights to many of the major cities in
China as well
as to international destinations, in particular Osaka, Seoul,
Bangkok and Singapore.
Jinan's urban public transportation history began in 1938, and the
city is now a major bus transportation hub. To ensure that buses have
priority, most of the city's urban main roads have a bus lane, and bus
rapid transit signal priority measures are gradually being
Jinan urban area has more than 220 public
According to the properties of bus lines, Jinan's urban bus network
can be divided into five categories:
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit system: The
Jinan BRT has 7 routes, connected by
transfer stations. As a result of the BRT's isolated central lanes,
signal priority and other measures, bus speeds have been greatly
improved, improving public transport. Price:￥2.
Conventional buses: Have air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned
buses. Air-conditioned lines have a K perfix on their route numbers.
These lines comprise more than 200 routes covering the whole city.
Price:￥1 Air-conditioned is￥2.
Public trolleybuses: the
Jinan trolleybus system, opened in 1977, once
had 10 lines, but now has only four. These are Jinan's most important
bus routes. Price：￥1.
Suburban and exurban buses – Operated by air-conditioned and
non-air-conditioned vehicles. Most of these buses carries passengers
from suburban/exurban area to urban area, while the others provide
village-to-village or village-to-county service. Price: Varies from
￥1 to ￥12.
Student, supermarket and particular business bus lines – These are
for large schools, supermarkets, business transfer students,
customers, employees of private businesses. They operate side by side
with the other bus systems.
Started by construction in 2013,
Jinan Metro will open in 2018 and
then will be extended to 3 lines toward 2030.
Main tourist attractions
Main article: List of sites in Jinan
Pavilion in the 10,000 Bamboo Garden of
Baotu Spring Park
The Thousand Buddha Mountain, a religious landmark in Jinan
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Jinan
Jinan is renowned across
China for its numerous springs, the lakes fed
by the spring water, and the weeping willows that grow along the water
edges. The late-Qing author
Liu E describes Jinan's cityscape in his
novel "The Travels of Lao Can" (老残游记, written 1903–04,
published in 1907) as "Every family has spring water, every household
has a willow tree".
Jinan was also the historical center of
Buddhist culture for the whole province which is still manifest in the
many historic sites that are left behind in its southern counties.
Springs and lakes
Jinan is known as the "City of Springs" because of the large number of
natural artesian springs. The majority of the springs, many of which
have been historically listed under the "72 Famous Springs"
(七十二名泉) are concentrated in the downtown district and flow
north to converge in Daming Lake. The
Baotu Spring Park is the most
popular of the springs in the City of
Jinan proper. Besides the Baotu
Spring, the park contains several other springs that are listed among
the "72 Famous Springs". "Bào tū" (趵突) means "jumping and
leaping" in Chinese. The water in the spring pool can be seen foaming
and gushing, looking like a pot of boiling water. The spring was
visited by the
Qianlong Emperor (1711–1799) of the
Qing dynasty who
declared it "the best spring under the heaven" (Chinese:
天下第一泉; pinyin: tiān xià dì yī quán). A tablet with the
Emperor's handwriting "Baotu Spring" has since been erected beside the
Not far away to the northeast of
Baotu Spring Park is the Daming Lake,
which, together with
Baotu Spring and the Thousand-Buddha Mountain
(千佛山) is often regarded as the "Three Greatest Attractions in
Jinan". Other notable parks in the city include the Five Dragon Pool
(五龙潭) near the
Baotu Spring Park, the Black Tiger Spring
(黑虎泉) on the southern city moat, and the Baimai Springs
Zhangqiu City to the east of Jinan.
Historic Buddhist sites are particularly common in Licheng County to
the south-east of the city center of Jinan. The Four Gates Pagoda
(四门塔), built in 661, is the oldest existing one-story stone
tower in China. The pagoda houses four Buddhist statues dating from
the 6th century, and the Cypress tree (九顶松) standing next to the
pagoda is more than 1000 years old. Below the hill on which pagoda
stands lie the remnants of the Shentong Temple (神通寺), which was
founded in the 4th century but was destroyed in the wars of later
dynasties. The funerary stelae of monks from the temple which date
from different historic periods display remarkable artistic features.
The statues in the nearby
Thousand-Buddha Cliff (千佛崖) form one
of the best collections of
Tang dynasty Buddhist statues in the
The Lingyan Temple in the southern county of Changqing was one of the
four most famous temples (四大名刹) of the Tang dynasty. The
temple was founded during the Jin dynasty and reached its heyday
during the Tang and Song dynasties. During the Tang dynasty, the
Xuanzang stayed in the temple and translated Buddhist
manuscripts he had brought to
China from India. Many emperors in
Chinese history visited the temple before they went to
Mount Tai (one
of China's five sacred mountains, located south of Jinan) for
ceremonies. The clay sculptures of Buddhas made in the Song dynasty
are considered as "The Best of China" by scholar and journalist Liang
Qichao. Buddhist architectures within the temple such as pagodas and
tomb stelae are among the earliest and best protected in the region.
Museums and libraries
Shandong Provincial Museum located at the foothill of
Thousand-Buddha Mountain is the largest museum in the province. It has
a large collection of natural as well as historical treasures from the
whole province. The museum was established in its present form in 1982
and currently has 8 exhibition halls : "Treasures of Shandong
Province"; "Stone Sculptures"; "Warship of the Ming dynasty"; "Ancient
Coins"; "Art Treasures"; "Fossil Collections"; "Dinosaurs"; and
"Specimens". The museum has more than 210,000 relics and specimens,
making up ⅓ of the collections in museums of whole province. The
Shandong Provincial Museum has been ranked No. 7 in terms of
collection size among the museums of China.
