James F. Steranko (/stəˈræŋkoʊ/; born November 5, 1938) is
an American graphic artist, comic book writer/artist, comics
historian, magician, publisher and film production illustrator.
His most famous comic book work was with the 1960s superspy feature
Nick Fury, Agent of
S.H.I.E.L.D. in Marvel Comics'
Strange Tales and
in the subsequent eponymous series. Steranko earned lasting acclaim
for his innovations in sequential art during the Silver Age of Comic
Books, particularly his infusion of surrealism, pop art, and graphic
design into the medium. His work has been published in many countries
and his influence on the field has remained strong since his comics
heyday. He went on to create book covers, become a comics historian
who published a pioneering two-volume history of the birth and early
years of comic books, and to create conceptual art and character
designs for films including
Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark and Bram Stoker's
He was inducted into the comic-book industry's
Will Eisner Comic Book
Hall of Fame in 2006.
1 Early life
Illusionist and musician
2.2 Early art career
2.3 Silver Age Steranko
2.4 Publisher and paperback artist
2.5 Film and television work
3 Awards and recognition
7 External links
Steranko was born in Reading, Pennsylvania. According to Steranko's
authorized biography, his grandparents emigrated from
settle in the anthracite coal-mining region of eastern Pennsylvania.
Steranko's father, one of nine siblings, began working in the mines at
age 10, and as an adult became a tinsmith. Steranko later said his
father and uncles "would bootleg coal – they would go up into a
mountain and open up a shaft." One of three children, all boys,
Steranko spent his early childhood during the American Great
Depression living in a three-room house with a tar-paper roof and
outhouse toilet facilities. He slept on a couch in the nominal living
room until he was more than 10 years old. Steranko's father and
five uncles showed musical inclination, performing in a band that
played on Reading radio in the 1930s, Steranko has said.
Steranko recalled beginning school at age 4. Later, "Because my
father had tuberculosis (and I tested positive), I began third grade
at what was called an 'open-window' school, a facility across the city
that had a healthy program for kids with special problems. I was bused
to school for four years, then dropped into standard junior high."
There, being smaller and younger than his classmates, he found himself
a target for bullies and young gang-members until he studied boxing
and self-defense at the local
YMCA and began to successfully fight
back. His youngest brother was born when Steranko was 14, "severing
even the minimal interaction between me and my parents."
Steranko had begun drawing while very young, opening and flattening
envelopes from the mail to use as sketch paper. Despite his father's
denigration of Steranko's artistic talent, and the boy's ambition to
become an architect, Steranko paid for his art supplies by collecting
discarded soda bottles for the bottle deposit and bundled old
newspapers to sell to scrap-paper dealers. He studied the Sunday comic
strip art of Milton Caniff, Alex Raymond, Hal Foster, and Chester
Gould, as well as the characters of
Walt Disney and Superman, provided
in "boxes of comics" brought to him by an uncle. Radio programs,
Saturday movie matinées and serials, and other popular culture also
Steranko in 1978 described some influences and their impact on his
Early influences were Chester Gould's [comic strip]
Dick Tracy (not
particularly in my drawing style but in subject matter and an approach
to drama), Hal Foster, and Frank Robbins' [comic strip] Johnny Hazard.
I still think Robbins is one of the greatest storytellers of all time.
Fans seem to have a lot less [of an] opinion of Robbins for some
reason, just because they're more enamored of lines. Fans seem to
think that the more lines that go into a drawing the better it is.
Actually, the opposite is generally true. The fewer lines you can put
into a drawing the quicker it reads, and the simpler it is. [Alex]
Toth is one of the few guys who can simplify an illustration to a
minimum of lines with a maximum of impact.
Illusionist and musician
By his account, Steranko learned stage magic using paraphernalia from
his father's stage magician act, and in his teens spent several
summers working with circuses and carnivals, working his way up to
sideshow performer as a fire-eater and in acts involving a bed of
nails and sleight-of-hand. At school, he competed on the gymnastics
team, on the rings and parallel bars, and later took up boxing and,
under swordmaster Dan Phillips in New York City, fencing. At 17,
Steranko and another teenage boy were arrested for a string of
burglaries and car thefts in Pennsylvania.
