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James Allen Rhodes (September 13, 1909 – March 4, 2001) was an American Republican politician from Ohio, and as of 2006[update] one of only six US state governors to serve 4 four-year terms in office. (The other five were Edwin Edwards, George Wallace, Jim Hunt, Bill Janklow, and Terry Branstad.) Rhodes is tied for the fourth longest gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U.S. history at 5,840 days.[1] As governor in 1970, Rhodes sent National Guard troops onto the Kent State University campus at the request of Kent, Ohio's mayor, after the ROTC
ROTC
building was burned down by unknown arsonists on May 2. On May 4, four students were killed and nine others were wounded by the Guard. One victim, Dean Kahler, suffered permanent paralysis.[2]

Contents

1 Life and politics 2 Literary 3 Legacy 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Life and politics[edit] Rhodes was born in Coalton, Jackson County, Ohio, to James and Susan Howe Rhodes, who were of Welsh descent.[3] Rhodes has commented that the reason he and his family were Republicans was because of the respect his father, a mine superintendent, had for John L. Lewis, a prominent Republican union activist.[4] When Rhodes was nine his father died and the family moved to north Springfield where Rhodes graduated from Springfield High School where he played on the football team. Subsequently, the family moved again, this time to Columbus, because Rhodes earned a modest basketball scholarship to The Ohio State University. Although Rhodes dropped out after his first quarter he is often described as a "student" or "alumnus" of Ohio
Ohio
State.[3] After dropping out of college, Rhodes opened a business called Jim's Place across from the university on North High Street. Jim's Place has been described as a place where one could buy anything, from doughnuts and hamburgers, to stag films, or place bets on numbers games.[5] In 1934, Rhodes began to use his position as a local businessman to climb up the Columbus political ladder, and became a ward committeeman, a member of the Columbus school board, the city auditor, and eventually the mayor of Columbus (1944–1952). It was during this time that he married Helen Rawlins. Rhodes's time as mayor is primarily marked by two achievements, with the first being his convincing of 67% of Columbus voters to approve the city's first income tax, and the second being his successful use of water gun diplomacy to annex much of the surrounding suburbs to Columbus. As surrounding communities grew or were constructed, they came to require access to waterlines, which was under the sole control of the municipal water system. Rhodes told these communities that if they wanted water, they would have to submit to assimilation into Columbus. As a result of this, Columbus, Ohio, currently has the largest land area of any Ohio
Ohio
city.[6] With an eye on the governorship, Rhodes was elected State Auditor in 1952, and took office in early 1953. In 1954, Rhodes ran against the popular incumbent, Democratic governor Frank Lausche, and lost by a 54% to 46% margin. In 1962, Rhodes ran again for governor – this time against Democratic incumbent Mike DiSalle. Rhodes's campaign centered on "jobs and progress," and in speeches Rhodes routinely claimed that an increase in jobs would lead to a decrease in everything from crime and divorce, to mental illness.[7] Rhodes also made DiSalle's tax increases, such as the gas tax, a prominent part of his campaign. Rhodes also weathered a minor scandal when Democratic State Chairman alleged that Rhodes diverted and borrowed a total of $54,000 from his campaign funds.[8] During a debate, both Rhodes and DiSalle agreed that this was, "the most vicious campaign [of] the Ohio governorship."[3] On November 6, 1962, Ohioans voted Rhodes into the governorship with 59% of the vote.[3] Rhodes served two terms as governor, and he also was a "favorite son" Presidential candidate who controlled the Ohio
Ohio
delegation to the Republican National Conventions in 1964 and 1968, before retiring in 1971. He ran for the U.S. Senate in 1970 and narrowly lost, to U.S. Representative Robert Taft, Jr., in the primary election, which was two days after the events at Kent State. Rhodes oversaw the last two (by electrocution) pre-Furman executions in Ohio,[9] which were both in early 1963, before Ohio
Ohio
resumed executions in 1999. At a news conference in Kent, Ohio, on Sunday May 3, 1970, the day before the Kent State shootings, he said of campus protesters:

"They're worse than the Brownshirts, and the Communist element, and also the Night Riders, and the vigilantes. They're the worst type of people that we harbor in America."[10]

Since the Ohio
Ohio
Constitution limits the governor to two four-year terms, when Rhodes initially filed to run again in 1974, his petitions were refused by the Secretary of State. Rhodes sued, and the Ohio Supreme Court ruled that the limitation was on consecutive terms, thus freeing him to return to office by narrowly defeating incumbent John Gilligan in an upset in the 1974 election. He served two more terms before retiring again in 1983. During the energy crisis of the winter of 1976–77, Rhodes led a 15-minute service, in which he "beseech[ed] God to relieve the storm."[11] The next year, January 1978, amid a blizzard which dropped 31 inches of snow onto Ohio
Ohio
and killed 60 people in the Northeast, Rhodes called the storm "the greatest disaster in Ohio
Ohio
history."[11] Rhodes sought to run for the governorship again in 1986, seeking a record-breaking fifth term, but soundly lost to the incumbent Dick Celeste, whom Rhodes had narrowly defeated in his last successful gubernatorial bid in 1978. Rhodes died in Columbus on March 4, 2001, and is interred at Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio. Literary[edit] Rhodes co-authored stories of historical fiction with Dean Jauchius, including The Trial of Mary Todd Lincoln, The Court-Martial of Commodore Perry and Johnny Shiloh, a novel of the Civil War.[12] The last was adapted to a 1963 television movie by Walt Disney, also called Johnny Shiloh, for which Rhodes received writers credit.[citation needed] Legacy[edit] Numerous buildings and sites around the state have been named in Rhodes's honor, including:

The James A. Rhodes State Office Tower
Rhodes State Office Tower
– the tallest building in Columbus and the former home of the Ohio
Ohio
Supreme Court Cleveland
Cleveland
State University's Rhodes Tower
Rhodes Tower
in Cleveland The James A. Rhodes Arena
James A. Rhodes Arena
(locally nicknamed as "The JAR") at the University of Akron James A. Rhodes State College in Lima, Ohio. The Rhodes Center at the Ohio
Ohio
Expo Center and State Fair in Columbus The James A. Rhodes Appalachian Highway, Ohio
Ohio
State Route 32 The James A. Rhodes Athletic Center, Shawnee State University

Notes[edit]

^ Ostermeier, Eric (April 10, 2013). "The Top 50 Longest-Serving Governors of All Time". Smart Politics.  ^ Dean Kahler: Visitors' Center helps him move past May 4, 1970 'Dean Kahler, among the most severely wounded of the 13 Kent State students shot by the National Guard on May 4, 1970, tours the new May 4th Visitors' Center being dedicated this weekend' WKSU, May 3, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2014. ^ a b c d Zimmerman, p. 85-108. ^ Zimmerman, p. 86. ^ Zimmerman, p. 86, 87. ^ Zimmerman, p. 87. ^ Zimmerman, p. 92. ^ Zimmerman, p. 93. ^ " Ohio
Ohio
Executions". Archived from the original on February 23, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  The History Of Executions in America Before Lethal Injection. Retrieved from Internet Archive 25 January 2014. ^ Bills, Shirley; Bills, Scott L. (1988), "Scott L. Bills", in Scott L. Bills, Kent State/May 4: Echoes Through a Decade, Kent, Ohio: The Kent State University
Kent State University
Press, p. 13, ISBN 978-0-87338-360-8  ^ a b Frum, David (2000), How We Got Here: The '70s, New York, New York: Basic Books, p. 322, ISBN 0-465-04195-7  ^ "Rhodes, James A. (James Allen) 1909–2001". OCLC
OCLC
WorldCat Identities. 

References[edit]

Zimmerman, Richard Z. (2007), Lamis, Alexander P.; Usher, Brian, eds., Ohio
Ohio
Politics: Revised and Updated, Kent, Ohio: The Kent State University Press, pp. 85–108, ISBN 978-0-87338-613-5  Diemer, Tom; Leonard, Lee; Zimmerman, Richard (2014). James A. Rhodes, Ohio
Ohio
Colossus. Kent State University
Kent State University
Press. ISBN 978-1606352151. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jim Rhodes

Media related to Jim Rhodes
Jim Rhodes
at Wikimedia Commons

James A. Rhodes at Ohio
Ohio
History Central Jim Rhodes
Jim Rhodes
at Find a Grave Jim Rhodes
Jim Rhodes
at Political Graveyard Ohio
Ohio
Expo Center Ohio
Ohio
State Fair

Offices and distinctions

Political offices

Preceded by Floyd F. Green Mayor of Columbus 1944–1952 Succeeded by Robert T. Oestreicher

Preceded by Michael DiSalle Governor of Ohio 1963–1971 Succeeded by John J. Gilligan

Preceded by John J. Gilligan Governor of Ohio 1975–1983 Succeeded by Dick Celeste

Legal offices

Preceded by Joseph T. Ferguson Ohio
Ohio
State Auditor 1953–1963 Succeeded by Roger W. Tracy Jr.

Party political offices

Preceded by Charles Phelps Taft II Republican Party nominee for Governor of Ohio 1954 Succeeded by C. William O'Neill

Preceded by C. William O'Neill Republican Party nominee for Governor of Ohio 1962, 1966 Succeeded by Roger Cloud

Preceded by Roger Cloud Republican Party nominee for Governor of Ohio 1974, 1978 Succeeded by Bud Brown

Preceded by Bud Brown Republican Party nominee for Governor of Ohio 1986 Succeeded by George Voinovich

Articles and topics

v t e

Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Ohio

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v t e

Mayors of Columbus, Ohio

Jarvis W. Pike John Kerr Eli C. King John Laughrey William T. Martin James Robinson William Long Philo H. Olmsted John Brooks John Bailhache Warren Jenkins Philo H. Olmsted John G. Miller Thomas Wood Abram I. McDowell Smithson E. Wright Alexander Patton Augustus S. Decker Alexander Patton Lorenzo English Wray Thomas James G. Bull George W. Meeker James G. Bull John H. Heitmann Gilbert G. Collins George S. Peters Charles C. Walcutt Philip H. Bruck George J. Karb Cotton H. Allen Samuel L. Black Samuel J. Swartz John N. Hinkle Robert H. Jeffrey De Witt C. Badger Charles A. Bond George S. Marshall George J. Karb James J. Thomas Henry W. Worley Myron B. Gessaman Floyd F. Green Jim A. Rhodes Robert T. Oestreicher Jack Sensenbrenner Ralston Westlake Jack Sensenbrenner Tom Moody Buck Rinehart Greg Lashutka Michael B. Coleman Andrew Ginther

v t e

Ohio
Ohio
State Auditor

Gibson Hough Osborn Bryan Brough Woods Morgan Wright Tayler Cole Godman Williams Oglevee Kiesewetter Poe Guilbert Fullington Donahey J. Tracy J. T. Ferguson Rhodes R. Tracy Goble Cloud Reilly Cloud J. T. Ferguson T. E. Ferguson Petro Montgomery Taylor Yost

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(1960 ←) United States presidential election, 1964
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(→ 1968)

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Other 1964 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

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(1964 ←)    United States presidential election, 1968    (→ 1972)

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Protests

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Hubert Humphrey

campaign

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 40513037 LCCN: n90626295 GND: 131613

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