Jinan Municipal Museum  is located at the south-western foot
of the Thousand-Buddha Mountain, in the north of the city center.
Although much smaller than the provincial museum, the municipal museum
still houses a collection of more than 20,000 items, most of which
were recovered in the city area.
Shandong Provincial Library  in the eastern High-tech Park
(address: 2912 Second Ring East Road) is the principal library of the
province and is ranked among the Top 10 Chinese libraries. As of
2004[update], the library had more than 5.18 million documents, many
of which date back many centuries and are important sources for
research on Chinese history. The library also has a large collection
of western journals/books. Originally, the library was built close to
Daming Lake in 1909 by the then governor of Shandong. In the late
1990s, a project was undertaken to move the library to the eastern
part of the city, and it reopened in 2002 with 35 reading rooms and
more than 2000 seats.
Universities and colleges
Qilu Normal University (齐鲁师范学院, formerly Shandong
Educational Institute: 山东教育学院)
Qilu University of Technology
Qilu University of Technology (山东轻工业学院, or Shandong
Shandong Architectural Institute (山东建筑大学)
Shandong College of Electronic Technology
Shandong Jiaotong University (山东交通学院)
Shandong Normal University (山东师范大学)
Shangdong Polytechnic (济南铁道职业技术学院, formerly Jinan
Shandong Sport University (山东体育学院)
Shandong University of Art and Design (山东工艺美术学院)
Shandong University of Arts (山东艺术学院)
Shandong University of Finance and Economics
Shandong University of Science and Technology, which also has campuses
Qingdao and Tai'an.
Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Shandong Women's University
University of Jinan
Provincial high schools
Shandong Experimental High School
Jinan Foreign Language School
Senior High School Attached to
Shandong Normal University
Jinan is the former command center for the
Jinan Military Region, one
of the defunct seven military regions into which the People's
Liberation Army is organized.
Jinan MR was considered as a
strategic reserve of PLA.
Jinan Military Region
Jinan Military Region coverred two of
China's most populous provinces,
Henan and Shandong.
The most renowned sports team in
Jinan are the
Shandong Golden Lions.
Shandong Golden Lions have been playing in the Chinese top
basketball league for all the seasons (13 for basketball) since the
league turned professional in 1995. The team's best season was
1997–1998 when it finished 3rd place. In the 2007–2008 season, the
Shandong Golden Lions also reached the 3rd place at the end of the
season, but they were knocked out at the first round of the playoffs.
Shandong Luneng Football Club is the most widely known football
team in Jinan. The club currently plays at the highest tier of Chinese
football, the Chinese Super League. The
Shandong Luneng Football Club
is one of four clubs which have been playing in Chinese top football
league every season since the league turned professional in 1994.
Since 1994 the club has won 9 titles: Top League Champions (1999,
2006, 2008, 2010), FA Cups (1995, 1999, 2004, 2006), and CSL Cup
Jinan hosted the 2009 National Games of China, the premier
sports event at the national level in
China and the first major
multi-sports event held in
China after the
2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics in
Beijing. The National Games' main venue was the
Jinan Olympic Sports
Twin towns and sister cities
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Germany (January 29, 2004)
United Kingdom (May 5, 1983)
Joondalup, Western Australia,
Australia (September 4, 2004)
Kazanlak, Stara Zagora Province,
Bulgaria (January 21, 2013)
Ukraine (July 31, 2006)
Israel (July 16, 2007)
Marmaris, Muğla Province,
Turkey (September 19, 2011)
Russia (September 22, 1994)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (February 29, 1988)
Porto Velho, State of Rondônia,
Brazil (September 19, 2011)
Praia, Santiago Island,
Cape Verde (April 9, 2009)
Canada (January 29, 1985)
Rennes, Brittany Region,
France March 24, 2000)
United States (October 2, 1984)
South Korea (June 16, 1993)
Finland (December 22, 2000)
Belarus (August 17, 2009)
Japan (April 20, 1982)
Yamaguchi City, Honshu,
Japan (March 22, 1985)
India (November 1, 2017)
List of twin towns and sister cities in China
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Jinan Government website
Compass foreign business service center
Jinan travel guide from Wikivoyage
"Chi-nan Fu". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
Grand Canal of China
Ocean University of China
China University of Petroleum
Shandong Normal University
Ji Lu Mandarin
Jiao Liao Mandarin
Moo shu pork
List of sites in Jinan
Thousand Buddha Mountain
Great Wall of Qi
Qingdao beach resort city
Temple and Cemetery of Confucius
County-level divisions of
Metropolitan cities of China
Major Metropolitan regions
Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta (PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area
Yangtze River Delta
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County-level cities by Province
* Indicates this city has already occurred above.
aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as
provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special
Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities.
3Prefecture capital status established by
Heilongjiang Province and
not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen
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4Only administers islands and waters in South
China Sea and have no
urban core comparable to typical cities in China.
5The claimed province of
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announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual
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All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by
Largest cities or towns in China
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
Provincial capitals of China
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Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of
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Major cities along the Pearl River · Major cities along the Yangtze
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