Steranko's first published comic book art: inset in artist George
Tuska's cover of Harvey Comics'
Spyman #1 (Sept. 1966)
Up through his early 20s, Steranko performed as an illusionist, escape
artist, close-up magician in nightclubs, and musician, having played
in drum and bugle corps in his teens before forming his own bands
during the early days of rock and roll. Steranko, whose first
band, in 1956, was called The Lancers, did not perform under his own
name, claiming he used pseudonyms to help protect himself from
enemies. He also claims to have put the first go-go girls
onstage. The seminal rock and roll group Bill Haley and his Comets
was based in nearby Philadelphia and Steranko, who played a Jazzmaster
guitar, often performed in the same local venues, sometimes on the
same bill, and became friendly with Haley guitarist Frank Beecher, who
became a musical influence. By the late 1960s, Steranko was a
member of a New York City magicians' group, the Witchdoctor's Club.
Mark Evanier notes that the influential comic-book
creator Jack Kirby, who "based some of his characters ... on people in
his life or in the news", was "inspired" to create the escape artist
Mister Miracle "by an earlier career of writer-artist Jim
Early art career
During the day, Steranko made his living as an artist for a printing
company in his hometown of Reading, designing and drawing pamphlets
and flyers for local dance clubs and the like. He moved on after five
years to join an advertising agency, where he designed ads and drew
products ranging from "baby carriages to beer cans". Interested in
writing and drawing for comic books, he visited
DC Comics as a fan and
was treated to a tour of the office by editor Julius Schwartz, who
gave Steranko a copy of a script featuring the science-fiction
adventurer Adam Strange. Steranko recalled in 2003, "It was the first
full script I'd ever seen, complete with panel descriptions and
dialogue. I learned a lot from it and eventually went on to create a
few comics of my own."
He initially entered the comics industry in 1957, not long out of
high school, working for a short time inking pencil art by Vince
Colletta and Matt Baker in Colletta's New York City studio before
returning to Reading. In 1966, he landed assignments at Harvey
Comics under editor Joe Simon, who as one writer described was "trying
to create a line of super heroes within a publishing company that had
specialized in anthropomorphic animals." Here Steranko created and
wrote the characters Spyman, Magicmaster and the Gladiator for the
company's short-lived superhero line, Harvey Thriller. His first
published comics art came in
Spyman #1 (Sept. 1966), for which he
wrote the 20-page story "The Birth of a Hero" and penciled the first
page, which included a diagram of a robotic hand that was reprinted as
an inset on artist George Tuska's cover.
Steranko also approached
Marvel Comics in 1966. He met with editor
Stan Lee, who had Steranko ink a two-page
Jack Kirby sample of typical
art for the superspy feature "
Nick Fury Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.".
Steranko self-published it in 1970 in the limited-edition "Steranko
Portfolio One"; it appeared again 30 years later in slightly altered
form in the 2000 trade-paperback collection Nick Fury, Agent of
S.H.I.E.L.D. This led to Lee's assigning him the
Nick Fury feature in
Strange Tales, a "split book" that shared each issue with another
feature. Future Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, then a staff
[H]e came up to the office ... and I was sent out by Sol [Brodsky] to
look at his work and basically brush him off. Stan was busy and didn't
want to be bothered that day. But when I saw Jim's work, ... on an
impulse I took it in to Sol and said, 'I think Stan should see this'.
Sol agreed, and took it in to Stan. Stan brought Steranko into his
office, and Jim left with the 'S.H.I.E.L.D.' assignment. ... I think
Jim's legacy to Marvel was demonstrating that there were ways in which
the Kirby style could be mutated, and many artists went off
increasingly in their own directions after that.
Silver Age Steranko
Lee and Kirby had initiated the 12-page "Nick Fury, Agent of
S.H.I.E.L.D." feature in
Strange Tales #135 (Aug. 1965), with Kirby
supplying such inventive and enduring gadgets and hardware as the
Helicarrier – an airborne aircraft carrier – as well as LMDs (Life
Model Decoys) and even automobile airbags. Marvel's all-purpose
terrorist organization HYDRA was introduced here as well.
A rare quiet moment for Nick Fury:
Strange Tales #168 (May 1968). Art
by Steranko and Joe Sinnott. Note the title treatment, atypical for
the time. This won comics fandom's 1968
Alley Award for Best Feature
Steranko began his stint on the feature by penciling and inking
"finishes" over Kirby layouts in
Strange Tales #151 (Dec. 1966),
just as many fellow new Marvel artists did at the time. Two issues
later, Steranko took over full penciling and also began drawing the
every-other-issue "Nick Fury" cover art. Then, in a rarity for comics
artists, he took over the series' writing with #155 (April 1967),
following Roy Thomas, who had succeeded Lee. In another break with
custom, he himself, rather than a Marvel staff artist, had become the
series' uncredited colorist by that issue.
"Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D." soon became one of the creative
zeniths of the Silver Age, and one of comics' most groundbreaking,
innovative and acclaimed features. Wrote Les Daniels, in his Comix: A
History of Comic Books in America, "[E]ven the dullest of readers
could sense that something new was happening. ... With each passing
issue Steranko's efforts became more and more innovative. Entire pages
would be devoted to photocollages of drawings [that] ignored panel
boundaries and instead worked together on planes of depth. The first
pages ... became incredible production numbers similar in design to
the San Francisco rock concert poster of the period".
Writer-artist Larry Hama, in an introduction to
Nick Fury collection,
said Steranko "combined the figurative dynamism of
Jack Kirby with
modern design concepts", and recostumed
Fury from suits and ties to "a
form-fitting bodysuit with numerous zippers and pockets, like a Wally
Wood spacesuit revamped by Pierre Cardin. The women were clad in
form-fitting black leather a la
Emma Peel in the Avengers TV show. The
graphic influences of Peter Max, Op Art and
Andy Warhol were embedded
into the design of the pages – and the pages were designed as a
whole, not just as a series of panels. All this, executed in a crisp,
hard-edged style, seething with drama and anatomical tension."
Steranko introduced or popularized in comics such art movements of the
day as psychedelia and op art, drawing specifically on the "aesthetic
of [Salvador] Dalí," with inspiration from Richard M. Powers,
ultimately synthesizing a style he termed "Zap Art." A.M.
Viturtia notes Steranko drew on the
James Bond novels, and claims that
the influence went both ways: "Although Steranko was primarily
influenced by spy movies, after
Nick Fury came on the comics scene,
the directors of those same movies began to borrow heavily from
Steranko himself!" He absorbed, adapted and built upon the
groundbreaking work of Jack Kirby, both in the use of photomontage
(particularly for cityscapes), and in the use of full- and
double-page-spreads. Indeed, in
Strange Tales #167 (Jan. 1968),
Steranko created comics' first four-page spread, upon which panorama
he or editor Lee bombastically noted, "to get the full effect, of
course, requires a second ish [copy of the issue] placed side-by-side,
but we think you'll find it to be well worth the price to have the
wildest action scene ever in the history of comics!" All the
while, Steranko spun outlandishly action-filled plots of intrigue,
barely sublimated sensuality, and a cool-jazz hi-fi hipness.
Writer Steven Ringgenberg assessed that
Steranko's Marvel work became a benchmark of '60s pop culture,
combining the traditional comic book art styles of
Wally Wood and Jack
Kirby with the surrealism of Richard Powers and Salvador Dalí.
Steeped in cinematic techniques picked up from that medium's masters,
Jim synthesized ... an approach different from anything being done in
mainstream comics, though it did include one standard attraction: lots
of females in skintight, sexy costumes. Countess Valentina (Val)
Allegro De Fontaine [sic; "Valentina Allegra di Fontaine"] made her
Strange Tales #159 (Aug. 1967) by flooring
Nick Fury during a
training session, proving that she could take care of herself! She
looked like a character who had just stepped out of a James Bond
Captain America #111 (March 1969): Steranko's signature surrealism.
Inking by Joe Sinnott.
She and Steranko's other skintight leather-clad version of Bond girls
pushed what was allowable under the
Comics Code at the time. One
example is a silent, one-page seduction sequence with the Countess in
Nick Fury, Agent of
S.H.I.E.L.D. #2, described by Robin Green in
So one panel had the stereo in Fury's apartment to show there was
music playing, cigarettes in the ash tray in one, there was a sequence
of intercut shots where she moved closer to him, much more intimately,
there was a kiss, there was a rose, and then there was one panel with
the telephone off the hook, which the comic book code [sic; "Comics
Code"] made him put back on. ... [T]he last panel on that page had
Nick and his old lady kneeling, with their arms around each other, and
that was entirely too much for the Code, so the panel was replaced
with a picture of a gun in its holster.
When reprinted in Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Who Is Scorpio?
(Marvel Enterprises, 2001; ISBN 0-7851-0766-5), however,
Steranko's original final panel was reinserted: In a black-and-white
long shot with screentone shading, the couple is beginning to embrace,
Fury standing and the Countess on one knee, getting up. Another
reprinting, in Marvel Masterworks:
Nick Fury Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.
