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Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures in the late 19th century after the Reconstruction period, these laws continued to be enforced until 1965. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in the 1870s and 1880s, and upheld by the United States Supreme Court's "separate but equal" doctrine for African Americans. Public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South after the Civil War. This principle was extended to public facilities and transportation, including segregated cars on interstate trains and, later, buses. Facilities for African Americans
African Americans
were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those which were then available to white Americans; sometimes they did not exist at all. This body of law institutionalized a number of economic, educational, and social disadvantages. Segregation by law existed mainly in the Southern states, while Northern segregation was generally a matter of fact—patterns of housing segregation enforced by private covenants, bank lending practices, and job discrimination, including discriminatory labor union practices. "Jim Crow" was a pejorative expression referring to a minstrel song called “Jump Jim Crow” by a performer appearing in blackface.[1] Jim Crow laws—sometimes, as in Florida, part of state constitutions—mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was already segregated. President Woodrow Wilson, a Southerner, initiated segregation of federal workplaces at the request of southern Cabinet members in 1913. These Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
revived principles of the 1865 and 1866 Black Codes, which had previously restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. Segregation of public (state-sponsored) schools was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. In some states it took years to implement this decision. Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but years of action and court challenges have been needed to unravel the many means of institutional discrimination.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origins of Jim Crow laws 3 Early attempts to break Jim Crow 4 Racism
Racism
in the United States and defenses of Jim Crow 5 Post-World War II era 6 Removal

6.1 Courts 6.2 Public arena 6.3 End of de jure segregation 6.4 African-American life

7 Remembrance 8 New Jim Crow 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology The phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892 in the title of a New York Times article about Louisiana
Louisiana
requiring segregated railroad cars.[2][3] The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice
Thomas D. Rice
in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832 and was used to satirize Andrew Jackson's populist policies. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these statutes became known as Jim Crow laws.[2] Origins of Jim Crow laws Main article: Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era

Cover of an early edition of "Jump Jim Crow" sheet music (circa 1832)

