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Coordinates: 36°40′N 116°59′E / 36.667°N 116.983°E / 36.667; 116.983

Jinan 济南市

Sub-provincial city

Clockwise from top: Jinan's Skyline, Quancheng Square, Daming Lake, Furong Street, and Five Dragon Pool

Nickname(s): City of Springs (泉城)

Location of Jinan
Jinan
City within Shandong

Jinan

Location in China

Coordinates: 36°40′N 116°59′E / 36.667°N 116.983°E / 36.667; 116.983

Country China

Province Shandong

County-level divisions 10

Township divisions 146

Government

 • Party Secretary Wang Wentao

 • Mayor Wang Zhonglin

Area

 • Sub-provincial city 8,177 km2 (3,157 sq mi)

 • Urban 3,304 km2 (1,276 sq mi)

 • Metro 3,304 km2 (1,276 sq mi)

Elevation(Airport) 23 m (75 ft)

Population (2010)[1]

 • Sub-provincial city 6,814,000

 • Density 830/km2 (2,200/sq mi)

 • Urban 4,693,700

 • Urban density 1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)

 • Metro[2] 11,000,000

 • Metro density 3,300/km2 (8,600/sq mi)

Time zone China
China
Standard (UTC+8)

Postal code 250000

Area code(s) 531

License plate prefixes 鲁A and 鲁W

GDP (2015) CNY 610 billion

 - per capita CNY 85,919

Website www.jinan.gov.cn (Chinese)

City tree: Chinese Willow; City flower: Lotus

Jinan

"Jǐnán" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese 济南

Traditional Chinese 濟南

Literal meaning "South of the Ji [River]"

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Jǐnán

Bopomofo ㄐㄧˇ   ㄋㄢˊ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jii'nan

Wade–Giles Chi3-nan2

IPA [tɕì.nǎn]

Wu

Romanization Tsi去noe平

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Jái-nàahm

IPA [tsɐ̌i.nȁːm]

Jyutping Zai2-naam4

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Chè-lâm

Tâi-lô Tsē-lâm

Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan,[a] is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.[4] The area of present-day Jinan
Jinan
has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub.[5] The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994.[5][6] Jinan
Jinan
is often called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs.[7] Its population was 6.8 million at the 2010 census.[1]

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Republican era 2.3 After World War II 2.4 Cultural Revolution 2.5 Post 1990s

3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate 3.3 Air quality

4 Administrative divisions 5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Culture and contemporary life

7.1 Dialect 7.2 Cuisine 7.3 Shopping centers

8 Infrastructure

8.1 Healthcare system 8.2 Transportation

8.2.1 Railways 8.2.2 Expressways 8.2.3 Airport 8.2.4 Public transportation

9 Main tourist attractions

9.1 Springs and lakes 9.2 Buddhist sites 9.3 Museums and libraries

10 Education

10.1 Universities and colleges 10.2 Provincial high schools

11 Military 12 Sports 13 Twin towns and sister cities 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References

16.1 Citations 16.2 Bibliography

17 External links

Names[edit] The modern-day name Jinan
Jinan
literally means "south of the Ji" and refers to the old Ji River
Ji River
that had flowed to the north of the city until the middle of the 19th century. The Ji River
Ji River
disappeared in 1852[8] when the Yellow River
Yellow River
changed its course northwards and took over its bed. The current pronunciation of the character "Ji" with the third tone ("jǐ") was established in the late 1970s. Prior to this, it was pronounced with the fourth tone ("jì"). Older texts spell the name as "Tsinan" ( Wade-Giles romanization) or "Chi-nan". During the times of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
(1045 BC to 256 BC), the city of Lixia (simplified Chinese: 历下; traditional Chinese: 歷下; pinyin: Lìxià) was the major settlement in the area. The name "Lixia" refers to the location of Jinan
Jinan
at the foot of Mount Li, which lies to the south of the city). Today, Lixia is the name of one of the city's districts. The Battle of An, which was fought in the area during the Spring and Autumn period (in 589 BCE) between the states of Qi and Jin, is named for the ancient city of Ān (Chinese: 鞍) which stood within the city limits of present-day Jinan. Marco Polo
Marco Polo
gives a brief description of Jinan
Jinan
under the name "Chingli"[9] or "Chinangli".[10] 19th and early 20th century texts frequently give the name of the city as "Tsinan Fu" where the additional "Fu" (Chinese: 府) comes from the dated Chinese term for a provincial capital (Chinese: 省府). Jinan
Jinan
is also referred to by the nickname "City of Springs" (Chinese: 泉城), because of the many artesian springs in the urban city centre and its surroundings. History[edit] Early history[edit] The area of present-day Jinan
Jinan
has been inhabited for more than 4000 years. The Neolithic
Neolithic
Longshan Culture
Longshan Culture
was first discovered at the Chéngzǐyá (城子崖) site to the east of Jinan
Jinan
( Zhangqiu
Zhangqiu
City) in 1928. One of the characteristic features of the Longshan Culture
Longshan Culture
are the intricate wheel-made pottery pieces it produced. Most renowned is the black "egg-shell pottery" with wall thicknesses that can go below 1 millimeter.[11] During the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
(722–481 BCE) and Warring States period (475–221 BCE), the area of Jinan
Jinan
was split between two states: the state of Lu in the west and the state of Qi in the east. In 685 BCE, the state of Qi started to build the Great Wall of Qi(齐长城) across Changqing county. Portions of the wall still remain today and are accessible as open air museums. Biǎn Què(扁鹊), according to the legend the earliest Chinese physician and active around 500 BCE, is said to have been a native of present-day Changqing County. Zou Yan (Chinese: 邹衍; pinyin: Zōu Yǎn, 305–240 BCE), a native of Zhangqiu
Zhangqiu
City, developed the concepts of Yin-Yang
Yin-Yang
and the Five Elements (阴阳五行说). Joseph Needham, a British sinologist, describes Zou as "The real founder of all Chinese scientific thought."[12] During the times of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BCE – 220 CE), Jinan
Jinan
was the capital of the Kingdom of Jibei (济北国/濟北國; pinyin: Jǐbĕi Guó) and evolved into the cultural and economic hub of the region. The Han dynasty
Han dynasty
tomb where the last king of Jibei, Liú Kuān (刘宽/劉寬), was buried at Shuangru Mountain was excavated by archaeologists from Shandong
Shandong
University in 1995 and 1996.[13] More than 2000 artifacts such as jade swords, jade masks, and jade pillows have been recovered within the 1,500 square meter excavation site, emphasizing the wealth of the city during the period.[14] Cáo Cāo (曹操, 155 – 220 CE) was an official in Jinan
Jinan
before he became the de facto ruler of the Han dynasty.[15] His son, Cao Pi, overthrew the last emperor of the Han and founded the Wei Kingdom (220 – 265 CE) of the Three Kingdoms Period. Beginning in the 5th century CE, Buddhism
Buddhism
flourished in Jinan. The Langgong Temple (朗公寺; pinyin: Lǎnggōng Sì, later renamed Shentong Temple, (神通寺; pinyin: Shéntōng Sì, and now in ruins) in the southern county of Licheng was one of the most important temples in northern China
China
at that time. The same period witnessed extensive construction of Buddhist sites in the southern counties of Licheng and Changqing such as the Lingyan Temple (灵岩寺) and the Thousand-Buddha Cliff
Thousand-Buddha Cliff
(千佛崖). In particular, a large number of cave temples were established in the hills south of Jinan.[9] Jinan
Jinan
remained the cultural center of the region during the Song dynasty (960 – 1279 CE). The Song rulers promoted Jinan
Jinan
to a superior prefecture in 1116 CE. Two of the most important poets of the Southern Song
Southern Song
were both born in Jinan: Li Qingzhao
Li Qingzhao
(李清照, 1084–1151 CE), the most renown female poet in Chinese history, and Xin Qiji
Xin Qiji
(辛弃疾, 1140–1207 CE), who was also a military leader of the Southern Song
Southern Song
dynasty. Both poets witnessed a series of crushing defeats of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
at the hands of the Jurchens who gained control over almost half of the Song territories and established the Jin dynasty in northern China. After Jinan
Jinan
came under control of the Jin dynasty, both Li Qingzhao
Li Qingzhao
and Xin Qiji
Xin Qiji
had to abandon their homes and reflected this experience in their works. During the Civil War that followed the proclamation of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
as Great Khan
Great Khan
in 1260 CE, Jinan
Jinan
was at the center of a rebellion by Yizhou governor Li Tan against Mongol rule in 1262 CE. The rebellion was crushed in a decisive battle that was fought not far from Jinan
Jinan
in late March or early April 1262 CE. After losing 4000 of his troops in the battle, Li Tan retreated to Jinan
Jinan
to make his last stand. After defections of his defenders had made his position untenable, Li Tan tried to commit suicide by drowning himself in Daming Lake. However, he was rescued by the Mongols in order to execute him by trampling him to death with their horses.[16] Despite such violent conflicts, culture in Jinan
Jinan
continued to thrive during the Jin (1115–1234) and Yuan (1271–1368) dynasties: One of the most renowned artists of the Yuan dynasty, Zhao Mengfu
Zhao Mengfu
(赵孟頫, 1254–1322) was appointed to the post of governor of Jinan
Jinan
in 1293 and spent three years in the city. Among the extraordinary art works he completed during his stay in Jinan, the best known painting is "Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains" (《鹊华秋色》). Geographer Yú Qīn (于钦/于欽, 1284–1333) also served as an official in Jinan
Jinan
and authored his geography book Qí Chéng (齐乘) there.

Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains (鹊华秋色)

When Shandong
Shandong
Province was established under the Ming dynasty, Jinan became its capital.[9] In 1852, the northward shift of the Yellow River
Yellow River
into a new bed close to the city triggered the modern expansion of Jinan. The new course of the Yellow River
Yellow River
connected the city to the Grand Canal and regional waterways in northern Shandong
Shandong
and southern Hebei.[9] German influence in Jinan
Jinan
grew after the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
ceded Qingdao
Qingdao
to the German Empire in 1897. A German concession area was established to the west of the historical city center (in the vicinity of the Jinan Railway Station first established by the Germans). The Jiaoji (Qingdao–Jinan) railway was built by the Germans against local resistance.[17] Discontent over the construction of the railway was one of the sources fueling the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1899–1901).[18] During the rebellion, foreign priests were evacuated from Jinan
Jinan
and Chinese Christians became a target of violence. The Jiaoji railway was completed in 1904, three years after the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
had been put down, and opened the city to foreign trade.[9] The importance of Jinan as a transportation hub was cemented with the completion of the north–south Jinpu railway from Tianjin
Tianjin
to Pukou
Pukou
in 1912.[9] Jinan became a major trading center for agricultural goods in northern China. Traded commodities included cotton, grain, peanuts, and tobacco.[9] Jinan
Jinan
also developed into a major industrial center, second in importance to Qingdao
Qingdao
in the province. Republican era[edit] In 1919, after the First World War, the Japanese took over the German sphere of influence in Shandong, including control of the Jiaoji railway, and established a significant Japanese influence in Jinan.[9] According to estimates by a contemporary Japanese government official, about 2,000 Japanese were living in Jinan
Jinan
in 1931, about half of whom were involved in the opium trade for which the Japanese had a loosely controlled monopoly that was exploited with the participation of Chinese traders.[19] During the Warlord era
Warlord era
of the Republic of China, Zhang Zongchang, nicknamed the "Dogmeat General",[20] ruled Shandong
Shandong
from Jinan
Jinan
for a period that lasted from April 1925 until May 1928. Zhang was unpopular for his heavy-handed rule and in particular his heavy taxation.[21] Besides heavy taxes, he relied financially on opium to finance his periodic wars.[19] Zhang even planned to use some of the wealth extracted from these sources for building a living shrine and a large bronze statue for himself on the shore of Daming Lake, but these plans were not realized as his rule came to an end. In the spring of 1928, the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
reached Jinan.[22] On May 3, 1928, clashes developed between Japanese troops stationed in Jinan
Jinan
and the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
troops moving into the city ( Jinan
Jinan
Incident).[23] Cai Gongshi, a Kuomintang
Kuomintang
emissary sent to negotiate and 16 members of his entourage were cruelly executed by the Japanese. Japanese officers placed an order to slice off his nose and ears, and to gouge out his eyes and tongue. Sixteen other members of his negotiation team were also striped naked, recklessly whipped, dragged to the back-lawn, and slaughtered by machine guns on the same day.[24] After the incident, Japanese reinforcements were sent to Shandong
Shandong
and by 11 May, Japanese troops pushed the Chinese troops from the area, inflicted thousands of casualties[25] and killed over 2000 Chinese civilians.[26] The Japanese occupied Jinan
Jinan
for more than six months until they withdrew to their garrison in Tsingtao on the 28th of March 1929. When Chiang lectured a group of Chinese army cadets, he urged them to turn their energies to washing away the shame of Jinan, but to conceal their hatred until the last moment.[27] The Kuomintang government later decreed that May 3 be designated a "National Humiliation Memorial Day." During the Nanjing decade
Nanjing decade
of the Republic of China, Han Fuju, a military commander from the warlord era who had aligned himself with the Kuomintang, was rewarded with the military governorship of Shandong, after fighting against the rebel troops of Yen Hsi-shan
Yen Hsi-shan
and his former commander Feng Yu-hsiang
Feng Yu-hsiang
in the Central Plains War
Central Plains War
in 1930.[28] He established his base in Jinan
Jinan
and is credited with curtailing banditry and drug trading, thereby bringing a measure of peace and prosperity to the city.[29] However, from 1935 onwards Han was under heavy pressure from the Japanese consul in Jinan
Jinan
to declare Shandong
Shandong
an "independent state" allied with Japan. After the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese invasion force crossed the Yellow River
Yellow River
60 km (37 mi) north-east of Jinan
Jinan
on December 23, 1937.[30] Han Fuju
Han Fuju
abandoned Jinan
Jinan
the next day against orders to hold the city to the death.[30] He ordered the offices of the provincial government and the Japanese consulate in Jinan
Jinan
to be burned down[30] and the ensuing power vacuum led to widespread looting in the city.[30] Japanese troops from the 10th Division of the Manchurian Area Army[31] entered Jinan
Jinan
on December 27, 1937.[30] Han Fuju
Han Fuju
was arrested and executed for disobeying orders from superior commanders and retreating on his own accord[32] by Chiang Kai-Shek's chief of staff, General Hu Zongnan.[33][34]