Volume 2 (Marvel Publishing, 2009; ISBN 978-0-7851-3503-6), used
the published final panel, although the appendix included the original
art, showing the page as initially drawn. Each instance uses
Steranko's original telephone panel, not the redrawn published
Fury's adventures continued in his own series, for which Steranko
contributed four 20-page stories: "Who is Scorpio?" (issue #1); "So
Shall Ye Reap...Death" (#2), inspired by
Shakespeare's The Tempest;
"Dark Moon Rise, Hell Hound Kill" (#3), a Hound of the Baskervilles
homage, replete with a
Peter Cushing manqué; and the spy-fi sequel
"What Ever Happened to Scorpio?" (#5). Yet after deadline pressures
forced a fill-in "origin" story by another team in issue #4, Steranko
produced merely a handful of additional covers, then dropped the book.
Decades afterward, however, their images are among comics' best known,
and homages to his art have abounded – from updates of classic
covers with different heroes in place of Fury, to recreations of
famous pages and layouts.
Steranko also had short runs on X-Men (#50–51, Nov.–Dec. 1968),
for which he designed a new cover logo, and Captain America
(#110–111, 113, Feb.–March, May 1969). Steranko introduced the
Madame Hydra character in his brief
Captain America run. With no
new work immediately forthcoming, a "Marvel Bullpen Bulletins" fan
page in spring 1969 announced that, "In case you've been wondering
what happened to Jaunty Jim Steranko, ... [he] is working on a
brand-new feature, which will shortly be spotlighted in Marvel
Super-Heroes. And talk about a secret – he hasn't even told us what
it is!" The referred-to project never appeared.
Steranko went on to write and draw a horror story that precipitated a
breakup with Marvel. Though that seven-page tale, "At the Stroke of
Midnight", published in
Tower of Shadows
Tower of Shadows #1 (Sept. 1969), would go
on to win a 1969 Alley Award, editor Lee, who had already rejected
Steranko's cover for that issue, clashed with Steranko over panel
design, dialog, and the story title, initially "The Lurking Fear at
Shadow House". According to Steranko at a 2006 panel and
elsewhere, Lee disliked or did not understand the homage to horror
author H. P. Lovecraft, and devised his own title for the story. After
much conflict, Steranko either quit or was fired. Lee phoned him about
a month later, after the two had cooled down.
In a contemporaneous interview, conducted November 14, 1969, Steranko
reflected on the tiff:
The reason I had a little altercation with them is because they edited
some of my work. They changed certain things that I didn't feel should
be changed. And I insisted that we couldn't continue on that basis.
... For example, my horror story "At the Stroke of Midnight" had a
line of dialogue added. The meek husband said, "I'm nervous because
it's closer to midnight" or something like that; simply a gratuitous
line. It wasn't my title and it didn't have that line in it. Stan
originally wanted that story to be called "Let Them Eat Cake," which I
didn't approve of. We had disagreements about the way I told stories.
... If you're a publisher and you want my work, you get it my way or
you don't get it at all. ... Anyway, I have an agreement now, a
working agreement with them, and everything's cool.
Summing up this initial stint in comics, Steranko said in 1979,
I was getting the top pay at Marvel, along with Kirby and John
Buscema, and I felt privileged to be considered in their class. Both
of them were better comic artists. But working at Marvel was also a
serious cut in pay compared to my advertising work. My life was hectic
then. I worked as the art director for an ad agency in the afternoon,
played in a rock band at night, and worked on my comic book pages
early in the morning. It's a peculiar thing, but the more I learned
about storytelling, the slower I became. Eventually I had to stop
playing in the band; later I left the agency. There were plenty of
hassles with Stan Lee, of course. I felt that if I was good enough to
work for them, then they should accept my work without a lot of
maddening editorial changes. But now, I think I may have been wrong.
After all, Marvel was paying the tab. Stan is a great editor. He
stresses storytelling and really knows the comics business, probably
better than anyone else.
Steranko returned briefly to Marvel, contributing a romance story ("My
Heart Broke in Hollywood", Our Love Story #5, Feb. 1970) and
becoming the cover artist for 15 comics beginning with Doc Savage
Shanna the She-Devil
Shanna the She-Devil #1–2, and
Supernatural Thrillers #1–2
(each successively cover-dated Dec. 1972 and Feb. 1973), and ending
with the reprint comic
Nick Fury and his Agents of
Publisher and paperback artist
In 1973, Steranko became founding editor of Marvel's official fan
magazine, FOOM, which superseded the two previous official fan
Merry Marvel Marching Society and Marvelmania. Steranko
served as editor and also produced the covers for the magazine's
inaugural four issues before being succeeded editorially by Tony
Isabella. He had previously been associated with Marvelmania,
producing two of the club's 12 posters.
