1976 PRESIDENTIAL RACE
* 1976 presidential campaign
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
Camp David Accords
Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty
Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty
Iran Hostage Crisis
Iran Hostage Crisis
Operation Eagle Claw
Moral Equivalent of War speech
1979 Energy Crisis
* Diplomatic Relations with
JAMES EARL CARTER JR. (born October 1, 1924) is an American
politician who served as the 39th
President of the United States from
1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party , he served as the
Governor of Georgia prior to his election as president. Carter has
remained active in public life during his post-presidency, and in 2002
he was awarded the
Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Carter
After graduating from high school, Carter joined the United States
Navy and served on nuclear submarines . He left the Navy in 1953 to
return to Georgia, where he worked as a peanut farmer. From 1963 to
1967, Carter served in the
Georgia State Senate . In 1970 , Carter won
election as Governor of Georgia, defeating former Governor Carl
Sanders in the Democratic primary. He served as governor from 1971 to
1975. Despite being little-known outside of Georgia at the start of
the campaign, Carter won the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination .
In the general election , Carter defeated incumbent Republican
Gerald Ford in a close election.
On his second day in office, Carter pardoned all evaders of the
Vietnam War drafts. During Carter's term as president, two new
cabinet-level departments, the Department of Energy and the Department
of Education , were established. He established a national energy
policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology.
In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the
Camp David Accords , the Panama
Canal Treaties , the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT II), and the return of the
Panama Canal Zone to Panama. On the
economic front he confronted persistent "stagflation" , a combination
of high inflation, high unemployment and slow growth. The end of his
presidential tenure was marked by the 1979–1981
Iran hostage crisis
1979 energy crisis , the Three Mile Island nuclear accident ,
and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan . In response to the invasion,
Carter ended détente , escalated the
Cold War , and led the
international boycott of the
1980 Summer Olympics in
Moscow . In 1980,
Carter faced a primary challenge from Senator
Ted Kennedy , but Carter
won re-nomination at the
1980 Democratic National Convention . Carter
lost the general election in an electoral landslide to Republican
Ronald Reagan . Polls of historians and political scientists
usually rank Carter as a below average president. Contrarily, polls of
the general public, such as a 2007 Rasmussen poll and a Gallop poll in
2011, ranked Carter above average.
In 2012, he surpassed
Herbert Hoover as the longest-retired president
in U.S. history, and he is also the first president to mark the 40th
anniversary of his inauguration. He set up the
Carter Center in 1982
as his base for advancing human rights. He has also traveled
extensively to conduct peace negotiations, observe elections, and
advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations.
Additionally, Carter is a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity
project and he has written several books about various topics. In
reference to current political views, he has criticized some of
Israel's actions and policies in regards to the Israeli–Palestinian
conflict and has advocated for a two-state solution. He has vigorously
opposed the Supreme Court's decision in
Citizens United v. FEC
Citizens United v. FEC to
strike down limits on campaign spending by corporations and unions,
saying that the U.S. is "no longer a functioning democracy" and now
has a system of "unlimited political bribery."
* 1 Early life
* 2 Naval career
* 3 Farming
* 4 Early political career, 1962–71
* 4.1 Georgia State Senator (1963–67)
* 4.2 1966 and 1970 campaigns for governor
Governor of Georgia (1971–75)
* 5.1 National ambition
* 6 1976 presidential campaign
* 6.1 Democratic primary
* 6.2 1976 general election
* 7 Presidency (1977–81)
Iran hostage crisis
Iran hostage crisis
* 7.2 U.S. energy crisis
* 7.3 EPA
* 7.4 Deregulation
* 7.5 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
* 7.6 International trips
* 7.7 1980 presidential campaign
* 8 Post-presidency (1981–present)
Carter Center and
* 8.2 Diplomacy
* 8.2.4 Africa
* 8.2.5 Americas
* 8.2.6 Vietnam
* 8.2.7 The Elders
* 8.3 Criticism of U.S. policy
* 8.3.1 Criticisms of
George W. Bush
* 8.3.2 Criticism of the Clintons
* 8.3.3 Comments on
* 8.4.1 Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid
* 8.5 Involvement with
Bank of Credit and Commerce International
* 8.6 2004 Presidential race
* 8.7 2008 Presidential race
* 8.8 2012 Presidential race
* 8.9 2016 Presidential race
* 8.10 Other activities
* 9 Personal views
* 9.3 Equality for women
* 9.4 Gun control
* 9.6 Race in politics
* 9.7 Torture
* 9.8 Healthcare
* 10 Personal life
* 10.1 Religion
* 10.2 Family
* 10.3 Cancer diagnosis
* 10.4 Funeral and burial plans
* 11 Public image and legacy
* 11.1 Public opinion
* 11.2 Legacy
* 11.3 Honors and awards
* 12 See also
* 13 Notes
* 14 References
* 15 Further reading
* 15.1 Primary sources
* 16 External links
Carter (around age 13) with his dog, Bozo, in 1937
James Earl Carter Jr. was born on October 1, 1924, at the Wise
Plains, Georgia . He is a descendant of English
immigrant Thomas Carter, who settled in
Virginia in 1635. Numerous
generations of Carters lived as cotton farmers in Georgia. Carter is
also a descendant of Thomas Cornell , an ancestor of Cornell
University 's founder and distantly related to
Richard Nixon and Bill
Plains was a boomtown of 600 people at the time of Carter's birth.
James Earl Carter Sr. , was a successful local businessman
who ran a general store and had begun to invest in farmland. He had
been a reserve second lieutenant in the U.S. Army's Quartermaster
World War I
World War I . Carter's mother,
Bessie Lillian Gordy , was
a nurse at the Wise hospital. Carter was the oldest of Earl and
Lillian's children; they moved several times during his infancy.
The Carters settled on a dirt road in nearby Archery, which was
almost entirely populated by impoverished
African American families.
They eventually had three more children: Gloria , Ruth , and Billy .
Carter got along well with his parents, although his mother worked
long hours and was often absent in his childhood. Although Earl was
staunchly pro-segregation , he allowed his son to befriend the black
farmhands' children. Carter was an enterprising teenager who was given
his own acre of Earl's farmland where he grew, packaged, and sold
peanuts. He also rented out a section of tenant housing that he had
Carter attended the Plains High School from 1937 to 1941. By that
time, the Great Depression had impoverished Archery and Plains, but
the family benefited from
New Deal farming subsidies, and Earl took a
position as a community leader. Young Jimmy was a diligent student
with a fondness for reading. A popular anecdote holds that he was
passed over for valedictorian after he and his friends skipped school
to venture downtown in a hot rod . Carter's truancy was mentioned in a
local newspaper, although it is not clear he would have been
valedictorian anyway. Carter's teacher, Julia Coleman, was an
especially strong influence. As an adolescent, Carter played on the
Plains High School basketball team; he also joined the Future Farmers
of America and developed a lifelong interest in woodworking.
Jimmy Carter and Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, USN (far
right) aboard the submarine USS Los Angeles in 1977
Carter had long dreamed of attending the U.S. Naval Academy in
Annapolis . In 1941, he started undergraduate coursework in
Georgia Southwestern College in nearby Americus . The
following year, he transferred to the Georgia Institute of Technology
in Atlanta, and he achieved admission to the Naval Academy in 1943. He
was a good student but was seen as reserved and quiet, in contrast to
the academy's culture of aggressive hazing of freshmen. While at the
academy, Carter fell in love with his sister Ruth's friend Rosalynn
Smith, whom he would marry shortly after his graduation in 1946. He
was a sprint football player for the
Navy Midshipmen . Carter
graduated 60th out of 820 midshipmen in the class of 1946 with a
Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned as an ensign . From
1946 to 1953, Carter and Rosalynn lived in Virginia, Hawaii,
Connecticut, New York and California, during his deployments in the
Atlantic and Pacific fleets . In 1948, he began officers' training
for submarine duty and served aboard USS Pomfret . He was promoted to
lieutenant junior grade in 1949. In 1951 he became attached to the
diesel/electric USS K-1, (a.k.a. USS Barracuda ), qualified for
command, and served in several duties including Executive Officer.
In 1952, Carter began an association with the US Navy\'s fledgling
nuclear submarine program, then-led by Captain
Hyman G. Rickover .
Rickover's demands on his men and machines were legendary, and Carter
later said that, next to his parents, Rickover was the greatest
influence on his life. He was sent to the Naval Reactors Branch of
the Atomic Energy Commission in
Washington, D.C. for three month
temporary duty, while Rosalynn moved with their children to
Schenectady, New York. On December 12, 1952, an accident with the
experimental NRX reactor at
Atomic Energy of Canada 's Chalk River
Laboratories caused a partial meltdown resulting in millions of liters
of radioactive water flooding the reactor building's basement and
leaving the reactor's core ruined. Carter was ordered to Chalk River
to lead a U.S. maintenance crew that joined other American and
Canadian service personnel to assist in the shutdown of the reactor.
The painstaking process required each team member to don protective
gear and be lowered individually into the reactor for a few minutes at
a time, limiting their exposure to radioactivity while they
disassembled the crippled reactor. During and after his presidency,
Carter said that his experience at Chalk River had shaped his views on
atomic energy and led him to cease development of a neutron bomb .