Monument commemorating the war dead of the battle of Jinan
Jinan
on Hero Hill

After World War II[edit] Japanese troops controlled Jinan
Jinan
until their defeat in 1945. After this, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
regained short-lived control of the city during the period from 1946 to 1948. The provincial government during this time was led by Lieutenant-General Wang Yaowu, who also commanded the KMT army in the region. KMT rule over Jinan
Jinan
ended in September 1948 with the Battle of Jinan
Battle of Jinan
in which units of the People's Liberation Army under the command of Chen Yi took the city. The battle for Jinan took a decisive turn in favor of the attackers when KMT Lieutenant-General Wú Huàwén (吴化文) defected to the Communist side with about 8,000 of his troops.[35] The most likely explanation for his defection is that he had been pressured through relatives of his who were held captive by the Communist forces.[35] Lieutenant-General Wu had been in charge of the vital outer ring of defenses that protected the main airfield, the railroad station, and the commercial district.[35] With these critical assets lost, the situation of the city's defenders became untenable. Following the weakening of the city's defenses, the People's Liberation Army breached the city wall and entered Jinan
Jinan
on September 24, 1948. Cultural Revolution[edit] In March 1966, the largest among the drawn-out sequence of earthquakes that made up the Xingtai
Xingtai
earthquake damaged about 36,000 houses in Jinan.[36]

Entrance to Water Lily Street,a historical shopping street in Jinan.

On May 27, 1966, the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
started in Jinan
Jinan
with an article in the local newspaper " Jinan
Jinan
Evening News" (济南晚报) that denounced vice-governor Yu Xiu as a Bourgeois agent within the government.[36] Starting from early June 1966, the schools in Jinan were closed down by strikes as teachers were "struggled against". At the same time, big-character posters started to appear in the city.[36] Red Guards took to the streets of Jinan
Jinan
from late August 1966 onwards, damaging cultural heritage and setting up courts to prosecute perceived enemies of the revolution. In the spring of 1967, the "May 7th Incident" took place: When Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan, both later reviled as members of the Gang of Four, visited Jinan
Jinan
to support the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
and its local leader Wang Xiao Yu, fighting erupted in the front of the provincial government between two rival factions of the Cultural Revolution, the "April 22nd Group" and Wang Xiao Yu's "April 28th Group". In the end, more than 10,000 people had been involved in the fighting.[37] On October 11, 1967, the tallest statue of Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
in Shandong
Shandong
province was erected on the campus of Shandong
Shandong
Normal University.[38] On September 17, 1968, a large assembly of Jinan
Jinan
workers celebrated the arrival of a mango fruit in the "August 1st" Meeting Hall. The fruit had been a gift to the workers in Beijing
Beijing
by Mao and was subsequently passed on to the workers in Jinan. In November 1968, Wang Xiao Yu began to agitate against the local army units in Jinan
Jinan
and Shandong
Shandong
Province. By then unrest due to the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
had severely damaged the city's governmental and industrial infrastructure, with about 80 percent of all government institutions shut down.[39] Large public protests were staged on April 4 and 5, 1969, in which approximately 500,000 people protested the occupation of Zhenbao Island
Zhenbao Island
by the Soviet Union.[40] On July 29, 1970, the leadership of the Cultural Revolution passed a resolution to make sweeping changes to the city's educational system: The liberal arts departments of Shandong University were moved to Qufu
Qufu
and combined with Qufu
Qufu
Normal College to form a new Shandong
Shandong
University. The biology department was moved to Tai'an
Tai'an
and merged into the Shandong
Shandong
Agricultural College. The rest of the sciences were to form the Shandong
Shandong
Science and Technology University. Shandong
Shandong
Normal University was to be moved to Liaocheng. Shandong
Shandong
Medical College and Shandong
Shandong
College of Traditional Chinese Medicine were to be merged and moved to Tai'an.[41] Shandong University was restored in its original form and the " Shandong
Shandong
Science and Technology University" was abolished in early 1974.[42] The first reversals of Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
policies started in early 1971: On May 23 of that year, the Shandong
Shandong
Provincial Museum was reopened after having been closed for about 5 years (since May 1966).[43] In the next year, the Jinan
Jinan
Committee for the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
officially reverted the name changes of four city districts enacted in 1966. During the 6 years between the name change and its reversal, Lixia District had been known officially as "Hongwei", Tianqiao as "Face the Sun", Huaiyin as "East Wind", and Shizhong as "Red Flag".[44] As the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
came to an end, Jinan
Jinan
started to receive visitors from abroad. For example, it was visited by a delegation from the United States Congress
United States Congress
between August 8 and 11, 1975.[45] On September 18, 1976, Mao's death was mourned by about 600,000 people at an official service in Jinan's August 1 Square.[46] Post 1990s[edit] Jinan
Jinan
was the host of the 11th All China
China
Games during October 2009. These games are the selection games for the Chinese Olympic champions. For this occasion, security was heightened and a full volunteer force was out on the streets directing visitor traffic. The city conducted major renovations in its transportation and recreation services in anticipation of the Games' visitors.[47] Geography and climate[edit]

Jinan
Jinan
and vicinities

Geography[edit]

Baotu Spring

Jinan
Jinan
is located in the north-western part of Shandong
Shandong
province at 36° 40′ northern latitude and 116° 57′ east of Greenwich, about 400 kilometres (250 mi) south of the national capital of Beijing. It borders Liaocheng
Liaocheng
to the southwest, Dezhou
Dezhou
to the northwest, Binzhou
Binzhou
to the northeast, Zibo
Zibo
to the east, Laiwu
Laiwu
to the southeast, and Tai'an
Tai'an
to the south. In the relief of the region, the city occupies a transition zone between the northern foothills of the Taishan
Taishan
Massif to the south of the city and the valley of the Yellow River to the north. Karst
Karst
aquifers in limestone formations sloping down from the south to the north give rise to many artesian springs in the city center as well as in surrounding areas. Climate[edit] Jinan
Jinan
has a humid subtropical (Köppen: Cwa), considering a normal isotherm of −3 °C, or a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dwa), considering an isotherm of 0 °C but favoring the former, with four well-defined seasons. The city is dry and nearly rainless in spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold (with little snow) in winter. The average annual temperature is 14.70 °C (58.5 °F), and the annual precipitation is around slightly above 670 millimetres (26.4 in), with a strong summer maximum, and high variability from year to year. January is the coldest and driest month, with a mean temperature of −0.4 °C (31.3 °F) and 5.7 millimetres (0.22 in) of equivalent rainfall. July is the hottest and wettest month, the corresponding numbers are 27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and 201.3 mm (7.93 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48 percent in July to 63 percent in May, the city receives 2,547 hours of bright sunshine annually. Due to the mountains to the south of the city, temperature inversions are common, occurring on about 200 days per year.[48] The high precipitation for northern Chinese standards, in tandem with the topography (mountains surrounding the city on three sides), leads to particularly oppressive summer weather and the city being named as a candidate for the fourth "furnace", c.e. Three Furnaces.[49] Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −19.7 °C (−3 °F) on 17 January 1953 to 42.5 °C (109 °F) on 24 July 1955.[50][51]