Steranko then branched into other areas of publishing, including most
notably book-cover illustration. Lacking any experience as a painter,
his decision to effectively quit comics in 1969 led him to "an artist
friend who earned his living as a painter", from whom Steranko
obtained an "hour-long lecture", and the suggestion that he work in
acrylics rather than oils, for the sake of speed. From these
inauspicious beginnings, he compiled a portfolio of half a dozen
paintings ("two Westerns, two pin-up girls, two gothic horror and one
sword-and-sorcery") and met with Lancer Books' art director Howard
Winters, to whom he immediately sold his fantasy piece. This led to a
career illustrating dozens of paperback covers, popularly including
those of Pyramid Books' reissues of the 1930s pulp novels of The
DC Comics gained the comic book publishing rights to
The Shadow, they contacted Steranko to work on the new series but
Dennis O'Neil and
Michael Kaluta to produce the title
Steranko also formed his own publishing company, Supergraphics, in
1969, and the following year worked with writer-entrepreneur Byron
Preiss on an anti-drug comic book, The Block, distributed to
elementary schools nationwide. In 1970 and 1972, Supergraphics
published two tabloid-sized volumes entitled The Steranko History of
Comics, a planned six-volume history of the American comics industry,
though no subsequent volumes have appeared. Written by Steranko, with
hundreds of black-and-white cover reproductions as well as a complete
reprint of one
The Spirit story by Will Eisner, it included some of
the first and in some cases only interviews with numerous creators
from the 1930s and 1940s Golden Age of Comic Books.
Supergraphics projects included the proposed Talon the Timeless,
illustrations of which appeared in a portfolio published in witzend
magazine #5, and a pinup girl calendar, "The Supergirls",
consisting of 12 illustrations of sexy superheroines in costumes
recalling such superheroes as
Captain America and Green Lantern.
Through Supergraphics he also published the magazine Comixscene, which
premiered with a December 1972 cover date as a folded-tabloid
periodical on stiff, non-glossy paper, reporting on the comics field.
It evolved in stages into Mediascene (beginning with issue #7, Dec.
1973) and ultimately into Prevue (beginning with #41, Aug. 1980), a
general-interest, standard format, popular culture magazine, running
Steranko wrote, drew, and produced the illustrated novel Chandler: Red
Tide in 1976, for
Byron Preiss Visual Publications / Pyramid Books.
Aside from occasional covers and pinup illustrations, he has rarely
worked in comics since, although he did illustrate a serialized comics
adaptation of the
Peter Hyams 1981 sci-fi thriller Outland for Heavy
Metal magazine. His only major work for
DC Comics appeared in Superman
#400 (Oct. 1984), the 10-page story "The Exile at the Edge of
Eternity," which he wrote, drew, colored and lettered. A
1997 attempt to negotiate Steranko's return to
S.H.I.E.L.D. did not
bear fruit. In 2008, he worked with Radical Comics, doing covers,
character and logo designs for its Hercules: The Thracian Wars
title and Ryder on the Storm. In 2012, he did poster art for
RZG Comics and a variant cover for DC's Before Watchmen: Rorschach
Film and television work
For the movie industry, Steranko has done sketches for movie
posters, and was a conceptual artist on Steven Spielberg's Raiders
of the Lost Ark (1981), doing production designs for the film and
designing the character of Indiana Jones. He also served in a
similar capacity as "project conceptualist" on Francis Ford Coppola's
Bram Stoker's Dracula
Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992), and wrote the episode "The Ties That
Bind" of the
DC Comics animated TV series Justice League
In 2003, Steranko was interviewed by the History Channel for the
documentary titled Comic Book Superheroes Unmasked.
He has "amassed an enormous portfolio of more than sixty projects
(which he called the 'Theater of Concepts') designed to be seen in
In a joint venture with
Marvel Comics and Diamond Comic Distributors,
Vanguard Productions in 2002 sponsored Steranko's "
The Spirit of
America" benefit print, created to fund an art scholarship "for
victims of anti-American terrorism".