Freedmen
Freedmen
voting in New Orleans, 1867

During the Reconstruction period of 1865–1877, federal laws provided civil rights protections in the U.S. South for freedmen, the African Americans who had formerly been slaves, and the minority of blacks who had been free before the war. In the 1870s, Democrats gradually regained power in the Southern legislatures, having used insurgent paramilitary groups, such as the White League
White League
and the Red Shirts, to disrupt Republican organizing, run Republican officeholders out of town, and intimidate blacks to suppress their voting. Extensive voter fraud was also used. Gubernatorial
Gubernatorial
elections were close and had been disputed in Louisiana
Louisiana
for years, with increasing violence against blacks during campaigns from 1868 onward. In 1877, a national Democratic Party compromise to gain Southern support in the presidential election resulted in the government's withdrawing the last of the federal troops from the South. White Democrats had regained political power in every Southern state.[4] These Southern, white, Democratic Redeemer governments legislated Jim Crow laws, officially segregating black people from the white population. Blacks were still elected to local offices throughout the 1880s, but their voting was suppressed for state and national elections. Democrats passed laws to make voter registration and electoral rules more restrictive, with the result that political participation by most blacks and many poor whites began to decrease.[5][6] Between 1890 and 1910, ten of the eleven former Confederate states, starting with Mississippi, passed new constitutions or amendments that effectively disenfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites through a combination of poll taxes, literacy and comprehension tests, and residency and record-keeping requirements.[5][6] Grandfather clauses temporarily permitted some illiterate whites to vote but gave no relief to most blacks. Voter turnout dropped drastically through the South as a result of such measures. In Louisiana, by 1900, black voters were reduced to 5,320 on the rolls, although they comprised the majority of the state's population. By 1910, only 730 blacks were registered, less than 0.5% of eligible black men. "In 27 of the state's 60 parishes, not a single black voter was registered any longer; in 9 more parishes, only one black voter was."[7] The cumulative effect in North Carolina meant that black voters were completely eliminated from voter rolls during the period from 1896–1904. The growth of their thriving middle class was slowed. In North Carolina
North Carolina
and other Southern states, blacks suffered from being made invisible in the political system: "[W]ithin a decade of disfranchisement, the white supremacy campaign had erased the image of the black middle class from the minds of white North Carolinians."[7] In Alabama
Alabama
tens of thousands of poor whites were also disenfranchised, although initially legislators had promised them they would not be affected adversely by the new restrictions.[8] Those who could not vote were not eligible to serve on juries and could not run for local offices. They effectively disappeared from political life, as they could not influence the state legislatures, and their interests were overlooked. While public schools had been established by Reconstruction legislatures for the first time in most Southern states, those for black children were consistently underfunded compared to schools for white children, even when considered within the strained finances of the postwar South where the decreasing price of cotton kept the agricultural economy at a low.[9] Like schools, public libraries for blacks were underfunded, if they existed at all, and they were often stocked with secondhand books and other resources.[10] These facilities were not introduced for African Americans in the South until the first decade of the 20th century.[11] Throughout the Jim Crow era, libraries were only available sporadically.[12] Prior to the 20th century, most libraries established for African Americans
African Americans
were school-library combinations.[12] Many public libraries for both European-American and African American patrons in this period were founded as the result of middle-class activism aided by matching grants from the Carnegie Foundation.[12] In some cases, progressive measures intended to reduce election fraud, such as the Eight Box Law in South Carolina, acted against black and white voters who were illiterate, as they could not follow the directions.[13] While the separation of African Americans
African Americans
from the general population was becoming legalized and formalized during the Progressive Era
Progressive Era
(1890s–1920s), it was also becoming customary. For instance, even in cases in which Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
did not expressly forbid black people to participate in sports or recreation, a segregated culture had become common.[2] In the Jim Crow context, the presidential election of 1912 was steeply slanted against the interests of black Americans. Most blacks still lived in the South, where they had been effectively disfranchised, so they could not vote at all. While poll taxes and literacy requirements banned many poor or illiterate Americans from voting, these stipulations frequently had loopholes that exempted European Americans from meeting the requirements. In Oklahoma, for instance, anyone qualified to vote before 1866, or related to someone qualified to vote before 1866 (a kind of "grandfather clause"), was exempted from the literacy requirement; but the only persons who had the franchise before that year were white, or European-American males. European Americans were effectively exempted from the literacy testing, whereas black Americans were effectively singled out by the law.[14] Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
was a Democrat elected from New Jersey, but he was born and raised in the South, and was the first Southern-born president of the post-Civil War period. He appointed Southerners to his Cabinet. Some quickly began to press for segregated workplaces, although the city of Washington, D.C., and federal offices had been integrated since after the Civil War. In 1913, for instance, Secretary of the Treasury William Gibbs McAdoo – an appointee of the President – was heard to express his opinion of black and white women working together in one government office: "I feel sure that this must go against the grain of the white women. Is there any reason why the white women should not have only white women working across from them on the machines?"[15] Wilson introduced segregation in federal offices, despite much protest from African-American leaders and national groups. He appointed segregationist Southern politicians because of his own firm belief that racial segregation was in the best interest of black and European Americans alike.[16] At Gettysburg on July 4, 1913, the semi-centennial of Abraham Lincoln's declaration that "all men are created equal", Wilson addressed the crowd:

How complete the union has become and how dear to all of us, how unquestioned, how benign and majestic, as state after state has been added to this, our great family of free men![17]

In sharp contrast to Wilson, a Washington Bee
Washington Bee
editorial wondered if the "reunion" of 1913 was a reunion of those who fought for "the extinction of slavery" or a reunion of those who fought to "perpetuate slavery and who are now employing every artifice and argument known to deceit" to present emancipation as a failed venture.[17] Historian David W. Blight notes that the "Peace Jubilee" at which Wilson presided at Gettysburg in 1913 "was a Jim Crow reunion, and white supremacy might be said to have been the silent, invisible master of ceremonies."[17] (See also: Great Reunion of 1913) In Texas, several towns adopted residential segregation laws between 1910 and the 1920s. Legal strictures called for segregated water fountains and restrooms.[17] Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
were a product of what had become the solidly Democratic South due to disfranchisement of blacks. Early attempts to break Jim Crow

Sign for the "colored" waiting room at a bus station in Durham, North Carolina, May 1940