Climate data for Jinan
Jinan
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.2 (68.4) 25.7 (78.3) 30.2 (86.4) 36.3 (97.3) 39.7 (103.5) 41.2 (106.2) 42.5 (108.5) 40.7 (105.3) 38.5 (101.3) 33.7 (92.7) 26.5 (79.7) 19.2 (66.6) 42.5 (108.5)

Average high °C (°F) 3.9 (39) 6.9 (44.4) 13.3 (55.9) 21.6 (70.9) 27.1 (80.8) 31.6 (88.9) 31.9 (89.4) 30.6 (87.1) 26.9 (80.4) 21.2 (70.2) 13.0 (55.4) 6.0 (42.8) 19.5 (67.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) 2.2 (36) 8.2 (46.8) 16.1 (61) 21.8 (71.2) 26.3 (79.3) 27.5 (81.5) 26.3 (79.3) 22.0 (71.6) 16.1 (61) 8.3 (46.9) 1.8 (35.2) 14.7 (58.5)

Average low °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −1.6 (29.1) 3.9 (39) 11.3 (52.3) 16.8 (62.2) 21.6 (70.9) 23.6 (74.5) 22.5 (72.5) 17.7 (63.9) 11.8 (53.2) 4.5 (40.1) −1.7 (28.9) 10.5 (51.0)

Record low °C (°F) −19.7 (−3.5) −16.5 (2.3) −11.3 (11.7) −1.9 (28.6) 4.2 (39.6) 10.9 (51.6) 14.0 (57.2) 12.8 (55) 6.4 (43.5) 0.0 (32) −10.1 (13.8) −16 (3) −19.7 (−3.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.7 (0.224) 8.5 (0.335) 15.3 (0.602) 27.4 (1.079) 46.6 (1.835) 78.3 (3.083) 201.3 (7.925) 170.3 (6.705) 58.5 (2.303) 36.5 (1.437) 16.2 (0.638) 8.2 (0.323) 672.8 (26.489)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.9 3.1 3.9 5.1 6.5 8.2 13.3 11.6 6.5 4.6 3.9 3.2 72.8

Average relative humidity (%) 53 51 47 46 51 55 72 75 64 58 56 55 56.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.9 172.4 212.8 242.9 275.2 258.2 214.5 219.0 221.1 215.1 177.1 167.6 2,546.8

Percent possible sunshine 56 57 58 62 63 59 48 52 59 62 58 56 57.5

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration[52]

Air quality[edit]

7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog

See also: 2013 Eastern China
China
smog According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and The Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Jinan
Jinan
is one of ten most air polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, 7 of 10 most air polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Jinan
Jinan
and Shijiazhuang.[53] As air pollution in China
China
is at an all-time high, several northern cities are among the most polluted cities and has one of the worst air quality in China. Reporting on China's air quality has been accompanied by what seems like a monochromatic slideshow of the country's several cities smothered in thick smog. According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, Jinan
Jinan
is among China's 10 most polluted cities, and is the only Shandong
Shandong
city to be on this list. Other cities on the blacklist includes major Chinese cities like Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Zhengzhou, and 6 other prefectural cities all in Hebei
Hebei
Province.[54] These cities are all situated in traditional geographic subdivision of "Huabei (North China) Region". A dense wave of smog began in the Central and Eastern part of China
China
on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 kilometres (750 mi),[55] including Jinan
Jinan
and surrounding Shandong
Shandong
area. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region.[56] Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in North China region.[57] Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.[58] Administrative divisions[edit] The sub-provincial city of Jinan
Jinan
has direct jurisdiction over 7 districts and 3 counties:

Map

Lixia Shizhong Huaiyin Tianqiao Licheng Changqing Zhangqiu Pingyin County Jiyang County Shanghe County

Subdivision Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population(2010) Area (km²) Dens. (/km²)

City Proper

Lixia District 历下区 Lìxià Qū 583,500 100.87 7475

Shizhong District 市中区 Shìzhōng Qū 570,000 280.33 2545

Huaiyin District 槐荫区 Huáiyìn Qū 370,000 151.56 3144

Tianqiao District 天桥区 Tiānqiáo Qū 485,773 258.71 2660

Suburban

Licheng District 历城区 Lìchéng Qū 849,900 1303.88 862

Changqing District 长清区 Chángqīng Qū 530,000 1208.54 478

Zhangqiu
Zhangqiu
District 章丘区 Zhāngqiū Qū 1,004,000 1721.29 618

Rural

Pingyin County 平阴县 Píngyīn Xiàn 360,000 715.18 463

Jiyang County 济阳县 Jǐyáng Xiàn 520,095 1097.15 472

Shanghe County 商河县 Shānghé Xiàn 579,928 1163.19 484

These are further divided into 146 township-level divisions, including 65towns, 27 townships and 54 subdistricts. Economy[edit]

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Skyline seen from the Thousand Buddha Mountain

With the shift of the Yellow River
Yellow River
to a new bed right to the north of Jinan
Jinan
(in 1852) and the establishment of a railroad hub, the city became a major market for agricultural products from the productive farming regions to the north.[9] Following the trade in agricultural goods, the city developed a textile and clothing industry, flour mills, oil presses, as well as factories producing paper, cement, and matches.[9] In the 1950s, large iron and steel works as well as chemical factories were established around Jinan. The large metal works produce pig iron, ingot steel, as well as finished steel.[9] In 2008, steel manufacturing was restructured with the formation of the Shandong
Shandong
Iron and Steel Group.[citation needed] In the 1970s, factories for the production of trucks and construction vehicles (Sinotruk) were added. Jinan
Jinan
has a pool of high-quality labor resources. There are 18 universities and colleges in the city where more than 200,000 students are studying. Among the over 200 research institutes in the city, 10 are national laboratories. The focus on technology intensive industries has transformed Jinan from a city supported by heavy industry and textiles to a city with more diverse industrial structure. Information Technology, transportation tools, home appliances, and bio-engineered products, among others, have become important components of the area's industry. Jinan's IT-related economic output was ranked to be in the fourth place nationally in 2004[citation needed]. Industrial zones include:

Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Founded in 1991, the Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development zone was one of the first of its kind approved by the State Council. The zone is located to the east of the city and covers a total planning area of 83 km2 (32 sq mi) that is divided into a central area covering 33 km2 (13 sq mi), an export processing district of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi), and an eastern extension area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi). Since its foundation, the Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted enterprises as LG, Panasonic, Volvo, and Sanyo. In 2000, it joined the world science and technology association and set up a China- Ukraine
Ukraine
High-tech Cooperation Park. The Qilu Software Park became the sister park of Bangalore park of India.[59]

Jinan
Jinan
Export Processing Zone

The export processing zone is located in the eastern suburbs of Jinan, to the east of the Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development Zone and to the north of the Jiwang highway. The distances to the Jiqing Highway and the Jinan
Jinan
Airport are 9 km (5.6 mi) and 18 km (11 mi) respectively.[60]

Liaocheng
Liaocheng
Economic Development Zone

The China
China
National Heavy Duty Truck Group (Sinotruk) has its headquarters in the city.[61] Demographics[edit]

The Great Southern Mosque, the oldest mosque in Jinan.