Awards and recognition
Steranko has won awards in fields as varied as magic, comics and
graphic design. A partial list includes:
In addition to himself being inducted into the
Will Eisner Comic Book
Hall of Fame in 2006, Steranko's series Nick Fury, Agent of
S.H.I.E.L.D. was inducted into comic fandom's
Alley Award Hall of Fame
Steranko won three 1968 Alley Awards, for Best Pencil Artist, Best
Feature Story ("Today Earth Died",
Strange Tales #168; first page
depicted above), and Best Cover (Nick Fury, Agent of
The following year, he won 1969 Alley Awards for Best Feature Story
("At the Stroke of Midnight",
Tower of Shadows
Tower of Shadows #1) and Best Cover
Captain America #113).
1970 Shazam Award: Outstanding Achievement by an Individual: Jim
Steranko (for The Steranko History of Comics)
1975 Inkpot Award
Dragon Con's Julie Award (2003)
Harvey Award for Best Domestic Reprint Project for Nick Fury,
S.H.I.E.L.D. Artist's Edition
2016 Steranko made a special appearance to honor the 2016 Inkwell
Awards Ceremony at HeroesCon.
Steranko's work has been exhibited internationally in more than 160
shows. Among others, his work has been shown in the following
Louvre Museum, Paris, France (1967)
The Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (1978)
The Sydney Opera House, New South Wales, Australia (January 1986)
Jim Steranko bibliography
^ "James F. Steranko, Reading, PA, 72 years old". PeopleFinders.com.
Archived from the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved February
^ Miller, John Jackson (June 10, 2005). "Comics Industry Birthdays".
Comics Buyer's Guide. Iola, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on
October 30, 2010.
^ a b Steranko, Jim; Spurlock, J. David; de la Calle, Angel (2002).
Steranko Arte Noir. Vanguard Productions / Semana Negra. pp. 11–12.
^ a b c Ross, Jonathan (July 21, 2010). "
Jonathan Ross Meets Jim
Steranko, His Comic-Book Hero". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the
original on February 28, 2011.
^ "At Interview with THE Artist ... Jim Steranko: '...local boy makes
good.'" (PDF). Fantastic Fanzine (11). Gary Groth. Via Meyer, Ken. Jr.
1970. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 13, 2011.
indicia reads, "Next issue due out June 20" ""Ink Stains 23:
Fantastic Fanzine 11"". ComicAttack.net. October 1, 2010. Archived
from the original on March 1, 2011.
^ Steranko et al., Steranko Arte Noir, p. 18
^ a b c Steranko, Jim. "Blooded". Online excerpt from Steranko:
Graphic Prince of Darkness, Vanguard Productions, 1998. Archived from
the original on February 27, 2011.
^ Steranko, Jim. "Sucker". Online excerpt from Steranko: Graphic
Prince of Darkness. Archived from the original on February 27,
^ Steranko, Jim. "Wrath". Online excerpt from Steranko: Graphic Prince
of Darkness. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011.
^ Steranko et al., Steranko Arte Noir, pp. 12–15
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lafuente, Eduardo Lopez (2000). "Jim
Steranko". Nick Fury, Agent of
S.H.I.E.L.D. Marvel Enterprises
trade-paperback collection; biography page.
^ Steranko, interviewed in Burchett, Rick; Mantels, Ed (Summer 1978).
"Whizzard Talks to Steranko". Whizzard. 2 (11 [issue #16]). 5730
Chatport Road, St. Louis, Missouri: Marty Klug.
^ Steranko et al., Steranko Arte Noir, p. 5
^ "Escape Artist One of Youths Under Arrest", Stroudsburg Daily
Record, February 4, 1956, reprinted in Steranko et al., Steranko Arte
^ Von Busack, Richard (December 12–18, 2002). "Escape Artist".
Metro. Silicon Valley. Archived from the original on February 26,
^ Steranko et al., Steranko Arte Noir, p. 20
^ Steranko et al., Steranko Arte Noir, p. 21: "I was the first to put
a female dancer – I christened her Miss Twist – on stage. Other
bands copied the bit, so I topped them by putting two girls side by
side simultaneously! Then I topped that by having the girls do a
discreet strip routine. Two years later, the go-go girl craze swept
^ Steranko et al., Steranko Arte Noir, pp. 16–18
^ Evanier, Mark (n.d.). "The Jack FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions
About Jack Kirby". P.O.V. Online. p. 1. Archived from the
original on February 26, 2011.