The Civil Rights Act of 1875, introduced by Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
and Benjamin F. Butler, stipulated a guarantee that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in public accommodations, such as inns, public transportation, theaters, and other places of recreation. This Act had little effect.[18] An 1883 Supreme Court decision ruled that the act was unconstitutional in some respects, saying Congress was not afforded control over private persons or corporations. With white southern Democrats forming a solid voting bloc in Congress, due to having outsize power from keeping seats apportioned for the total population in the South (although hundreds of thousands had been disenfranchised), Congress did not pass another civil rights law until 1957.[19] In 1887, Rev. W. H. Heard lodged a complaint with the Interstate Commerce Commission against the Georgia Railroad company for discrimination, citing its provision of different cars for white and black/colored passengers. The company successfully appealed for relief on the grounds it offered "separate but equal" accommodation.[20] In 1890, Louisiana
Louisiana
passed a law requiring separate accommodations for colored and white passengers on railroads. Louisiana
Louisiana
law distinguished between "white", "black" and "colored" (that is, people of mixed European and African ancestry). The law had already specified that blacks could not ride with white people, but colored people could ride with whites before 1890. A group of concerned black, colored and white citizens in New Orleans
New Orleans
formed an association dedicated to rescinding the law. The group persuaded Homer Plessy
Homer Plessy
to test it; he was a man of color who was of fair complexion and one-eighth "Negro" in ancestry.[21] In 1892, Plessy bought a first-class ticket from New Orleans
New Orleans
on the East Louisiana
Louisiana
Railway. Once he had boarded the train, he informed the train conductor of his racial lineage and took a seat in the whites-only car. He was directed to leave that car and sit instead in the "coloreds only" car. Plessy refused and was immediately arrested. The Citizens Committee of New Orleans
New Orleans
fought the case all the way to the United States Supreme Court. They lost in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), in which the Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional. The finding contributed to 58 more years of legalized discrimination against black and colored people in the United States.[21] In 1908 Congress defeated an attempt to introduce segregated streetcars into the capital.[22] Racism
Racism
in the United States and defenses of Jim Crow

1904 caricature of "White" and "Jim Crow" rail cars by John T. McCutcheon. Despite Jim Crow's legal pretense that the races be "separate but equal" under the law, non-whites were given inferior facilities and treatment.[23]

White Southerners encountered problems in learning free labor management after the end of slavery, and they resented black Americans, who represented the Confederacy's Civil War defeat: "With white supremacy being challenged throughout the South, many whites sought to protect their former status by threatening African Americans who exercised their new rights."[24] White Democrats used their power to segregate public spaces and facilities in law and reestablish social dominance over blacks in the South. One rationale for the systematic exclusion of black Americans from southern public society was that it was for their own protection. An early 20th-century scholar suggested that allowing blacks to attend white schools would mean "constantly subjecting them to adverse feeling and opinion", which might lead to "a morbid race consciousness".[25] This perspective took anti-black sentiment for granted, because bigotry was widespread in the South after slavery became a racial caste system.[citation needed] Post-World War II era After World War II, African Americans
African Americans
increasingly challenged segregation, as they believed they had more than earned the right to be treated as full citizens because of their military service and sacrifices. The Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
was energized by a number of flashpoints, including the 1946 police beating and blinding of World War II veteran Isaac Woodard while he was in U.S. Army uniform. In 1948 President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
issued Executive Order 9981, desegregating the armed services.[26] As the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
gained momentum and used federal courts to attack Jim Crow statutes, the white-dominated governments of many of the southern states countered by passing alternative forms of restrictions.[citation needed] The NAACP
NAACP
Legal Defense Committee (a group that became independent of the NAACP) – and its lawyer, Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
– brought the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) before the Supreme Court. In its pivotal 1954 decision, the Court unanimously overturned the 1896 Plessy decision. The Supreme Court found that legally mandated (de jure) public school segregation was unconstitutional. The decision had far-reaching social ramifications. History has shown that problems of educating poor children are not confined to minority status, and states and cities have continued to grapple with approaches. The court ruling did not stop de facto or residentially based school segregation. Such segregation continues today in many regions. Some city school systems have also begun to focus on issues of economic and class segregation rather than racial segregation, as they have found that problems are more prevalent when the children of the poor of any ethnic group are concentrated.[citation needed] Associate Justice Frank Murphy
Frank Murphy
introduced the word "racism" into the lexicon of U.S. Supreme Court opinions in Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944).[27] He stated that by upholding the forced relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II, the Court was sinking into "the ugly abyss of racism". This was the first time that "racism" was used in Supreme Court opinion (Murphy used it twice in a concurring opinion in Steele v Louisville & Nashville Railway Co 323 192 (1944) issued that day).[28] Murphy used the word in five separate opinions, but after he left the court, "racism" was not used again in an opinion for almost two decades. It next appeared in the landmark decision of Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967). Interpretation of the Constitution and its application to minority rights continues to be controversial as Court membership changes. Observers such as Ian F. Lopez believe that in the 2000s, the Supreme Court has become more protective of the status quo.[29] Removal Courts In 1971, the Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upheld desegregation busing of students to achieve integration. Public arena In 1955, Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama. This was not the first time this happened — for example Parks was inspired by 15 year old Claudette Colvin doing the same thing nine months earlier[30] — but the Parks act of civil disobedience was chosen, symbolically, as an important catalyst in the growth of the Civil Rights Movement; activists built the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
around it, which lasted more than a year and resulted in desegregation of the privately run buses in the city. Civil rights
Civil rights
protests and actions, together with legal challenges, resulted in a series of legislative and court decisions which contributed to undermining the Jim Crow system.[31] Numerous boycotts and demonstrations against segregation had occurred throughout the 1930s and 1940s. The NAACP
NAACP
had been engaged in a series of litigation cases since the early 20th century in efforts to combat laws that disenfranchised black voters across the South. Some of the early demonstrations achieved positive results, strengthening political activism, especially in the post-World War II years. Black veterans were impatient with social oppression after having fought for the United States and freedom across the world. In 1947 K. Leroy Irvis of Pittsburgh's Urban League, for instance, led a demonstration against employment discrimination by the city's department stores. It was the beginning of his own influential political career.[32] End of de jure segregation