In March 1953 he began nuclear power school, a six-month non-credit
course covering nuclear power plant operation at
Union College in
Schenectady, with the intent to eventually work aboard USS Seawolf ,
which was planned to be one of the first two U.S. nuclear submarines.
However, Carter's father died two months before construction of
Seawolf began, and Carter sought and obtained an honorable discharge
to enable him to take over family peanut business. Deciding to leave
Schenectady proved difficult. Settling after moving so much Rosalynn
had grown comfortable with their life. Returning to small-town life in
Plains seemed "a monumental step backward," she said later. On the
other hand, Carter felt restricted by the rigidity of the military and
yearned to assume a path more like his father's. Carter was honorably
discharged from the Navy on October 9, 1953. He served in the
inactive Navy Reserve until 1961, and left the service with the rank
of lieutenant . Carter's awards included: the American Campaign Medal
; World War II Victory Medal ;
China Service Medal
China Service Medal ; and National
Defense Service Medal .
Earl Carter died a relatively wealthy man, having also recently been
elected to the
Georgia House of Representatives . However, between his
forgiveness of debts and the division of his wealth among heirs, his
son Jimmy inherited comparatively little. For a year, Jimmy, Rosalynn,
and their three sons lived in public housing in Plains; Carter is the
only U.S. president to have lived in subsidized housing. Carter was
knowledgeable in scientific and technological subjects, and he set out
to expand the family's peanut-growing business. The transition from
Navy to agribusinessman was difficult, because his first year harvest
failed due to drought; Carter was compelled to open several bank lines
of credit to keep the farm afloat. Meanwhile, he also took classes and
read up on agriculture while Rosalynn learned accounting to manage the
business's books. Though they barely broke even the first year, the
Carters grew the business and became quite successful.
EARLY POLITICAL CAREER, 1962–71
GEORGIA STATE SENATOR (1963–67)
Racial tension was inflamed in Plains by the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court
's anti-segregation ruling in
Brown v. Board of Education . Carter
was in favor of racial tolerance and integration—at one point, the
local White Citizens\' Council boycotted his peanut warehouse when he
refused to join them—but he often kept those feelings to himself to
avoid making enemies. By 1961 he was a prominent member of the
community and the Baptist Church as well as chairman of the Sumter
County school board, where he began to speak more loudly in favor of
school integration. A state Senate seat was opened by the dissolution
County Unit System in 1962; Carter announced his run for
the seat 15 days before the election. Rosalynn, who had an instinct
for politics and organization, was instrumental to his campaign. The
initial results showed Carter losing, but this was the result of
fraudulent voting orchestrated by Joe Hurst, the Democratic Party
chairman in Quitman County , with the aid of the Quitman County
sheriff. Carter challenged the results; when fraud was confirmed, a
new election was held, which he won.
Civil Rights Movement was well underway when Carter took office.
He and his family had become staunch
John F. Kennedy supporters.
Beginning in 1962, the town of Americus was the site of mass beatings
and incarcerations of black protesters, echoing similar unrest
throughout the country. Carter remained relatively quiet on the issue
at first, even as it polarized much of the county, to avoid alienating
his segregationist colleagues. He did speak up on a few divisive
issues, giving speeches against literacy tests and against a change to
the Georgia Constitution which, he felt, implied a compulsion to
A diligent legislator, Carter took speed-reading courses to keep up
with the workload. Within two years his connections landed him on the
state Democratic Executive Committee, where he helped rewrite the
state party's rules. He became chairman of the West Central Georgia
Planning and Development Commission, which oversaw the disbursement of
federal and state grants for projects such as historic site
Bo Callaway was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in
November 1964, Carter immediately began planning to unseat him. The
two had previously clashed over which two-year college would be
expanded to a four-year college program by the state; Carter wanted it
to go to
Georgia Southwestern College in Americus, but Callaway wanted
the funding to go to downtown Columbus . Carter saw Callaway, a
Republican , as a rival who represented the inherited wealth and
selfishness he despised in politics.
Carter was re-elected in 1964 to serve a second two-year term. For a
time in the State Senate, he chaired its Education Committee; he also
sat on the Appropriations Committee toward the end of his second term.
Before his term ended he contributed to a bill expanding statewide
education funding and getting Georgia Southwestern a four-year
program. He leveraged his regional planning work, giving speeches
around the district to make himself more visible to potential voters.
The last day of the term, he announced his run for Congress.
1966 AND 1970 CAMPAIGNS FOR GOVERNOR
Georgia gubernatorial election, 1966 and Georgia
gubernatorial election, 1970
The congressional race of 1966 was shaken up in mid-May when the
Republican incumbent, Bo Callaway, dropped out and decided to run for
Governor of Georgia instead. Callaway was a very strong candidate, and
state Democrats panicked over the prospect of losing the governorship
they had held since Reconstruction . Carter soon decided to follow
Callaway and run for governor himself. In the Democratic primary he
ran as a moderate alternative to both the liberal former governor
Ellis Arnall and the conservative
Lester Maddox . In a press
conference he described his ideology as "Conservative, moderate,
liberal and middle-of-the-road. ... I believe I am a more complicated
person than that." He lost the Democratic primary, but drew enough
votes as a third-place candidate to force Arnall into a runoff
election with Maddox. A chain of events then resulted in Maddox, the
dark horse candidate , being elected governor. The result was a sharp
blow to Carter, who was left deeply in debt. His attempt to rescue the
race from Callaway had resulted in the unlikely election of the
segregationist Maddox, which he considered an even worse outcome.
Carter returned to his agriculture business and, during the next four
years, carefully planned his next campaign for governor in 1970. This
period was a spiritual turning point for Carter; he grew increasingly
evangelical, undertaking several religious missions in other states.
Inspired by his sister Ruth and liberal theologians such as Reinhold
Niebuhr , he declared himself born again , a growing movement in 1960s
America. His last child Amy was born during this time, on 19 October
The liberal former governor,
Carl Sanders , was Carter's main
opponent in the 1970 Democratic primary. Carter ran a more modern
campaign this time around, employing printed graphics and statistical
analysis. Responding to poll data, Carter leaned more conservative
than before. He positioned himself as a populist , quickly going
negative against Sanders for his wealth (labeling him "Cufflinks
Carl") and associating him with the national Democratic Party. He
accused Sanders of corruption, but when pressed by the media, could
come up with no evidence. Throughout the campaign Carter sought both
the black vote and the "Wallace vote," after the prominent
George Wallace of Alabama. While he met with black
figures such as
Martin Luther King Sr. and
Andrew Young , and visited
many black-owned businesses, he also praised Wallace and promised to
invite him to give a speech in Georgia. He implied support or dislike
of private schools, depending on the audience. The appeal to racism
became more blatant over time; Carter's senior campaign aides handed
out a photograph of his opponent Sanders celebrating with black
That September, Carter came ahead of Sanders in the first ballot by
49 to 38 percent, leading to a runoff. The subsequent campaign grew
even more bitter; despite his early support for civil rights, Carter's
campaign criticized Sanders for supporting Martin Luther King Jr.
Carter won the runoff election with 60 percent of the vote—winning 7
percent of the black vote—and went on to win the general election
easily over the Republican
Hal Suit , a local news anchor. Once he was
elected, Carter changed his tone, and began to speak against Georgia's
racist politics. Leroy Johnson , a black state Senator, voiced his
support for Carter, saying, "I understand why he ran that kind of
ultra-conservative campaign. ... I don't believe you can win this
state without being a racist."
GOVERNOR OF GEORGIA (1971–75)
Carter was sworn in as the 76th
Governor of Georgia on January 12,
1971. He declared in his inaugural speech that "the time of racial
segregation is over. . . . No poor, rural, weak, or black person
should ever have to bear the additional burden of being deprived of
the opportunity for an education, a job or simple justice." The crowd
was reportedly shocked by this message, contrasting starkly with
Georgia's political culture and particularly Carter's campaign. The
many segregationists who had supported Carter during the race felt
betrayed. Time magazine ran a story on the progressive "
New South "
governors elected that year in a May 1971 issue, featuring a cover
illustration of Carter.
Lester Maddox , Carter's predecessor as governor, became lieutenant
governor . Carter had endorsed Maddox, although the two did not
campaign as a ticket . The two found little common ground during their
four years of service, often publicly feuding with each other.
Richard Russell Jr. , then President pro tempore of the United States
Senate , died in office during Carter's second week in office; the
newly inaugurated governor appointed
David H. Gambrell , state
Democratic Party chair, to fill Russell's unexpired term in the
With Carter's reluctance to engage in back-slapping and political
favors, the legislature found him frustrating to work with. He
looked to aggressively expand the governor's authority while reducing
the complexity of the state government. Therefore, he negotiated a
bill allowing him to propose executive restructuring and to force a
vote on it. He implemented zero-based budgeting within state
departments and added a Judicial Selection Commission to verify the
credentials of judges appointed by the governor. The reorganization
plan was submitted in January 1972, but had a cool reception in the
legislature. But after two weeks of negotiations, it was passed at
midnight on the last day of the session. Ultimately he merged about
300 state agencies into 22—a fact he would emphasize in his
presidential run—although it is disputed that there were any overall
cost savings from doing so.