^ a b Robertson, Tony. "Steranko Recognizes the Power of Kindness in
Julie Award Speech". The Drawings of Steranko. Archived from the
original on February 26, 2011.
^ Gilbert, Michael T. (October 2012). "The Unknown Steranko". Alter
Ego (112). p. 55 (caption "Strange Board=Fellows!").
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Marshall, Frances Ireland (February 1961). "Who Is This Steranko?".
The Linking Ring. reprinted in Gilbert, p. 53
^ a b c d e f
Jim Steranko at the Grand Comics Database
Spyman at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived November 5, 2011.
^ Future Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, then a staff writer, said
in Alter Ego #50 (July 2005), p. 23, "I met Jim [in 1965]; he brought
his work up to Marvel then, I think, but it wasn't considered quite
pro quality yet." Steranko disputed this, saying in Alter Ego #113
(October 2012), p. 55, "I've confronted Roy numerous times about being
rejected by Marvel in 1965. It's bogus! ... I had no comics portfolio
in 1965 or, for that matter, ever afterward." Alter Ego editor Thomas,
in an editor's note that same issue, p. 56, replied, "Roy regrets it
if he has misremembered events of 1965. All he truly recalls now is
Jim coming up to the Marvel offices in 1966 [emphasis in original
source] with Secret Agent X [artwork for an animated TV series he had
^ Thomas, Alter Ego #50, p. 23
^ Another account appears in Steranko Arte Noir, pp. 24 & 26, in
J. David Spurlock
J. David Spurlock claims Steranko had dealt only with
receptionist Flo Steinberg, never did the sample-pages inking, and was
supposedly given his choice of drawing any comic in Marvel's line.
Eduardo Lopez Lafuente's biographical portrait in the 2000 Nick Fury,
S.H.I.E.L.D. collection quotes Stan Lee, without providing a
source, as asking Steranko "Which title do you want to draw?"
^ DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1960s". Marvel Chronicle
A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley.
p. 130. ISBN 978-0756641238. Writer/artist
Jim Steranko had
begun to draw the 'Nick Fury, Agent of SHIELD' [feature] in Strange
Tales #151 and started writing it four issues later. CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link)
^ a b Viturtia, A.M. Nick Fury, Agent of
Enterprises, 2000. ISBN 0-7851-0747-9.
^ Daniels, Les (1971). Comix: A History of Comic Books in America. New
York: Bonanza Books. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number
^ Hama, Larry, Introduction, Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Who Is
Scorpio?. Marvel Enterprises. 2001. ISBN 0-7851-0766-5.
^ Steranko, Jim.
Strange Tales #167 (Marvel, April 1967), pp. 2–5
^ Ringgenberg, Steven (Spring 1989). "A Life Long Love Affair with the
Pop Culture Pin Up!". Betty Pages Magazine (4). Archived from the
original on February 26, 2011. Via TheDrawingsOfSteranko.com
^ Green, Robin (September 16, 1971). "Face Front! Clap Your Hands,
You're on the Winning Team!". Rolling Stone. via fan site Green Skin's
Grab-Bag (91): page 3 of transcription. Archived from the original on
October 7, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
^ a b c Sanderson, Peter (March 7, 2006). "Steranko and Simon: Back to
Back". PW Comics Week (column), Publishers Weekly. Dead link;
pertinent passages reprinted at "Frightening First Fridays: Tower of
Shadows #1". Diversions of the Grooovy Kind (fan site). October 31,
2008. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010.
^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 135: "'Destroy him!' Madame
Hydra shouted about Cap, when she first appeared in Captain America
#110, an issue by writer/artist Jim Steranko."
^ Marvel Bullpen Bulletins page, "Awe-Inspiring Announcements to Yawn
Marvel Comics cover-dated June 1969, including The
Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #116.
^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 137
^ Fantastic Fanzine (11), pp. 11–12
^ Steranko interview. "'It would only take me one story to do the
ultimate Batman': Steranko Speaks – 1979".
The Comic Reader
The Comic Reader (unknown
issue) via Best, Daniel, ed., 20th Century Danny Boy (July 6, 2012).
Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved February 8,
^ "Jim Steranko".
Lambiek Comiclopedia. 2013. Archived from the
original on December 28, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
^ Sanderson, Peter "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 158: "FOOM, standing
for 'Friends of Ol' Marvel', was edited and designed by SHIELD
writer/artist Jim Steranko."