In 2005, the estimated population of the entire area under the jurisdiction of Jinan
Jinan
City was 5.69 million, with a total of 2.54 million living in urban areas. By 2009, the total population had grown to about six million. The census in 2010 counted 6.814 million inhabitants out of which about 4.335 million were living in 6 urban districts which made up the built-up area.[1] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 11 million.[2] The population is predominantly Han (98.3 percent), with very small portions of Hui and Manchu
Manchu
Chinese. Jinan
Jinan
has a significant Muslim community centred in the city's Muslim quarter, located to the west of the historical center. Culture and contemporary life[edit] Dialect[edit] Local residents in the city proper, as well as in the surrounding areas, have traditionally spoken the Jinan dialect of Mandarin that is not readily understood even by native speakers of standard Mandarin. The younger people of Jinan
Jinan
are more likely to speak standard Mandarin, whereas many older residents retain strong local dialect elements in their speech. Nevertheless, even the younger residents of Jinan
Jinan
tend to retain a strong local accent and mix local vocabulary into the standardized Mandarin vocabulary. Due to the influx of migrant workers during the past decade of China's economic boom, many of the current population that are of working age are not natives of Jinan
Jinan
but have learned to understand the Jinan
Jinan
dialect Cuisine[edit] Jinan
Jinan
has its own cuisine, the Jinan
Jinan
style of the Lu cuisine (Simplified Chinese: 鲁菜/ Traditional Chinese: 魯菜; pinyin: Lǔcài), one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China. One of its features is the use of soup in its dishes. Modern cuisines in northern China
China
—Beijing, Tianjin
Tianjin
and the northeastern regions including Heilongjiang, Jilin
Jilin
and Liaoning— are all branches of Shandong cuisine. Shopping centers[edit] Most shopping malls in Jinan
Jinan
are in the downtown area centered around Spring City Square
Spring City Square
(泉城广场) and Spring City Road (泉城路). Spring City Square
Spring City Square
was built by the municipal government beside the city moat in the early 21st century; at the center is the statue "Spring" which has become a symbol of Jinan. The square borders on the ancient city moat. It has a music fountain, a 46,000 square meter underground shopping center and a memorial hall with statues of famous people from Shandong. Spring City Road was rebuilt at the same time that Spring City Square was created. The government's intention was to create a modern business district and yet preserve the traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, newly built shopping malls with traditional Chinese architectural styles and modern western skyscrapers can be found side-by-side along Spring City Road. Notable retail businesses are Quancheng Bookstore – the largest bookstore of the city – and Walmart (near the western end of Spring City Road). Major shopping malls along the road are the Guihe Shopping Center (贵和商厦), the Sofitel
Sofitel
Silver Plaza, the Shimao international shopping center, and the Wanda Shopping Mall (万达集团). Parc 66 (济南恒隆广场) to the south of Spring City Road (opposite of Water Lily Street), opened in August 2011, is Jinan's largest shopping mall with seven levels of retail space and a total gross floor area of 171,000 square meters.[62] Infrastructure[edit] Healthcare system[edit]

Shandong
Shandong
Provincial Hospital (SPH, 山东省立医院), address: 324 Jingwu Weiqi Road (36°39′24.6″N 116°58′39.7″E / 36.656833°N 116.977694°E / 36.656833; 116.977694) Second Hospital Attached to Shandong
Shandong
University (山东大学第二医院) Stomatological Hospital Attached to Shandong
Shandong
University (山东大学附属口腔医院) Central Hospital of Jinan
Jinan
City (济南市中心医院), address: 105 Jiefang Road (36°40′01″N 117°02′30″E / 36.667°N 117.0417°E / 36.667; 117.0417) Qilu Hospital (山东大学齐鲁医院), address: 107 Wenhuaxi Road (36°39′25.6″N 117°0′41.25″E / 36.657111°N 117.0114583°E / 36.657111; 117.0114583) Jinan
Jinan
No. 1 People's Hospital (济南市第一人民医院), address: 132 Daminghu Road Jinan
Jinan
No. 2 People's Hospital (济南市第二人民医院), also known as "Eye Hospital of Jinan" (济南眼科医院) Jinan
Jinan
No. 3 People's Hospital (济南市第三人民医院) Jinan
Jinan
No. 4 People's Hospital (济南市第四人民医院), address: 50 Shīfàn Road Jinan
Jinan
No. 5 People's Hospital (济南市第五人民医院), address: 447 Jīngshí Road No. 456 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army (中国人民解放军第四五六医院, formerly Jinan
Jinan
Airforce Hospital, 空军济南医院) Pediatric Hospital of Jinan
Jinan
City (济南市儿童医院) Jinan
Jinan
Infectious Disease Hospital (济南市传染病医院), address: 173 Jīngshí Road (36°38′56″N 116°59′17″E / 36.649°N 116.98805°E / 36.649; 116.98805) Qianfoshan Hospital (千佛山医院), address: 66 Jingshi Road (36°38′52.04″N 117°2′13.33″E / 36.6477889°N 117.0370361°E / 36.6477889; 117.0370361) Jinan
Jinan
military hospital 济南军区总医院

Transportation[edit] Railways[edit]

CRH at Jinan
Jinan
Railway Station

Jinan
Jinan
West Railway Station

Jinan
Jinan
is positioned at the intersection of two major railways: The Jinghu Railway
Jinghu Railway
that runs from Beijing
Beijing
to Shanghai
Shanghai
is the major north–south backbone of the railway system in eastern China. In Jinan, it intersects with the Jiaoji Railway that connects Jinan
Jinan
to the sea port of Qingdao
Qingdao
to the east. In addition, the Hanji Railway connects Jinan
Jinan
to the city of Handan
Handan
( Hebei
Hebei
Province) in the west. Within Shandong
Shandong
province, the Jinghu Railway
Jinghu Railway
connects Jinan
Jinan
with the cities of Dezhou, Tai'an, Jining, and Zaozhuang; the Jiaoji Railway provides a link to the cities of Zibo, Qingdao, and Weifang; the Hanji Railway serves the cities of Yancheng
Yancheng
and Liaocheng. Central Jinan
Jinan
is served by the Jinan Railway Station
Jinan Railway Station
and the Jinan
Jinan
East Railway Station (just by Daming Lake). The Beijing– Shanghai
Shanghai
High-Speed Railway calls at the new Jinan
Jinan
West Railway Station, which is outside the central metropolitan center and is in suburban western Jinan's Huaiyin District. Since it opened for public service on 30 June 2011,[63] it has become a future hub with west-east running high speed railways to Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
and Qingdao. Expressways[edit] Major expressways include China
China
National Highway 104, China
China
National Highway 220, and China
China
National Highway 309. Because of Jinan's location and role as a road and rail transportation hub, the Jinan Coach Terminus has one of the largest passenger flows nationally. On peak travel days, as many as 92,000 passengers per day have been counted, on off-peak days the number is around 42,000 passengers per day.[64] Airport[edit] Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport
Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport
is located about 33 km (21 mi) northeast of the city center and to the north of the town of Yaoqiang (遥墙镇) from which the name of the airport is derived. The airport is connected to the city center of Jinan
Jinan
by expressways. It has domestic flights to many of the major cities in China
China
as well as to international destinations, in particular Osaka,[65] Seoul, Bangkok
Bangkok
and Singapore. Public transportation[edit] Jinan's urban public transportation history began in 1938, and the city is now a major bus transportation hub. To ensure that buses have priority, most of the city's urban main roads have a bus lane, and bus rapid transit signal priority measures are gradually being implemented. The Jinan
Jinan
urban area has more than 220 public transportation routes. According to the properties of bus lines, Jinan's urban bus network can be divided into five categories:

Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit
system: The Jinan
Jinan
BRT has 7 routes, connected by transfer stations. As a result of the BRT's isolated central lanes, signal priority and other measures, bus speeds have been greatly improved, improving public transport. Price:¥2. Conventional buses: Have air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buses. Air-conditioned lines have a K perfix on their route numbers. These lines comprise more than 200 routes covering the whole city. Price:¥1 Air-conditioned is¥2. Public trolleybuses: the Jinan
Jinan
trolleybus system, opened in 1977, once had 10 lines, but now has only four. These are Jinan's most important bus routes. Price:¥1. Suburban and exurban buses – Operated by air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned vehicles. Most of these buses carries passengers from suburban/exurban area to urban area, while the others provide village-to-village or village-to-county service. Price: Varies from ¥1 to ¥12. Student, supermarket and particular business bus lines – These are for large schools, supermarkets, business transfer students, customers, employees of private businesses. They operate side by side with the other bus systems.

Started by construction in 2013, Jinan Metro
Jinan Metro
will open in 2018[66] and then will be extended to 3 lines toward 2030. Main tourist attractions[edit] Main article: List of sites in Jinan

Pavilion in the 10,000 Bamboo Garden of Baotu Spring
Baotu Spring
Park

The Thousand Buddha Mountain, a religious landmark in Jinan

Sacred Heart Cathedral, Jinan

Jinan
Jinan
is renowned across China
China
for its numerous springs, the lakes fed by the spring water, and the weeping willows that grow along the water edges. The late-Qing author Liu E
Liu E
describes Jinan's cityscape in his novel "The Travels of Lao Can" (老残游记, written 1903–04, published in 1907) as "Every family has spring water, every household has a willow tree".[67] Jinan
Jinan
was also the historical center of Buddhist culture for the whole province which is still manifest in the many historic sites that are left behind in its southern counties. Springs and lakes[edit] Jinan
Jinan
is known as the "City of Springs" because of the large number of natural artesian springs. The majority of the springs, many of which have been historically listed under the "72 Famous Springs" (七十二名泉) are concentrated in the downtown district and flow north to converge in Daming Lake.[7] The Baotu Spring
Baotu Spring
Park is the most popular of the springs in the City of Jinan
Jinan
proper. Besides the Baotu Spring, the park contains several other springs that are listed among the "72 Famous Springs". "Bào tū" (趵突) means "jumping and leaping" in Chinese. The water in the spring pool can be seen foaming and gushing, looking like a pot of boiling water. The spring was visited by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
(1711–1799) of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
who declared it "the best spring under the heaven" (Chinese: 天下第一泉; pinyin: tiān xià dì yī quán). A tablet with the Emperor's handwriting "Baotu Spring" has since been erected beside the spring pool. Not far away to the northeast of Baotu Spring
Baotu Spring
Park is the Daming Lake, which, together with Baotu Spring
Baotu Spring
and the Thousand-Buddha Mountain (千佛山) is often regarded as the "Three Greatest Attractions in Jinan". Other notable parks in the city include the Five Dragon Pool (五龙潭) near the Baotu Spring
Baotu Spring
Park, the Black Tiger Spring (黑虎泉) on the southern city moat, and the Baimai Springs (百脉泉) of Zhangqiu
Zhangqiu
City to the east of Jinan. Buddhist sites[edit] Historic Buddhist sites are particularly common in Licheng County to the south-east of the city center of Jinan. The Four Gates Pagoda (四门塔), built in 661, is the oldest existing one-story stone tower in China. The pagoda houses four Buddhist statues dating from the 6th century, and the Cypress tree (九顶松) standing next to the pagoda is more than 1000 years old. Below the hill on which pagoda stands lie the remnants of the Shentong Temple (神通寺), which was founded in the 4th century but was destroyed in the wars of later dynasties. The funerary stelae of monks from the temple which date from different historic periods display remarkable artistic features. The statues in the nearby Thousand-Buddha Cliff
Thousand-Buddha Cliff
(千佛崖) form one of the best collections of Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
Buddhist statues in the region. The Lingyan Temple in the southern county of Changqing was one of the four most famous temples (四大名刹) of the Tang dynasty. The temple was founded during the Jin dynasty and reached its heyday during the Tang and Song dynasties. During the Tang dynasty, the famous monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang
stayed in the temple and translated Buddhist manuscripts he had brought to China
China
from India. Many emperors in Chinese history visited the temple before they went to Mount Tai
Mount Tai
(one of China's five sacred mountains, located south of Jinan) for ceremonies. The clay sculptures of Buddhas made in the Song dynasty are considered as "The Best of China" by scholar and journalist Liang Qichao. Buddhist architectures within the temple such as pagodas and tomb stelae are among the earliest and best protected in the region. Museums and libraries[edit] The Shandong
Shandong
Provincial Museum located at the foothill of Thousand-Buddha Mountain
Thousand-Buddha Mountain
is the largest museum in the province. It has a large collection of natural as well as historical treasures from the whole province. The museum was established in its present form in 1982 and currently has 8 exhibition halls : "Treasures of Shandong Province"; "Stone Sculptures"; "Warship of the Ming dynasty"; "Ancient Coins"; "Art Treasures"; "Fossil Collections"; "Dinosaurs"; and "Specimens". The museum has more than 210,000 relics and specimens, making up ⅓ of the collections in museums of whole province. The Shandong
Shandong
Provincial Museum has been ranked No. 7 in terms of collection size among the museums of China. The Jinan
Jinan
Municipal Museum [68] is located at the south-western foot of the Thousand-Buddha Mountain, in the north of the city center. Although much smaller than the provincial museum, the municipal museum still houses a collection of more than 20,000 items, most of which were recovered in the city area. The Shandong
Shandong
Provincial Library [69] in the eastern High-tech Park (address: 2912 Second Ring East Road) is the principal library of the province and is ranked among the Top 10 Chinese libraries. As of 2004[update], the library had more than 5.18 million documents, many of which date back many centuries and are important sources for research on Chinese history. The library also has a large collection of western journals/books. Originally, the library was built close to Daming Lake
Daming Lake
in 1909 by the then governor of Shandong. In the late 1990s, a project was undertaken to move the library to the eastern part of the city, and it reopened in 2002 with 35 reading rooms and more than 2000 seats. Education[edit] Universities and colleges[edit]

Qilu Normal University (齐鲁师范学院, formerly Shandong Educational Institute: 山东教育学院)[70] Qilu University of Technology
Qilu University of Technology
(山东轻工业学院, or Shandong Polytechnic University)[71] Shandong
Shandong
Architectural Institute (山东建筑大学) Shandong
Shandong
College of Electronic Technology (山东电子职业技术学院)[72] Shandong
Shandong
Jiaotong University (山东交通学院)[73] Shandong
Shandong
Normal University (山东师范大学) Shangdong Polytechnic (济南铁道职业技术学院, formerly Jinan Railway Polytechnic)[74] Shandong
Shandong
Sport University (山东体育学院)[75] Shandong
Shandong
University Shandong
Shandong
University of Art and Design (山东工艺美术学院)[76] Shandong
Shandong
University of Arts (山东艺术学院)[77] Shandong
Shandong
University of Finance and Economics[78] Shandong
Shandong
University of Science and Technology, which also has campuses in Qingdao
Qingdao
and Tai'an. Shandong
Shandong
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine[79] Shandong
Shandong
Women's University University of Jinan