Civil rights were a heartfelt priority for Carter. He expanded the
number of black state employees, judges, and board members. He hired
Rita Jackson Samuels, a black woman, to advise him on potential
appointments. He placed portraits of
Martin Luther King Jr. and two
other prominent black Georgians in the capitol building, even as the
Ku Klux Klan picketed the unveiling ceremony. Still, Carter tried to
keep his conservative allies comfortable. He co-sponsored an
anti-busing resolution with
George Wallace at the 1971 National
Governors Conference. After the U.S. Supreme Court threw out
Georgia's death penalty statute in
Furman v. Georgia (1972), Carter
signed a revised death penalty statute which addressed the court's
objections, thus re-introducing the practice in the state. Carter
later regretted endorsing the death penalty, saying, "I didn't see the
injustice of it as I do now."
Carter pushed reforms through the legislature to provide equal state
aid to schools in the wealthy and poor areas of Georgia, set up
community centers for mentally handicapped children, and increased
educational programs for convicts. He took pride in his program for
the appointment of judges and state government officials. Under this
program, all such appointments were based on merit, rather than
In one of his more controversial decisions, he vetoed a plan to
build a dam on Georgia's Flint River . After surveying the river and
the literature himself, he argued that the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers was underestimating both the project's cost and its impact
on the region. The veto won the attention of environmentalists
nationwide. When Lieutenant
William Calley was convicted in a
military trial and sentenced to life for his role in the My Lai
South Vietnam , a politically polarizing issue, Carter
avoided paying direct tribute to Calley. He instead instituted
"American Fighting Man's Day" and asked Georgians to drive for a week
with their lights on in support of the military.
Looking toward a potential presidential run, Carter engaged himself
in national politics and public appearances. He was named to several
southern planning commissions and was a delegate to the 1972
Democratic National Convention
Democratic National Convention , where the liberal U.S. Senator George
McGovern was the likely presidential nominee. Carter tried to
ingratiate himself with the conservative, anti-McGovern voters, so
that the convention would consider him for McGovern's running mate on
a compromise ticket. He endorsed Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson , in
part to distance himself from George Wallace. Carter was still fairly
obscure at the time, and his attempt at triangulation failed; the 1972
Democratic ticket went to McGovern and Senator
Thomas Eagleton .
After McGovern's loss in November 1972, Carter began meeting
regularly with his fledgling campaign staff. He had quietly decided to
begin putting a presidential bid together. He tried unsuccessfully to
become chairman of the
National Governors Association to boost his
David Rockefeller 's endorsement he was named to the
Trilateral Commission in April 1973. The following year he was named
chairman of the
Democratic National Committee 's congressional, as
well as gubernatorial, campaigns. In 1973 he appeared on the game
show What\'s My Line , where a group of celebrity panelists would try
to guess his occupation. None recognized him and it took several
rounds of question-and-answer before movie critic Gene Shalit
correctly guessed he was a governor.
1976 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1976 The
electoral map of the 1976 election
When Carter entered the
Democratic Party presidential primaries in
1976, he was considered to have little chance against nationally
better-known politicians; his name recognition was two percent. As
late as January 26, 1976, Carter was the first choice of only four
percent of Democratic voters, according to a
Gallup poll . Yet "by
mid-March 1976 Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders
for the Democratic presidential nomination, he also led President Ford
by a few percentage points," according to Shoup. As the Watergate
scandal of President Nixon was still fresh in the voters' minds,
Carter's position as an outsider, distant from Washington, D.C.,
became an asset. He promoted government reorganization. Carter
published Why Not the Best? in June 1976 to help introduce himself to
the American public. Carter and President
Gerald Ford debating
Walnut Street Theatre in
Carter became the front-runner early on by winning the Iowa caucuses
New Hampshire primary . He used a two-prong strategy: in the
South, which most had tacitly conceded to Alabama's
George Wallace ,
Carter ran as a moderate favorite son. When Wallace proved to be a
spent force, Carter swept the region. In the North, Carter appealed
largely to conservative Christian and rural voters; he had little
chance of winning a majority in most states. He won several Northern
states by building the largest single bloc. Carter's strategy involved
reaching a region before another candidate could extend influence
there. He had traveled over 50,000 miles, visited 37 states, and
delivered over 200 speeches before any other candidate announced that
he was in the race. Initially dismissed as a regional candidate,
Carter proved to be the Democrat with the most effective national
strategy, and he clinched the nomination. Campaign flyer from
Democratic Party presidential primary
The national news media discovered and promoted Carter, as Lawrence
Shoup noted in his 1980 book The Carter Presidency and Beyond:
What Carter had that his opponents did not was the acceptance and
support of elite sectors of the mass communications media. It was
their favorable coverage of Carter and his campaign that gave him an
edge, propelling him rocket-like to the top of the opinion polls. This
helped Carter win key primary election victories, enabling him to rise
from an obscure public figure to President-elect in the short space of
Carter, responding to an interviewer in April 1976 during his
Presidential campaign, said "I have nothing against a community that
is ...trying to maintain the ethnic purity of their neighborhoods," as
quoted in "THE CAMPAIGN: Candidate Carter: I Apologize" in TIME
Magazine (19 April 1976). His remark was intended as supportive of
open-housing laws, but specifying opposition to government efforts to
"inject black families into a white neighborhood just to create some
sort of integration ." The remarks caused some controversy, but
Carter apologized for the unfortunate choice of words, and his
campaign was not seriously affected.
1976 GENERAL ELECTION
United States presidential election, 1976
He chose Senator Walter F. Mondale as his running mate. He attacked
Washington in his speeches, and offered a religious salve for the
Gerald Ford faced off in three televised debates during
the 1976 election. The debates were the first Presidential debates
Carter was interviewed by
Robert Scheer of
Playboy for the November
1976 issue, which hit the newsstands a couple of weeks before the
election. While discussing his religion's view of pride, Carter said:
"I've looked on a lot of women with lust. I've committed adultery in
my heart many times." This and his admission in another interview
that he didn't mind if people uttered the word "fuck" led to a media
feeding frenzy and critics lamenting the erosion of boundary between
politicians and their private intimate lives.
Carter began the race with a sizable lead over Ford, who narrowed the
gap during the campaign, but lost to Carter in a narrow defeat on
November 2, 1976. Carter won the popular vote by 50.1 percent to 48.0
percent for Ford, and received 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240.
Carter carried fewer states than Ford—23 states to the defeated
Ford's 27—yet Carter won with the largest percentage of the popular
vote (50.1 percent) of any non-incumbent since
Dwight Eisenhower .
Robert Templeton's portrait of President Carter, displayed in
the National Portrait Gallery, Washington DC Main article:
Presidency of Jimmy Carter
Carter's tenure was a time of continuing inflation and recession , as
well as an energy crisis . Among his first acts was the fulfillment of
a campaign promise by issuing an executive order declaring
unconditional amnesty for
Vietnam War -era draft evaders . On
January 7, 1980, Carter signed Law H.R. 5860 aka Public Law 96-185
known as The
Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979, bailing
Chrysler Corporation . He canceled military pay raises during a
time of high inflation and government deficits.
Carter attempted to calm various conflicts around the world, most
visibly in the
Middle East with the signing of the Camp David Accords
; giving back the
Panama Canal ; and signing the SALT II nuclear arms
reduction treaty with Soviet leader
Leonid Brezhnev . His final year
was marred by the
Iran hostage crisis
Iran hostage crisis , which contributed to his
losing the 1980 election to
Ronald Reagan .
IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS
Iran hostage crisis
Iran hostage crisis See also: Presidency of Jimmy
Carter § Iran–
On November 4, 1979 a group of Iranian students, belonging to the
Muslim Student Followers of the Imam\'s Line , who were supporting the
Iranian Revolution , took over the
U.S. Embassy in Tehran . Fifty-two
American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for the next 444
days until January 20, 1981. During the crisis, Carter remained in
isolation in the
White House for more than 100 days, until he left to
participate in the lighting of the
National Menorah on the Ellipse .
On April 24, 1980, Carter ordered
Operation Eagle Claw to try free the
hostages. The mission failed, leaving eight American servicemen dead
and causing the destruction of two aircraft.
U.S. ENERGY CRISIS
On April 18, 1977, Carter delivered a televised speech declaring that
the U.S. energy crisis during the 1970s was the moral equivalent of
war . He encouraged energy conservation by all U.S. citizens and
installed solar water heating panels on the
White House . He wore
sweaters to offset turning down the heat in the White House.
Deng Xiaoping , leader of
China from 1978 to 1992
EPA LOVE CANAL SUPERFUND
In 1978, Carter declared a federal emergency in the neighborhood of
Love Canal in the city of
Niagara Falls, New York
Niagara Falls, New York . More than 800
families were evacuated from the neighborhood, which was built on top
of a toxic waste landfill. The
Superfund law was created in response
to the situation. Federal disaster money was appropriated to demolish
the approximately 500 houses, the 99th Street School, and the 93rd
Street School, which were built on top of the dump; and to remediate
the dump and construct a containment area for the hazardous wastes.
This was the first time that such a process had been undertaken.
Carter acknowledged that several more "Love Canals" existed across the
country, and that discovering such hazardous dumpsites was "one of the
grimmest discoveries of our modern era".
Jimmy Carter signs the
Airline Deregulation Act .