FOOM #1–4 (Feb.-Summer 1973)
^ Bonfils, Robert, ed. "
Jim Steranko Cover Art". Vintage Paperbacks
& Digests. Archived from the original on February 26,
2011. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ Roach, David A.; Misiroglu, Gina (2005). The Superhero Book: The
Ultimate Encyclopedia of Comic-Book Icons and Hollywood Heroes.
Omnigraphics, Inc. p. 422. ISBN 978-0780807723.
^ Steranko, Jim (July 10, 2005). "Comics Loses One of its Major
Visionaries: Byron Preiss". Comicon.com. Archived from the original on
June 5, 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Additional, June 5, 2008.
^ Talon Art Gallery, at The Drawings of Steranko.
^ Robertson, Tony, ed. "Steranko Bibliography". WebCitation archive.
^ Comixscene/Mediascene/Prevue (fan site). WebCitation archive.
^ Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1980s". DC Comics
Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling
Kindersley. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. The Man of Steel
celebrated his 400th issue in star-studded fashion with the help of
some of the comic industry's best and brightest...the issue also
featured a visionary tale written and drawn by Jim Steranko. CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ Addiego, Frankie (December 2013). "
Superman #400". Back Issue!.
Raleigh, North Carolina:
TwoMorrows Publishing (69): 68–70.
Jim Steranko covers Radical's 'Hercules'" (Press release). Radical
Comics via Comic Book Resources. April 23, 2008. Archived from the
original on February 4, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
^ Furey, Emmett (July 31, 2009). "CCI: Radical Publishing". Comic Book
Resources. Archived from the original on February 4, 2010. Retrieved
January 4, 2014. Hine is also writing Ryder on the Storm, for which
Jim Steranko also designed the world.
^ Platt, Rachael. "The Great Steranko's Finished Masterpiece!". RZG
Comics (official site). Archived from the original on April 18,
2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Additional, April 18, 2012.
^ Melrose, Kevin (July 12, 2012). "DC reveals Before Watchmen variants
by Steranko, Rude, Pope, more". Comic Book Resources. Archived from
the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
^ a b Walentis, Al (June 14, 1981). "Steranko Helped Sell Raiders".
Reading Eagle. p. 66. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
^ "Raiders of the Lost Ark". Empire. September 29, 2006.
^ Skal, David J. (2004). Hollywood Gothic: The Tangled Web of Dracula
from Novel to Stage to Screen. London, United Kingdom: Faber and
Faber. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-571-21158-6.
^ Kilpatrick, Conor (August 12, 2010). "A Look at Justice League
Unlimited – Part Two". iFanboy. Archived from the original on
September 11, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
^ Erickson, Hal (2010). "Time Machine: Comic Book Superheroes Unmasked
(2003)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 5,
2014. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
The Spirit of America". Vanguard Productions. 2002. Archived from
the original on February 26, 2011.
New York Comic Con
New York Comic Con Releases Expanded Guest List for their February
New York Comic Con
New York Comic Con press release via Comic Book Resources.
January 20, 2009. Archived from the original on February 26,
2011. (Requires scrolldown).
Inkpot Award Winners". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac.
Archived from the original on July 9, 2012.
^ Almond, Bob (June 9, 2016). "Inkblot: A
Special Appearance by Jim
Steranko to Highlight the 2016
Inkwell Awards Ceremony at Heroes Con".
First Comics News. Archived from the original on June 11, 2017.
^ Almond, Bob (June 23, 2016). "Post-Show: The 2016 Inkwell Awards
Award Ceremony Speech Transcript (Updated: And Video!!!)". Inkwell
Awards. Archived from the original on June 11, 2017.
^ Inkwells 2016. YouTube. July 12, 2016.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jim Steranko.
Steranko.com (placeholder page only) Accessed September 10, 2015
Koening, Bill. "Bill Koenig Remembers: 'Don't Yield, Back
S.H.I.E.L.D.'", Her Majesty's Secret Servant (fan site), 2000.
Meyer, Ken Jr. "1970
Jim Steranko Portfolio", "Ink Stains" 25
(column), ComicAttack.net, December 1, 2010. WebCitation archive.
Jim Steranko Interview", Comic Book Resources, October 10, 2001.
WebCitation archive (requires scrolldown).
Jim Steranko at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Jim Steranko at the Unofficial Handbook of
Marvel Comics Creators
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Nick Fury: Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.
Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Empyre
"For Your Eye Only"
Life Model Decoy
Ultimate Nick Fury
ISNI: 0000 0000 7829 7159
BNF: cb11925520g (data)