Provincial high schools[edit]

Shandong
Shandong
Experimental High School Jinan
Jinan
Foreign Language School Senior High School Attached to Shandong
Shandong
Normal University (山东师范大学附属中学)[80]

Military[edit] Jinan
Jinan
is the former command center for the Jinan
Jinan
Military Region, one of the defunct seven military regions into which the People's Liberation Army is organized.[81] Jinan
Jinan
MR was considered as a strategic reserve of PLA. Jinan Military Region
Jinan Military Region
coverred two of China's most populous provinces, Henan
Henan
and Shandong. Sports[edit] The most renowned sports team in Jinan
Jinan
are the Shandong
Shandong
Golden Lions. The Shandong
Shandong
Golden Lions have been playing in the Chinese top basketball league for all the seasons (13 for basketball) since the league turned professional in 1995. The team's best season was 1997–1998 when it finished 3rd place. In the 2007–2008 season, the Shandong
Shandong
Golden Lions also reached the 3rd place at the end of the season, but they were knocked out at the first round of the playoffs. The Shandong
Shandong
Luneng Football Club is the most widely known football team in Jinan. The club currently plays at the highest tier of Chinese football, the Chinese Super League. The Shandong
Shandong
Luneng Football Club is one of four clubs which have been playing in Chinese top football league every season since the league turned professional in 1994. Since 1994 the club has won 9 titles: Top League Champions (1999, 2006, 2008, 2010), FA Cups (1995, 1999, 2004, 2006), and CSL Cup (2004). In 2009, Jinan
Jinan
hosted the 2009 National Games of China, the premier sports event at the national level in China
China
and the first major multi-sports event held in China
China
after the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
in Beijing. The National Games' main venue was the Jinan
Jinan
Olympic Sports Center.[82] Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

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Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany
Germany
(January 29, 2004) Coventry, England, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(May 5, 1983) Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
Australia
(September 4, 2004) Kazanlak, Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(January 21, 2013) Kharkiv, Ukraine
Ukraine
(July 31, 2006)

Kfar Saba, Israel
Israel
(July 16, 2007) Marmaris, Muğla Province, Turkey
Turkey
(September 19, 2011) Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Russia
(September 22, 1994) Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
(February 29, 1988) Porto Velho, State of Rondônia, Brazil
Brazil
(September 19, 2011)

Praia, Santiago Island, Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(April 9, 2009) Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
Canada
(January 29, 1985) Rennes, Brittany Region, France
France
March 24, 2000) Sacramento, California, United States
United States
(October 2, 1984) Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
South Korea
(June 16, 1993)

Vantaa, Uusimaa, Finland
Finland
(December 22, 2000) Vitebsk, Belarus
Belarus
(August 17, 2009) Wakayama, Honshu, Japan
Japan
(April 20, 1982) Yamaguchi City, Honshu, Japan
Japan
(March 22, 1985) Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
India
(November 1, 2017)

See also[edit]

List of twin towns and sister cities in China

China
China
portal

Notes[edit]

^ In addition to the names in the infobox above, Jinan
Jinan
has also been romanized as Tse-nan.[3]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02.  ^ a b OECD
OECD
Urban Policy Reviews: China
China
2015, OECD
OECD
READ edition. OECD iLibrary. OECD. 18 April 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 9789264230033. ISSN 2306-9341. Linked from the OECD
OECD
here ^ "China" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., 1878. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Shandong". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 2014-04-22.  ^ a b . " Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) City Information". HKTDC.  ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Archived from the original on 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-05-28.  ^ a b 网易. "济南新72名泉评定前后". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "The Geography of China". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Jinan". Britannica.com. Retrieved February 11, 2016.  ^ The Travels of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
– The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition, Volume II ^ Neolithic
Neolithic
Painted Pottery, National Museum of History, Taipeh ^ Needham, Joseph. 1978. The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. Colin A. Ronan, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.142-143 ISBN 0-521-21821-7 ^ "《第五批重点文物保护单位:汉济北王墓(古墓葬)》". 中国文明网. Retrieved 2009-10-03.  ^ "《济北王墓:一个诸侯王的身后事》". 刘国林. 大众网. Retrieved 2009-10-03.  ^ de Crespigny, p.39 ^ Morris Rossabi (1988): "Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times" Berkeley: University of California Press ^ 斯, 李. "1904年06月01日 胶济铁路通车". www.todayonhistory.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.  ^ "The Origins of the Boxer War". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ a b "The Soap Opera Paradigm". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ Waldron, Arthur (2003). From War to Nationalism: China's Turning Point, 1924-1925. Cambridge UP. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-521-52332-5.  ^ "Chinese Civilization". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ Iriye, After Imperialism, 195-200. ^ Iriye, After Imperialism, 199-201. ^ Ji'nan Government (September 1, 2005). "The Year of 1928". Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 蔡公时用日语抗议,日兵竟将其耳鼻割去,继又挖去舌头、眼睛。日军将被缚人员的衣服剥光,恣意鞭打,然后拉至院内用机枪扫射  ^ C. Martin Wilbur, "The Nationalist Revolution: from Canton to Nanking, 1923-1928," Cambridge History of China, Volume 12 Republican China, 1912-1949 Pt I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 702–706. ^ "Orbat.com" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ Jay Taylor, The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China
China
(Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009), 82–83. ^ Frank Dorn, The Sino-Japanese War, 1937-41: From Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Bridge to Pearl Harbor (New York: Macmillan, 1974), pg. 81-82 ^ Dorn, pg. 81-82 ^ a b c d e Diana Lary: "Treachery, Disgrace and Death: Han Fuju
Han Fuju
and China's Resistance to Japan" War in History 2006 13 (1) 65–90 ^ Kent G. Budge. "The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Tsinan". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ Dorn, pg. 82 ^ MacKinnon, Stephen R.; Capa, Robert (2008). Wuhan, 1938: War, Refugees, and the Making of Modern China. University of California Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-520-25445-7.  ^ Stephen MacKinnon, "The Tragedy of Wuhan, 1938", Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4, Special
Special
Issue: War in Modern China
China
(October, 1996), pp. 931-943 ^ a b c "OHINA: Province for a Poet". TIME.com. 4 October 1948. Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ a b c Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1966 (1st half) ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1967 (1st half) ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1967 (2nd half) ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1968 ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1969 ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1970 ^ City Government online records for 1974 ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1971 ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1972 ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1975 ^ Jinan
Jinan
City Government online records for 1976 ^ http://www.11th-games.org.cn/ 11th All China
China
Games website ^ "Cleaner Production in China" ^ 高温逼出新"火炉"之争 济南城热门候选_山东新闻_新闻_腾讯网 (in Chinese). QQ News. 31 July 2007. Retrieved 2013-04-27.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2010-05-24.  ^ 中国气象科学数据共享服务网 Archived 2015-03-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2009-03-17.  ^ "Weather & Extreme Events: 7 of 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities Are in China". January 16, 2013. Imaginechina/Corbis. http://news.discovery.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.  ^ Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China's Most–and Least–Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.  ^ "Smog Shrouds Eastern China". Earth Observatory. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014.  ^ "Smog and fog hit east, north China". Xinhua News Agency. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2014.  ^ 综合本报和新华社电. "三问今冬十面"霾"伏". 人民日报海外版.  ^ "Map: Shanghai's off the charts air pollution". Greenpeace. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014.  ^ "Ji'nan High-tech Industrial Development Zone". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "Ji'nan Export Processing Zone". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "Introduction CNHTC." China
China
National Heavy Duty Truck Group. Retrieved on July 8, 2010. "The headquarters of China
China
National Heavy Duty Truck Group Co., Ltd. (CNHTC) is located in Jinan, Shandong, P. R. China." ^ "Hang Lung - Home". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ " Jinan
Jinan
welcomes high-speed rail". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ Jinan
Jinan
Coach Terminus official website (in Chinese) ^ " Shandong
Shandong
Airlines to Resume Jinan
Jinan
Osaka
Osaka
Service from late-October 2013". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ 田艳敏. "20131229济南新闻 济南轨道交通市域快线建设启动". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ Original, in simplified Chinese: "家家泉水,户户垂杨". In traditional Chinese: "家家泉水,戶戶垂楊" ^ Jinan
Jinan
Municipal Museum Archived 2008-01-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Shandong
Shandong
Provincial Library ^ "齐鲁师范学院". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "QILU UNIVERSITY OF TECHROLOGY". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "欢迎访问山东电子职业技术学院". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ Shandong
Shandong
Jiaotong University official website ^ "山东职业学院(原济南铁道职业技术学院)". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "山东体育学院". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "外事办". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "欢迎访问山东艺术学院". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ "山东财经大学欢迎您". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ Shandong
Shandong
University of Chinese Traditional Medicine official website Archived 2014-04-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Senior High School Attached to Shandong
Shandong
Normal University official website ^ John Pike. " Jinan
Jinan
Military Region". Retrieved 9 May 2016.  ^ 11th Chinese National Games opens in Jinan. Xinhua News Agency (2009-10-17). Retrieved on 2009-10-21.