In 1977, Carter appointed
Alfred E. Kahn , a professor of economics
Cornell University , to be chair of the Civil Aeronautics Board
(CAB). He was part of a push for deregulation of the industry,
supported by leading economists, leading 'think tanks' in Washington,
a civil society coalition advocating the reform (patterned on a
coalition earlier developed for the truck-and-rail-reform efforts),
the head of the regulatory agency, Senate leadership, the Carter
administration, and even some in the airline industry. This coalition
swiftly gained legislative results in 1978.
Airline Deregulation Act (Pub.L. 95–504) was signed into law by
President Carter on October 24, 1978. The main purpose of the act was
to remove government control over fares, routes and market entry (of
new airlines) from commercial aviation . The Civil Aeronautics Board
's powers of regulation were to be phased out, eventually allowing
market forces to determine routes and fares. The Act did not remove or
diminish the FAA's regulatory powers over all aspects of airline
In 1979, Carter deregulated the American beer industry by making it
legal to sell malt , hops , and yeast to American home brewers for the
first time since the effective 1920 beginning of Prohibition in the
United States . This Carter deregulation led to an increase in home
brewing over the 1980s and 1990s that by the 2000s had developed into
a strong craft microbrew culture in the United States, with 3,418
micro breweries, brewpubs, and regional craft breweries in the United
States by the end of 2014. Carter with
King Hussein of Jordan
and Shah of
Iran in 1977 Carter, Israeli Prime Minister
Menachem Begin and
Zbigniew Brzezinski in September 1978 Carter
Khalid of Saudi Arabia in October 1978
SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN
Communists under the leadership of
Nur Muhammad Taraki
Nur Muhammad Taraki seized power
in Afghanistan on April 27, 1978. The new regime—which was divided
between Taraki's extremist
Khalq faction and the more moderate Parcham
—signed a treaty of friendship with the
Soviet Union in December of
that year. Taraki's efforts to improve secular education and
redistribute land were accompanied by mass executions (including of
many conservative religious leaders) and political oppression
unprecedented in Afghan history, igniting a revolt by mujahideen
rebels. Following a general uprising in April 1979, Taraki was
Hafizullah Amin in September. Amin was
considered a "brutal psychopath" by foreign observers; even the
Soviets were alarmed by the brutality of the Afghan communists, and
suspected Amin of being an agent of the U.S. Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA), although that was not the case. By December, Amin's
government had lost control of much of the country, prompting the
Soviet Union to invade Afghanistan , execute Amin, and install Parcham
Babrak Karmal as president.
Carter was surprised by the invasion, as the consensus of the U.S.
intelligence community during 1978 and 1979—reiterated as late as
September 29, 1979—was that "
Moscow would not intervene in force
even if it appeared likely that the
Khalq government was about to
collapse." Indeed, Carter's diary entries from November 1979 until the
Soviet invasion in late December contain only two short references to
Afghanistan, and are instead preoccupied with the ongoing hostage
crisis in Iran. In the West, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was
considered a threat to global security and the oil supplies of the
Persian Gulf . Moreover, the failure to accurately predict Soviet
intentions caused American officials to reappraise the Soviet threat
Iran and Pakistan, although it is now known that those fears
were overblown. For example, U.S. intelligence closely followed Soviet
exercises for an invasion of
Iran throughout 1980, while an earlier
warning from Carter's national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski
that "if the Soviets came to dominate Afghanistan, they could promote
Baluchistan ... dismembering Pakistan and Iran" took on
new urgency. These concerns were a major factor in the unrequited
efforts of both the Carter and Reagan administrations to improve
relations with Iran, and resulted in massive aid to Pakistan's
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq . Zia's ties with the U.S. had been strained
during Carter's presidency due to Pakistan's nuclear program and the
Ali Bhutto in April 1979, but Carter told Brzezinski and
secretary of state
Cyrus Vance as early as January 1979 that it was
vital to "repair our relationships with Pakistan" in light of the
unrest in Iran. One initiative Carter authorized to achieve this goal
was a collaboration between the CIA and Pakistan's Inter-Services
Intelligence (ISI); through the ISI, the CIA began providing some
$500,000 worth of non-lethal assistance to the mujahideen on July 3,
1979—several months prior to the Soviet invasion. The modest scope
of this early collaboration was likely influenced by the
understanding, later recounted by CIA official
Robert Gates , "that a
substantial U.S. covert aid program" might have "raise the stakes"
thereby causing "the Soviets to intervene more directly and vigorously
than otherwise intended."
In the aftermath of the invasion, Carter was determined to respond
vigorously to what he considered a dangerous provocation. In a
televised speech, he announced sanctions on the Soviet Union, promised
renewed aid to Pakistan, initiated renewed registration for the
Selective Service System
Selective Service System , and committed the U.S. to the Persian
Gulf\'s defense . Carter also called for a boycott of the 1980
Summer Olympics in Moscow, which raised a bitter controversy. British
Margaret Thatcher enthusiastically backed Carter's
tough stance, although British intelligence believed "the CIA was
being too alarmist about the Soviet threat to Pakistan." The thrust
of U.S. policy for the duration of the war was determined by Carter in
early 1980: Carter initiated a program to arm the mujahideen through
Pakistan\'s ISI and secured a pledge from Saudi Arabia to match U.S.
funding for this purpose. U.S. support for the mujahideen accelerated
under Carter's successor,
Ronald Reagan , at a final cost to U.S.
taxpayers of some $3 billion. The Soviets were unable to quell the
insurgency and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, precipitating the
dissolution of the
Soviet Union itself. However, the decision to
route U.S. aid through Pakistan led to massive fraud, as weapons sent
Karachi were frequently sold on the local market rather than
delivered to the Afghan rebels;
Karachi soon "became one of the most
violent cities in the world." Pakistan also controlled which rebels
received assistance: Of the seven mujahideen groups supported by Zia's
government, four espoused Islamic fundamentalist beliefs—and these
fundamentalists received most of the funding. Despite this, Carter
has expressed no regrets over his decision to support what he still
considers the "freedom fighters" in Afghanistan.
Countries visited by Carter during his presidency. Further
information: List of international trips made by the President of the
United States §
Carter made twelve international trips to twenty-five countries
during his presidency. Carter was the first president to make a state
visit to Sub-Saharan Africa when he went to
Nigeria in 1978. His
travel also included trips to
Asia , and
Latin America . He
made several trips to the
Middle East to broker peace negotiations.
His December 31, 1977 – January 1, 1978 visit to
Iran took place
less than a year before the overthrow of Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi .
1980 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
United States presidential election, 1980 The
electoral map of the 1980 election
Carter later wrote that the most intense and mounting opposition to
his policies came from the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which
he attributed to
Ted Kennedy 's ambition to replace him as president.
Kennedy surprised his supporters by running a weak campaign, and
Carter won most of the primaries and secured renomination. However,
Kennedy had mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which
gave Carter weak support in the fall election.
Carter\'s campaign for re-election in 1980 was one of the most
difficult, and least successful, in history. He faced strong
challenges from the right (Republican
Ronald Reagan ), the center
John B. Anderson ), and the left (Democrat
Ted Kennedy ).
He had to run against his own "stagflation "-ridden economy, while the
hostage crisis in
Iran dominated the news every week. He alienated
liberal college students, who were expected to be his base, by
re-instating registration for the military draft. His campaign manager
and former appointments secretary,
Timothy Kraft , stepped down some
five weeks before the general election amid what turned out to have
been an uncorroborated allegation of cocaine use. Carter was defeated
Ronald Reagan in a landslide, and the Senate went Republican for
the first time since 1952.
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Former President and First Lady Carter wave from the departing
aircraft after the inauguration of
Ronald Reagan on January 20, 1981.
In 1981, Carter returned to Georgia to his peanut farm, which he had
placed into a blind trust during his presidency to avoid even the
appearance of a conflict of interest. He found that the trustees had
mismanaged the trust, leaving him more than one million dollars in
debt. In the years that followed, he has led an active life,
Carter Center , building his presidential library,
Emory University in
Atlanta , and writing numerous books.
He has also contributed to the expansion of Habitat for Humanity, to
build affordable housing. Since early September 2012, Carter has been
alive longer after leaving the
White House than any other U.S.
CARTER CENTER AND NOBEL PRIZE
Carter Center President
George W. Bush invited
former Presidents George H.W. Bush,
Bill Clinton ,
Jimmy Carter (far
right), and President-elect
Barack Obama for a meeting and lunch at
White House on January 7, 2009
Carter has been involved in a variety of national and international
public policy, conflict resolution, human rights and charitable
causes. In 1982, he established the
Carter Center in
advance human rights and alleviate human suffering. The non-profit,
nongovernmental Center promotes democracy, mediates and prevents
conflicts, and monitors the electoral process in support of free and
fair elections. It also works to improve global health through the
control and eradication of diseases such as
Guinea worm disease ,
river blindness , malaria , trachoma , lymphatic filariasis , and
schistosomiasis . It also works to diminish the stigma of mental
illnesses and improve nutrition through increased crop production in
A major accomplishment of The
Carter Center has been the elimination
of more than 99 percent of cases of
Guinea worm disease , from an
estimated 3.5 million cases in 1986 to 148 reported cases in 2013 to
23 in 2015 The
Carter Center has monitored 96 elections in 38
countries since 1989. It has worked to resolve conflicts in
North Korea ,
Sudan and other countries. Carter
and the Center support human rights defenders around the world and
have intervened with heads of state on their behalf.
In 2002, President Carter received the
Nobel Peace Prize for his work
"to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance
democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social
development" through The Carter Center. Three sitting presidents,
Theodore Roosevelt ,
Woodrow Wilson , and
Barack Obama , have received
the prize; Carter is unique in receiving the award for his actions
after leaving the presidency. He is, along with Martin Luther King Jr.
, one of only two native Georgians to receive the Nobel Prize.
In March 1983, Carter underwent a weeklong travel to
Egypt where he
Palestine Liberation Organization members, stating during a
subsequent March 8 press conference that he had traveled there as a
Emory University professor and not to represent the US.
In May 2014, Carter issued a statement saying he was "gravely
concerned that Egypt's democratic transition has faltered" and called
for the next President of
Egypt "to ensure the full spectrum of
Egyptian society can participate meaningfully in politics".
North Korea had expelled investigators from the
International Atomic Energy Agency and was threatening to begin
processing spent nuclear fuel. In response, then-President Clinton
pressured for US sanctions and ordered large amounts of troops and
vehicles into the area to brace for war.
Bill Clinton secretly recruited Carter to undertake a peace mission
to North Korea, under the guise that it was a private mission of
Carter's. Clinton saw Carter as a way to let North Korean President
Kim Il-sung back down without losing face.
Carter negotiated an understanding with Kim Il-sung, but went further
and outlined a treaty, which he announced on
CNN without the
permission of the Clinton
White House as a way to force the US into
The Clinton Administration signed a later version of the Agreed
Framework , under which
North Korea agreed to freeze and ultimately
dismantle its current nuclear program and comply with its
nonproliferation obligations in exchange for oil deliveries, the
construction of two light water reactors to replace its graphite
reactors , and discussions for eventual diplomatic relations.
The agreement was widely hailed at the time as a significant
diplomatic achievement. However, in December 2002, the Agreed
Framework collapsed as a result of a dispute between the George W.
Bush Administration and the North Korean government of
Kim Jong-il .
George W. Bush had taken a confrontational position toward
North Korea. And in January 2002, Bush had named
North Korea as part
of an "
Axis of Evil
Axis of Evil ". Meanwhile,
North Korea began developing the
capability to enrich uranium .
Bush Administration opponents of the
Agreed Framework believed that
the North Korean government never intended to give up a nuclear
weapons program. However, supporters of the
Agreed Framework believed
that the agreement could have been successful, had it not been
undermined by the Bush Administration.
In August 2010, Carter traveled to
North Korea in an attempt to
secure the release of
Aijalon Mahli Gomes . Gomes, a U.S. citizen ,
was sentenced to eight years of hard labor after being found guilty of
illegally entering North Korea. Carter successfully secured the
Carter and experts from The
Carter Center assisted unofficial Israeli
and Palestinian negotiators in designing a model agreement for
peace—called the Geneva Accord —in 2002–2003.
Carter has also in recent years become a frequent critic of Israel's
Lebanon , the
West Bank , and Gaza .
In 2006, at the UK
Hay Festival , Carter stated that
Israel has at
least 150 nuclear weapons . He expressed his support for
Israel as a
country, but criticized its domestic and foreign policy; "One of the
greatest human rights crimes on earth is the starvation and
imprisonment of 1.6m Palestinians," said Carter.
He mentioned statistics showing nutritional intake of some
Palestinian children was below that of the children of Sub-Saharan
Africa and described the European position on
Israel as "supine".
In April 2008, the London-based Arabic newspaper
that Carter met with exiled
Khaled Mashaal on his visit
Syria . The
Carter Center initially did not confirm nor deny the
US State Department
US State Department considers
Hamas a terrorist
organization. Within this Mid-East trip, Carter also laid a wreath on
the grave of
Yasser Arafat in
Ramallah on April 14, 2008. Carter said
on April 23 that neither
Condoleezza Rice nor anyone else in the State
Department had warned him against meeting with
Hamas leaders during
his trip. Carter spoke to Mashaal on several matters, including
"formulas for prisoner exchange to obtain the release of Corporal
In May 2007, while arguing that the
United States should directly
talk to Iran, Carter again stated that
Israel has 150 nuclear weapons
in its arsenal.
In December 2008, Carter visited Damascus again, where he met with
Bashar al-Assad , and the
Hamas leadership. During
his visit he gave an exclusive interview to
Forward Magazine , the
first ever interview for any American president, current or former,
with a Syrian media outlet.
Carter visited with three officials from
Hamas who have been living
at the International Red Cross office in
Jerusalem since July 2010.
Israel believes that these three
Hamas legislators had a role in the
2006 kidnapping of Israeli soldier
Gilad Shalit , and has a
deportation order set for them.
In August 2014, Carter was joined by
Mary Robinson during the 2014
Israel–Gaza conflict with the pair pressing for the inclusion of
Hamas as an actor in peace talks with Israel, recognition of the group
as a legitimate political entity, and the lifting of the siege of
Gaza. The two Elders , in an op-ed article in Foreign Policy , noted
the recent unity deal between
Hamas and Fatah when
Hamas agreed with
the Palestinian Authority to denounce violence, recognize
adhere to past agreements, saying it presented an opportunity. Carter
and Robinson called on the UN Security Council to act on what they
described as the inhumane conditions in Gaza, and mandate an end to
Carter, with former UN Secretary-General
Kofi Annan , leads an
observer mission at South
Sudan 's referendum on independence ,
Carter held summits in
Tunisia in 1995–1996 to address
violence in the Great Lakes region of Africa.
Carter played a key role in negotiation of the Nairobi Agreement in
On June 18, 2007, Carter, accompanied by his wife, arrived in Dublin,
Ireland, for talks with President
Mary McAleese and Bertie Ahern
concerning human rights. On June 19, Carter attended and spoke at the
annual Human Rights Forum at
Croke Park . An agreement between Irish
Aid and The
Carter Center was also signed on this day.
Carter led a mission to
Haiti in 1994 with Senator
Sam Nunn and
former chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff General
Colin Powell to
avert a US-led multinational invasion and restore to power Haiti's
democratically elected president,
Jean-Bertrand Aristide .
Cuba in May 2002 and had full discussions with Fidel
Castro and the
Cuban government . He was allowed to address the Cuban
public uncensored on national television and radio with a speech that
he wrote and presented in Spanish. In the speech, he called on the US
to end "an ineffective 43-year-old economic embargo " and on Castro to
hold free elections, improve human rights, and allow greater civil
liberties . He met with political dissidents; visited the AIDS
sanitarium, a medical school, a biotech facility, an agricultural
production cooperative, and a school for disabled children; and threw
a pitch for an all-star baseball game in
Havana . The visit made
Carter the first President of the United States, in or out of office,
to visit the island since the
Cuban revolution of 1959.
Carter observed the Venezuela recall elections on August 15, 2004.
European Union observers had declined to participate, saying too many
restrictions were put on them by the
Hugo Chávez administration. A
record number of voters turned out to defeat the recall attempt with a
59 percent "no" vote. The
Carter Center stated that the process
"suffered from numerous irregularities," but said it did not observe
or receive "evidence of fraud that would have changed the outcome of
the vote". On the afternoon of August 16, 2004, the day after the
vote, Carter and
Organization of American States (OAS) Secretary
César Gaviria gave a joint press conference in which they
endorsed the preliminary results announced by the National Electoral
Council. The monitors' findings "coincided with the partial returns
announced today by the National Elections Council," said Carter, while
Gaviria added that the OAS electoral observation mission's members had
"found no element of fraud in the process." Directing his remarks at
opposition figures who made claims of "widespread fraud" in the
voting, Carter called on all Venezuelans to "accept the results and
work together for the future". A Penn, Schoen when the election
results showed him to have won by 20 percent, Douglas Schoen
commented, "I think it was a massive fraud". US News & World Report
offered an analysis of the polls, indicating "very good reason to
believe that the exit poll had the result right, and that Chávez's
election officials – and Carter and the American media – got it
wrong." The exit poll and the Venezuela government's control of
election machines became the basis of claims of election fraud.
Associated Press report states that Penn, Schoen ">
Carter addresses the
Alabama and Georgia delegations on the third
morning of the
2008 Democratic National Convention
In 2001, Carter criticized President Bill Clinton's controversial
Marc Rich , calling it "disgraceful" and suggesting that
Rich's financial contributions to the Democratic Party were a factor
in Clinton's action.
In June 2005, Carter urged the closing of the
Guantanamo Bay Prison
in Cuba, which has been a focal point for recent claims of prisoner
In September 2006, Carter was interviewed on the BBC's current
Newsnight , voicing his concern at the increasing
influence of the Religious Right on US politics.
In September 2009, Carter put weight behind allegations by Venezuelan
Hugo Chávez , pertaining to
United States involvement in
the 2002 Venezuelan coup d\'état attempt by a civilian-military junta
, saying that Washington knew about the coup and may have taken part.