Bibliography[edit]

de Crespigny, Rafe (2010). Imperial warlord : a biography of Cao Cao 155-220 AD. Leiden Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18522-7.  Akira Iriye, After Imperialism: The Search for a New Order in the Far East, 1921-1931 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965; reprinted:Chicago: Imprint Publications, 1990): 193-205

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jinan.

Jinan
Jinan
Government website Compass foreign business service center Jinan
Jinan
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Chi-nan Fu". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Shandong
Shandong
topics

Jinan
Jinan
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities North China
China
Plain North China
China
craton Mount Tai Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yellow River Hai He Grand Canal of China Weishan Lake Laizhou
Laizhou
Bay Bohai Sea Yellow Sea

Education

Shandong
Shandong
University Ocean University of China China
China
University of Petroleum Shandong
Shandong
Normal University

Culture

Lüju opera Ji Lu Mandarin Zhongyuan Mandarin Jiao Liao Mandarin Qingdao
Qingdao
dialect

Cuisine

Shandong
Shandong
cuisine Braised Chicken Haw flakes Moo shu pork Sha tang

Visitor attractions

List of sites in Jinan Baotu Spring Daming Lake Thousand Buddha Mountain Lingyan Temple Pizhi Pagoda Great Wall of Qi Penglai City Qingdao
Qingdao
beach resort city Temple and Cemetery of Confucius Shou Qiu

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Shandong
Shandong
Province

Jinan
Jinan
(capital)

Sub-provincial cities

Jinan

Shizhong District Lixia District Tianqiao District Huaiyin District Licheng District Changqing District Zhangqiu
Zhangqiu
District Pingyin County Jiyang County Shanghe County

Qingdao

Shinan District Shibei District Licang District Laoshan District Chengyang District Huangdao District Jimo
Jimo
District Jiaozhou City Pingdu
Pingdu
City Laixi
Laixi
City

Prefecture-level cities

Zibo

Zhangdian District Linzi District Zichuan District Boshan District Zhoucun District Huantai County Gaoqing County Yiyuan County

Zaozhuang

Shizhong District Shanting District Yicheng District Tai'erzhuang District Xuecheng District Tengzhou City

Dongying

Dongying
Dongying
District Hekou District Kenli District Guangrao County Lijin County

Yantai

Zhifu District Muping District Fushan District Laishan District Longkou
Longkou
City Haiyang
Haiyang
City Laiyang City Laizhou
Laizhou
City Penglai City Zhaoyuan City Qixia City Changdao County

Weifang

Weicheng District Hanting District Fangzi District Kuiwen District Anqiu
Anqiu
City Changyi City Gaomi
Gaomi
City Qingzhou
Qingzhou
City Zhucheng
Zhucheng
City Shouguang
Shouguang
City Linqu County Changle
Changle
County

Jining

Rencheng District Yanzhou District Qufu
Qufu
City Zoucheng
Zoucheng
City Weishan County Yutai County Jinxiang County Jiaxiang County Wenshang County Sishui County Liangshan County

Tai'an

Taishan
Taishan
District Daiyue District Xintai
Xintai
City Feicheng
Feicheng
City Ningyang County Dongping County

Weihai

Huancui District Wendeng District Rongcheng City Rushan City

Rizhao

Donggang District Lanshan District Wulian County Ju County

Laiwu

Laicheng District Gangcheng District

Linyi

Lanshan District Luozhuang District Hedong District Tancheng County Lanling County Junan County Yishui County Mengyin County Pingyi County Fei County Yinan County Linshu County

Dezhou

Decheng District Lingcheng District Laoling City Yucheng City Pingyuan County Xiajin County Wucheng County Qihe County Linyi
Linyi
County Ningjin County Qingyun County

Liaocheng

Dongchangfu District Linqing
Linqing
City Yanggu County Shen County Chiping County Dong'e County Guan County Gaotang County

Binzhou

Bincheng District Zhanhua District Zouping County Boxing County Huimin County Yangxin County Wudi County

Heze

Mudan District Dingtao District Cao County Chengwu County Shan County Juye County Yuncheng
Yuncheng
County Juancheng County Dongming County

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

Major cities along the Yellow River

Province-level subdivisions

Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)

Gansu

Lanzhou Baiyin

Ningxia

Zhongwei Wuzhong Yinchuan Shizuishan

Inner Mongolia

Wuhai Ordos Bayan Nur Baotou Hohhot
Hohhot
(boundaries of upper and middle reaches)

Shanxi

Xinzhou Lüliang Linfen Yuncheng

Shaanxi

Yulin Yan'an Weinan

Henan

Sanmenxia Luoyang Jiyuan Jiaozuo Zhengzhou(boundaries of middle and lower reaches) Xinxiang Kaifeng Puyang

Shandong

Liaocheng Tai'an Jinan Dezhou Binzhou Zibo Dongying

Major cities along the Pearl River · Major cities along the Yangtze River

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 243443782 GND: 4078443-5 BNF: cb120459588 (d

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