On June 16, 2011, the 40th anniversary of
Richard Nixon 's official
declaration of America's
War on Drugs
War on Drugs , Carter wrote an op-ed in The
New York Times urging the
United States and the rest of the world to
"Call Off the Global War on Drugs", explicitly endorsing the
initiative released by the
Global Commission on Drug Policy earlier
that month and quoting a message he gave to Congress in 1977 saying
that "enalties against possession of a drug should not be more
damaging to an individual than the use of the drug itself."
Criticisms Of George W. Bush
Carter has criticized the presidency of
George W. Bush and the Iraq
War . In a 2003 op-ed in
The New York Times , Carter warned against
the consequences of a war in Iraq and urged restraint in use of
military force. In March 2004, Carter condemned
George W. Bush and
Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war "based upon lies and
misinterpretations" to oust
Saddam Hussein . In August 2006, Carter
criticized Blair for being "subservient" to the Bush administration
and accused Blair of giving unquestioning support to Bush's Iraq
policies. In a May 2007 interview with the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette
, he said, "I think as far as the adverse impact on the nation around
the world, this administration has been the worst in history," when it
comes to foreign affairs. Two days after the quote was published,
Carter told NBC\'s Today that the "worst in history" comment was
"careless or misinterpreted," and that he "wasn't comparing this
administration with other administrations back through history, but
just with President Nixon's." The day after the "worst in history"
comment was published,
White House spokesman
Tony Fratto said that
Carter had become "increasingly irrelevant with these kinds of
On May 19, 2007, Blair made his final visit to Iraq before stepping
down as British Prime Minister , and Carter criticized him afterward.
Carter told the
BBC that Blair was "apparently subservient" to Bush
and criticized him for his "blind support" for the Iraq war. Carter
described Blair's actions as "abominable" and stated that the British
Prime Minister's "almost undeviating support for the ill-advised
policies of President Bush in Iraq have been a major tragedy for the
world." Carter said he believes that had Blair distanced himself from
the Bush administration during the run-up to the invasion of Iraq in
2003 , it might have made a crucial difference to American political
and public opinion, and consequently the invasion might not have gone
ahead. Carter states that "one of the defenses of the Bush
administration ... has been, okay, we must be more correct in our
actions than the world thinks because Great Britain is backing us. So
I think the combination of Bush and Blair giving their support to this
tragedy in Iraq has strengthened the effort and has made the
opposition less effective, and prolonged the war and increased the
tragedy that has resulted." Carter expressed his hope that Blair's
Gordon Brown , would be "less enthusiastic" about Bush's
Speaking to the Syrian English monthly
Forward Magazine of
Carter was asked to give one word that came to mind when mentioning
President George W. Bush. His answer was: the end of a very
disappointing administration. His reaction to mentioning Barack Obama
was: honesty, intelligence, and politically adept.
Criticism Of The Clintons
Bill Clinton did not have a good relationship, as Clinton
had blamed one of President Carter's policies for losing the
governorship of Arkansas in 1980. Although Clinton was the first
Democratic president to be elected after Carter, the Carters were
snubbed at the first Clinton inauguration. Carter has publicly
criticized the morality of President Clinton's administration
Monica Lewinsky scandal and the
Marc Rich pardon. Carter
was also disenchanted with Clinton's post-presidency activities,
including the latter's $350,000 speeches and "glitz of his star and
billionaire studded annual Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) meetings in
New York". While Clinton was seen as a "rock star" who made "his trips
to Africa on board the lavish private jets of his billionaire buddies"
and had an "sleek, expensive library...for being mostly about
self-aggrandizement", Carter remained humble as he flew commercial
airlines and founded the
Carter Center to incubate good ideas.
Due to his status as former president, Carter was a superdelegate to
2008 Democratic National Convention . Carter announced his
endorsement of Senator
Barack Obama over Senator
Hillary Clinton .
Carter cautioned against
Hillary Clinton being picked for the vice
president slot on the ticket, saying "I think it would be the worst
mistake that could be made. That would just accumulate the negative
aspects of both candidates", citing opinion polls showing 50% of US
voters with a negative view of Hillary Clinton. During a phone
interview a year after Hillary Clinton's tenure of secretary of state
in the Obama administration ended and she was succeeded by John Kerry
, Carter said, "In this occasion, when Secretary Clinton was Secretary
of State, she took very little action to bring about peace. It was
only John Kerry’s coming into office that reinitiated all these very
important and crucial issues."
Comments On Barack Obama
On January 28, 2009, a week after the first inauguration of Barack
Obama , Carter said he believed Obama would be "an outstanding
president" during an interview with
Charlie Rose .
Carter has criticized the Obama administration for its use of drone
strikes against suspected terrorists. Carter also said that he
disagrees with President Obama's decision to keep the Guantánamo Bay
detention camp open, saying that the inmates "have been tortured by
waterboarding more than 100 times or intimidated with semiautomatic
weapons, power drills or threats to sexually assault their mothers."
He claimed that the U.S. government had no moral leadership, and was
committing human rights violations, and is no longer "the global
champion of human rights".
In July 2013, Carter expressed his criticism of current federal
surveillance programs as disclosed by
Edward Snowden indicating that
"America has no functioning democracy at this moment."
Jimmy Carter bibliography
Interview, President Jimmy Carter, 2003, 23:38, American Archive
of Public Broadcasting
Jimmy Carter at a book signing in Raleigh, NC on April 2, 2014
Carter has been a prolific author in his post-presidency, writing 21
of his 23 books. Among these is one he co-wrote with his wife,
Rosalynn , and a children's book illustrated by his daughter, Amy .
They cover a variety of topics, including humanitarian work, aging,
religion, human rights, and poetry.
Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid
Main articles: Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid and Commentary on
Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid See also:
Israel and the apartheid
In a 2007 speech to Brandeis University, Carter stated: "I have spent
a great deal of my adult life trying to bring peace to
Israel and its
neighbors, based on justice and righteousness for the Palestinians.
These are the underlying purposes of my new book."
In his book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid , published in November
2006, Carter states:
Israel's continued control and colonization of Palestinian land have
been the primary obstacles to a comprehensive peace agreement in the
He declares that Israel's current policies in the Palestinian
territories constitute "a system of apartheid , with two peoples
occupying the same land, but completely separated from each other,
with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving
Palestinians of their basic human rights." In an Op-Ed titled
"Speaking Frankly about
Israel and Palestine," published in the Los
Angeles Times and other newspapers, Carter states:
The ultimate purpose of my book is to present facts about the Middle
East that are largely unknown in America, to precipitate discussion
and to help restart peace talks (now absent for six years) that can
lead to permanent peace for
Israel and its neighbors. Another hope is
that Jews and other Americans who share this same goal might be
motivated to express their views, even publicly, and perhaps in
concert. I would be glad to help with that effort.
While some – such as a former
Special Rapporteur for both the
United Nations Commission on Human Rights and the International Law
Commission, as well as a member of the Israeli Knesset – have
praised Carter for speaking frankly about Palestinians in Israeli
occupied lands , others – including the envoy to the Middle East
under Clinton, as well as the first director of the
– have accused him of anti-Israeli bias. Specifically, these critics
have alleged significant factual errors, omissions and misstatements
in the book.
The 2007 documentary film,
Man from Plains , follows President Carter
during his tour for the controversial book and other humanitarian
In December 2009, Carter apologized for any words or deeds that may
have upset the Jewish community in an open letter meant to improve an
often tense relationship. He said he was offering an Al Het, a prayer
Yom Kippur , the Jewish Day of Atonement.
INVOLVEMENT WITH BANK OF CREDIT AND COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL
After Carter left the presidency, his interest in the developing
countries led him to having a close relationship with Agha Hasan Abedi
, the founder of
Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI).
Abedi was a Pakistani, whose bank had offices and business in a large
number of developing countries. He was introduced to Carter in 1982 by
Bert Lance , one of Carter's closest friends. (Unknown to Carter, BCCI
had secretly purchased an interest in 1978 in National Bank of Georgia
, which had previously been run by Lance and had made loans to
Carter's peanut business.) Abedi made generous donations to the Carter
Center and the
Global 2000 Project . Abedi also traveled with Carter
to at least seven countries in connection with Carter's charitable
Jimmy Carter often advocated that BCCI was unique of all
the banks that he had seen. However, it is argued that the main
purpose of Abedi's association with Carter was not charitable
activities, but to enhance BCCI's influence, in order to open more
offices and develop more business. In 1991, BCCI was seized by
regulators, amid allegations of criminal activities, including
illegally having control of several U.S. banks.
2004 PRESIDENTIAL RACE
John Kerry and during an interview said of him, "I
look on Kerry as one who has gotten through his lifetime of experience
exactly what is needed in makeup and battleground and learning and
determination, and his ideals to be the president we need now in this
troubled time." Carter spoke at the 2004 Democratic National
2008 PRESIDENTIAL RACE
In January 2008, during an interview with
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal ,
Carter praised Senator
Barack Obama and the latter's presidential
campaign , saying the
Carter family and himself had been positively
impacted by his candidacy and predicting Obama "will be almost
automatically a healing factor in the animosity now that exists, that
relates to our country and its government." In April, while in Abuja
, Carter noted the support among Obama from those closest to him:
"Don’t forget that Obama won in my state of Georgia. My town, which
is home to 625 people, is for Obama, my children and their spouses are
pro-Obama. My grandchildren are also pro-Obama." On May 25, Carter
assessed that Senator
Hillary Clinton would "give it up" after
superdelegates voted following the conclusion of the June 3 primary.
In an August 2008 interview, Carter accused Republican presidential
John McCain of "milking every possible drop of advantage" in
mentioning his status as a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War.
McCain responded to Carter's comments during an appearance on Fox
News: "I have great respect for former president Carter, but it's not
first time we have disagreed. I don't think most Americans share that
view. In fact, most of my supporters say talk more about your
experiences, they were formative experiences."
2012 PRESIDENTIAL RACE
Despite being a Democrat, Carter endorsed former Massachusetts
Mitt Romney in the Republican party 2012 Presidential primary
in mid-September 2011, not because he supported Romney, but because he
felt Obama's re-election bid would be strengthened in a race against
Romney. Carter added that he thought
Mitt Romney would lose in a
match up against Obama and that he supported the president's
Carter addressed the
Democratic National Convention
Democratic National Convention in North Carolina
by videotape, and did not attend the convention in person.
2016 PRESIDENTIAL RACE
On July 8, 2015, Carter said the statements made by Republican
Donald Trump on Mexican illegal immigrants were "very
stupid" and "ill-advised". He predicted that while Trump would secure
a small percentage of supporters in the primary, the latter was "a
flash in the pan." In a November 1, 2015 interview, Carter noted the
contrasts between his own experiences seeking the presidency and the
current political climate: "I think it is different now in the nation.
And I think it’s being caused by the fact that when people do get to
Washington, quite often there’s a stalemate there and both parties
kind of relish the fact that they don’t get along with the other
side. It’s a different environment."
During a February 3, 2016 appearance at the
House of Lords
House of Lords in London,
Britain , Carter was asked whom he would support for the presidency
between Trump and
Ted Cruz , his main primary rival, Carter selecting
Trump and explaining that he had "proven already that he's completely
malleable. I don't think he has any fixed opinions that he would
really go to the
White House and fight for." During a May 23
interview, Carter said the Trump campaign had "tapped a waiting
reservoir there of inherent racism." During his video message at the
Democratic National Convention
Democratic National Convention in July, Carter characterized
Trump as seeming "to reject the most important moral and ethical
principles on which our nation was founded."
In 2017, Carter disclosed that, in the 2016 Democratic primary for
President , he had voted for Senator
Bernie Sanders . In the general
election, he voted for
Hillary Clinton .
Carter (far right) in 1991 with President
George H. W. Bush and
former Presidents Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, and
Ronald Reagan at the
dedication of the Reagan Presidential Library
Carter has participated in many ceremonial events such as the opening
of his own presidential library and those of Presidents Ronald Reagan,
George H. W. Bush, and Bill Clinton. He has also participated in many
forums, lectures, panels, funerals and other events. In 2006 Carter
delivered a eulogy at the funeral of
Coretta Scott King and, most
recently, at the funeral of his former political rival, but later his
close, personal friend and diplomatic collaborator,
Gerald Ford .
Jimmy Carter serves as an Honorary Chair for the World
Justice Project . The
World Justice Project works to lead a global,
multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the
Rule of Law for the
development of communities of opportunity and equity.
Carter served as Honorary Chair for the Continuity of Government
Commission from 2003 to 2011 (he was co-chair with
Gerald Ford until
the latter's death). The Commission recommended improvements to
continuity of government measures for the federal government.
Although Carter was "personally opposed" to abortion , he supported
legalized abortion after the landmark
US Supreme Court
US Supreme Court decision Roe
v. Wade , 410 US 113 (1973). As president, he did not support
increased federal funding for abortion services. He was criticized by
American Civil Liberties Union for not doing enough to find
In a March 29, 2012 interview with
Laura Ingraham , Carter expressed
his current view of abortion and his wish to see the Democratic Party
becoming more pro-life :
I never have believed that
Jesus Christ would approve of abortions
and that was one of the problems I had when I was president having to
Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade and I did everything I could to minimize the need
for abortions. I made it easy to adopt children for instance who were
unwanted and also initiated the program called Women and Infant
Children or WIC program that's still in existence now. But except for
the times when a mother's life is in danger or when a pregnancy is
caused by rape or incest I would certainly not or never have approved
of any abortions. I've signed a public letter calling for the
Democratic Party at the next convention to espouse my position on
abortion which is to minimize the need, requirement for abortion and
limit it only to women whose life are in danger or who are pregnant
as a result of rape or incest. I think if the Democratic Party would
adopt that policy that would be acceptable to a lot of people who are
now estranged from our party because of the abortion issue.
Carter is known for his strong opposition to the death penalty, which
he expressed during his presidential campaigns, as had George
McGovern. Two successive nominees,
Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis
, also opposed the death penalty. In his
Nobel Prize lecture, Carter
urged "prohibition of the death penalty". He has continued to speak
out against the death penalty in the US and abroad.
In a letter to the Governor of New Mexico,
Bill Richardson , Carter
urged the governor to sign a bill to eliminate the death penalty and
institute life in prison without parole instead. New Mexico abolished
the death penalty in 2009. Carter wrote: "As you know, the United
States is one of the few countries, along with nations such as Saudi
Arabia, China, and Cuba, which still carry out the death penalty
despite the ongoing tragedy of wrongful conviction and gross racial
and class-based disparities that make impossible the fair
implementation of this ultimate punishment." In 2012, Carter wrote an
op-ed in the
LA Times supporting passage of a state referendum which
would have ended the death penalty. He opened the article: "The
process for administering the death penalty in the
United States is
broken beyond repair, and it is time to choose a more effective and
moral alternative. California voters will have the opportunity to do
this on election day."
Carter has also called for commutations of death sentences for many
death-row inmates, including Brian K. Baldwin (executed in 1999 in
Kenneth Foster (sentence in
Texas commuted in 2007) and
Troy Anthony Davis (executed in Georgia in 2011).
EQUALITY FOR WOMEN
In October 2000, Carter, a third-generation Southern Baptist,
announced that he was severing connections to the Southern Baptist
Convention over its opposition to women as pastors. What led Carter to
take this action was a doctrinal statement by the Convention, adopted
in June 2000, advocating a literal interpretation of the Bible . This
statement followed a position of the Convention two years previously
advocating the submission of wives to their husbands. Carter described
the reason for his decision as due to: "an increasing inclination on
the part of
Southern Baptist Convention leaders to be more rigid on
what is a Southern Baptist and exclusionary of accommodating those who
differ from them."
The New York Times called Carter's action "the
highest-profile defection yet from the Southern Baptist Convention."
In subsequent years, Carter has joined with other world leaders who
have spoken out about the subjugation of women by religious and other
institutions. On July 15, 2009, Carter wrote an opinion piece about
equality for women in which he stated that he chooses equality for
women over the dictates of the leadership of what has been a lifetime
religious commitment. He said that the view that women are inferior is
not confined to one faith, "nor, tragically does its influence stop at
the walls of the church, mosque, synagogue or temple." Carter stated:
The truth is that male religious leaders have had—and still
have—an option to interpret holy teachings either to exalt or
subjugate women. They have, for their own selfish ends, overwhelmingly
chosen the latter. Their continuing choice provides the foundation or
justification for much of the pervasive persecution and abuse of women
throughout the world. This is in clear violation not just of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights but also the teachings of Jesus
Christ, the Apostle Paul, Moses and the prophets, Muhammad, and
founders of other great religions—all of whom have called for proper
and equitable treatment of all the children of God. It is time we had
the courage to challenge these views.
In 2014, he published A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence,
Carter has publicly expressed support for a ban on assault weapons
and background checks of gun buyers. In May 1994, Carter and former
Gerald Ford and
Ronald Reagan wrote to the U.S. House of
Representatives in support of banning "semi-automatic assault guns."
In a February 2013 appearance on
Piers Morgan Tonight
Piers Morgan Tonight , Carter agreed
that if the assault weapons ban did not pass it would be mainly due to
lobbying by the
National Rifle Association
National Rifle Association and its pressure on
Carter has stated that he supports same-sex marriage in civil
ceremonies. He has also stated that he believes
Jesus would also
support it, saying "I believe
Jesus would. I don't have any verse in
scripture. ... I believe
Jesus would approve gay marriage, but that's
just my own personal belief. I think
Jesus would encourage any love
affair if it was honest and sincere and was not damaging to anyone
else, and I don't see that gay marriage damages anyone else." In
October 2014, Carter argued ahead of a Supreme Court ruling that
legalization of same-sex marriage should be left up to the states and
not mandated by federal law.
RACE IN POLITICS
Carter ignited debate in September 2009 when he stated, "I think an
overwhelming portion of the intensely demonstrated animosity toward
Barack Obama is based on the fact that he is a black man,
that he is African-American." Obama disagreed with Carter's
CNN Obama stated, "Are there people out there who don't
like me because of race? I'm sure there are ... that's not the
overriding issue here."
In a 2008 interview with
Amnesty International , Carter criticized
the use of torture at
Guantanamo Bay , saying that it "contravenes the
basic principles on which this nation was founded." He stated that
the next President should make the promise that the
United States will
"never again torture a prisoner."
In an October 2013 interview, Carter labeled the Affordable Care Act
President Obama's major accomplishment and said "the implementation of
it now is questionable at best". In July 2017, Carter concluded the
US would eventually see the implementation of a single-payer
Carter in Plains, 2008
Carter and his wife Rosalynn are well known for their work as
Habitat for Humanity
Habitat for Humanity , a Georgia-based philanthropy
that helps low-income working people around the world to build and buy
their own homes and access clean water.
Carter's hobbies include painting, fly-fishing , woodworking,
cycling, tennis, and skiing. He also has an interest in poetry,
particularly the works of
Dylan Thomas . During a state visit to the
UK in 1977, Carter suggested that Thomas should have a memorial in
Poets\' Corner at
Westminster Abbey ; this was an idea that came to
fruition in 1982.
From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to
He teaches Sunday school and is a deacon at the Maranatha Baptist
Church in his hometown of Plains . As president, Carter prayed
several times a day, and professed that
Jesus Christ was the driving
force in his life. Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he
had heard as a young man. It asked, "If you were arrested for being a
Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?" The New
York Times noted that Carter had been instrumental in moving
Christianity closer to the American mainstream during and
after his presidency.
In 2000, Carter severed his membership with the Southern Baptist
Convention , saying the group's doctrines did not align with his
Christian beliefs. In April 2006, Carter, former President Bill
Mercer University President Bill Underwood initiated the
New Baptist Covenant . The broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite
Baptists of all races, cultures and convention affiliations. Eighteen
Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million
North America backed the group as an alternative to the Southern
Baptist Convention . The group held its first meeting in Atlanta,
January 30 through February 1, 2008.
Carter had three younger siblings, all of whom died of pancreatic
Gloria Carter Spann (1926–1990) and Ruth Carter
Stapleton (1929–1983), and brother
Billy Carter (1937–1988). He
was first cousin to politician
Hugh Carter and a distant cousin to the
Carter family of musicians.
Farah Pahlavi , Empress of
Jimmy Carter IV while Rosalynn Carter, Caron Carter and Chip
Carter watch, January 1978
Carter and Rosalynn Smith were married in July 1946. They have three
sons, one daughter , eight grandsons, three granddaughters, and two
great-grandsons. They celebrated their 70th wedding anniversary in
July 2016, making them the second-longest wed Presidential couple
after George and
Barbara Bush . Their eldest son Jack Carter was the
2006 Democratic candidate for U.S. Senate in Nevada before losing to
the Republican incumbent,
John Ensign . Carter's grandson Jason Carter
is a former Georgia State Senator and in 2014 was the Democratic
candidate for governor of Georgia , losing to the Republican
Nathan Deal . On December 20, 2015, while teaching a Sunday
school class, Carter announced that his 28-year-old grandson Jeremy
Carter had died from an unspecified illness.
On August 3, 2015, Carter underwent elective surgery to remove "a
small mass" on his liver , and his prognosis for a full recovery was
initially said to be "excellent". On August 12, however, Carter
announced he had been diagnosed with cancer that had metastasized ,
without specifying where the cancer had originated. On August 20, he
disclosed that melanoma had been found in his brain and liver, and
that he had begun treatment with the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab
and was about to start radiation therapy . His healthcare is being
Emory Healthcare of
Atlanta . The former President has an
extensive family history of cancer, including both of his parents and
all three of his siblings. On December 6, 2015, Carter issued a
statement that his medical scans no longer showed any cancer. On
January 20, 2017, at age 92, Carter became the oldest president to
attend a presidential inauguration.
FUNERAL AND BURIAL PLANS
Carter has planned to be buried in front of his home in Plains,
Georgia. Carter noted in 2006 that a funeral in
Washington, D.C. ,
with visitation at the
Carter Center was planned as well.
PUBLIC IMAGE AND LEGACY
In the wake of Nixon\'s
Watergate Scandal , exit polls from the 1976
Presidential election suggested that many still held
Gerald Ford 's
pardon of Nixon against him. By comparison Carter was a sincere,
honest, and well-meaning Southerner. Carter began his term with a 66
percent approval rating which had dropped to 34 percent approval by
the time he left office, with 55 percent disapproving.
In the 1980 campaign, former California Governor Ronald Reagan
projected an easy self-confidence, in contrast to Carter's serious and
introspective temperament. What many people believed to be Carter's
personal attention to detail, his pessimistic attitude, his seeming
indecisiveness and weakness with people were accentuated in contrast
to what many people believed, Reagan's charismatic charm and
delegation of tasks to subordinates. Reagan used the economic
Iran hostage crisis
Iran hostage crisis , and lack of Washington cooperation to
portray Carter as a weak and ineffectual leader. Like his immediate
predecessor, Gerald Ford, Carter did not serve a second term as
president. Among those who were elected as president, Carter was the
first since Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid.
Carter's post-Presidency activities have been favorably received. The
Independent wrote, "Carter is widely considered a better man than he
was a president." His presidential approval rating was just 31
percent immediately before the 1980 election, but 64 percent approved
of his performance as president in a 2009 poll.
Carter's presidency was initially viewed by some as a failure. In
historical rankings of U.S. presidents , the Carter presidency has
ranged from No. 19 to No. 34. Although his presidency received mixed
reception, his peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts since he left
office have made Carter renowned as one of the most successful
ex-Presidents in American history.
The documentary Back Door Channels: The Price of Peace (2009) credits
Carter's efforts at Camp David, which brought peace between
Egypt, with bringing the only meaningful peace to the Middle East. The
film opened the 2009 Monte-Carlo Television Festival in an
invitation-only royal screening on June 7, 2009 at the Grimaldi Forum
in the presence of
Albert II, Prince of Monaco .
HONORS AND AWARDS
List of honors and awards received by Jimmy Carter
Carter has received numerous awards and accolades since his
presidency, and several institutions and locations have been named in
his honor. His presidential library ,
Jimmy Carter Library and Museum
was opened in 1986. In 1998, the U.S. Navy named the third and last
Seawolf-class submarine honoring former President Carter and his
service as a submariner officer. It became one of the few Navy vessels
to be named for a person living at the time of naming. That year he
also received the
United Nations Human Rights Prize , given in honor
of human rights achievements, and the
Hoover Medal , recognizing
engineers who have contributed to global causes. He won the 2002
Nobel Peace Prize , which was partially a response to President
George W. Bush 's threats of war against Iraq and Carter's criticism
of the Bush administration.
Carter has been nominated seven times for the Grammy Award for Best
Spoken Word Album for audio recordings of his books, and has won
twice—for Our Endangered Values: America\'s Moral Crisis (2007) and
A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016).
Souther Field Airport in
Americus, Georgia was renamed Jimmy
Carter Regional Airport in 2009.
Carter (right), walks with, from left, George H. W. Bush, George W.
Bill Clinton during the dedication of the William J. Clinton
Presidential Center and Park in
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock, Arkansas on November 18,
Carter during a Google Hangout session held during the LBJ
Presidential Library Civil Rights Summit in 2014
Carter (right) with President
Barack Obama (center) and Bill Clinton
(left) on August 28, 2013, the 50th anniversary of the March on
Carter (left) with a replica of the USS
Jimmy Carter with Secretary
of the Navy John H. Dalton (right) at a naming ceremony, April 28,
* Biography portal
United States Navy portal
* Government of the
United States portal
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia (U.S. state) portal
Electoral history of Jimmy Carter
* History of the
United States (1964–1980)
* History of the
United States (1980–1988)
List of peace activists
Jimmy Carter rabbit incident
Americo Makk portrait Hawaii Gift of State.
* "Mush From the Wimp" incident
Raymond Lee Harvey , assassination conspirator
* List of Presidents of the
* List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous
* ^ Carter was the first U.S. president to be born in a hospital.
* ^ With Carter out of the race, Maddox narrowly won the runoff
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Georgia House of Representatives with its Democratic majority; they
settled on Maddox.
* ^ Eagleton was later replaced on the ticket by
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* ^ Hayward, p. 23.
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Medal, and Natl. Defense Service Medal
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expected that the revelations in his memoir (combined with an
apocryphal quote attributed to Brzezinski) would inspire "a
mind-bending number of conspiracy theories which adamantly—and
wrongly—accuse the Carter Administration of luring the Soviets into
Afghanistan," Gates replied: "No, because there was no basis in fact
for an allegation the administration tried to draw the Soviets into
Afghanistan militarily." See Gates, email communication with John
Bernell White Jr., October 15, 2011, as cited in White, John Bernell
(May 2012). "The Strategic Mind Of Zbigniew Brzezinski: How A Native
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Retrieved September 11, 2016. cf. Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The
Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet
Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin. p. 581. ISBN 9781594200076 .
Contemporary memos—particularly those written in the first days
after the Soviet invasion—make clear that while Brzezinski was
determined to confront the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert
action, he was also very worried the Soviets would prevail. ... Given
this evidence and the enormous political and security costs that the
invasion imposed on the Carter administration, any claim that
Brzezinski lured the Soviets into Afghanistan warrants deep
* ^ Carter, James. "
Jimmy Carter State of the Union Address 1980".
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Jimmy Carter -
Iran". realclearworld.com. realclearworld. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
Jimmy Carter (2005). Our Endangered Values: America\'s Moral
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