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964

In January 1964, President Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
met with civil rights leaders. On January 8, during his first State of the Union address, Johnson asked Congress to "let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined." On June 21, civil rights workers Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney
James Chaney
disappeared in Neshoba County, Mississippi, where they were volunteering in the registration of African-American voters as part of the Mississippi
Mississippi
Summer Project. The disappearance of the three activists captured national attention and the ensuing outrage was used by Johnson and civil rights activists to build a coalition of northern Democrats and Republicans and push Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[33] On July 2, 1964, Johnson signed the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964.[33][34] It invoked the Commerce Clause[33] to outlaw discrimination in public accommodations (privately owned restaurants, hotels, and stores, and in private schools and workplaces). This use of the Commerce Clause
Commerce Clause
was upheld in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 379 US 241 (1964).[35] By 1965, efforts to break the grip of state disenfranchisement by education for voter registration in southern counties had been under way for some time, but had achieved only modest success overall. In some areas of the Deep South, white resistance made these efforts almost entirely ineffectual. The murder of the three voting-rights activists in Mississippi
Mississippi
in 1964 and the state's refusal to prosecute the murderers, along with numerous other acts of violence and terrorism against blacks, had gained national attention. Finally, the unprovoked attack on March 7, 1965, by county and state troopers on peaceful Alabama
Alabama
marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge
Edmund Pettus Bridge
en route from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery, persuaded the President and Congress to overcome Southern legislators' resistance to effective voting rights enforcement legislation. President Johnson issued a call for a strong voting rights law and hearings soon began on the bill that would become the Voting Rights Act.[36] The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
ended legally sanctioned state barriers to voting for all federal, state and local elections. It also provided for federal oversight and monitoring of counties with historically low minority voter turnout. Years of enforcement have been needed to overcome resistance, and additional legal challenges have been made in the courts to ensure the ability of voters to elect candidates of their choice. For instance, many cities and counties introduced at-large election of council members, which resulted in many cases of diluting minority votes and preventing election of minority-supported candidates.[citation needed] Although sometimes counted among "Jim Crow laws" of the South, such statutes as anti-miscegenation laws were also passed by other states. Anti-miscegenation laws
Anti-miscegenation laws
were not repealed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964[33] but were declared unconstitutional by the 1967 Supreme Court ruling in Loving v. Virginia.[citation needed] African-American life

An African-American man drinking at a "colored" drinking fountain in a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma, 1939

The Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
and the high rate of lynchings in the South were major factors which led to the Great Migration during the first half of the 20th century. Because opportunities were so limited in the South, African Americans
African Americans
moved in great numbers to northern cities to seek better lives, becoming an urbanized population.[citation needed] Despite the hardship and prejudice of the Jim Crow era, several black entertainers and literary figures gained broad popularity with white audiences in the early 20th century. They included luminaries such as tap dancers Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
and the Nicholas Brothers, jazz musicians such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
and Count Basie, and the actress Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
(in 1939 she was the first black to receive an Academy Award
Academy Award
when she won the Best Supporting Actress Oscar for her performance as Mammy in Gone with the Wind).[citation needed] African-American athletes faced much discrimination during the Jim Crow period. White opposition led to their exclusion from most organized sporting competitions. The boxers Jack Johnson and Joe Louis (both of whom became world heavyweight boxing champions) and track and field athlete Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
(who won four gold medals at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin) earned fame during this era. In baseball, a color line instituted in the 1880s had informally barred blacks from playing in the major leagues, leading to the development of the Negro Leagues, which featured many fine players. A major breakthrough occurred in 1947, when Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
was hired as the first African American to play in Major League Baseball; he permanently broke the color bar. Baseball teams continued to integrate in the following years, leading to the full participation of black baseball players in the Major Leagues in the 1960s.[citation needed] Remembrance Ferris State University
Ferris State University
in Big Rapids, Michigan, houses the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, an extensive collection of everyday items that promoted racial segregation or presented racial stereotypes of African Americans, for the purpose of academic research and education about their cultural influence.[37] New Jim Crow In 2012, civil rights advocate Michelle Alexander
Michelle Alexander
argued in The New Jim Crow that America's War on Drugs, which disproportionately affected African-Americans, had produced discrimination comparable to that of the Jim Crow laws.[38] Yale law professor James Forman Jr. countered that African-Americans, as represented by such cities as Washington D.C., have generally supported tough-on-crime policies, and that there appears to be a connection between drugs and violent crimes.[39] See also

Discrimination
Discrimination
portal Law portal African American portal

Anti-miscegenation laws Apartheid Black Codes in the United States Burmese nationality law Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction era Dunning School Group Areas Act List of Jim Crow law examples by state Lynching Mass racial violence in the United States Penal labour Racial segregation
Racial segregation
in the United States Racism Racism
Racism
in the United States Second-class citizen Sundown town Timeline of the African-American Civil Rights Movement The New Jim Crow

Footnotes

^ Nittle, Nadra Kareem. "Understanding Jim Crow Laws". ToughtCo. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ a b c Woodward, C. Vann and McFeely, William S. (2001), The Strange Career of Jim Crow. p. 7 ^ "Louisiana's 'Jim Crow' Law Valid". The New York Times. New York. December 21, 1892. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 6, 2011. New Orleans, Dec 20. – The Supreme Court yesterday declared constitutional the law passed two years ago and known as the 'Jim Crow' law, making it compulsory on railroads to provide separate cars for blacks.  ^ Woodward, C. Vann and McFeely, William S. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. 2001, p. 6 ^ a b Michael Perman.Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888–1908. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press, 2001, Introduction ^ a b J. Morgan Kousser.The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974 ^ a b Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", 2000, pp. 12, 27 Retrieved Mar 10, 2008 ^ Glenn Feldman, The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, pp. 135–136 ^ Reese, W. (2010-01-04). History, Education, and the Schools. Springer. p. 145. ISBN 9780230104822.  ^ Buddy, J., & Williams, M. (2005). "A dream deferred: school libraries and segregation", American Libraries, 36(2), 33-35. ^ Battles, D. M. (2009). The History of Public Library Access for African Americans
African Americans
in the South, or, Leaving Behind the Plow. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. ^ a b c Fultz, M. (2006). "Black Public Libraries in the South in the Era of De Jure Segregation." Libraries & The Cultural Record, 41(3), 338. ^ Holt, Thomas (1979). Black over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina
South Carolina
during Reconstruction. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  ^ Tomlins, Christopher L. The United States Supreme Court: The Pursuit of Justice. 2005, p. 195 ^ King, Desmond. Separate and Unequal: Black Americans and the US Federal Government. 1995, page 3. ^ Schulte Nordholt, J. W. and Rowen, Herbert H. Woodrow Wilson: A Life for World Peace. 1991, pp. 99–100. ^ a b c d Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. page 9–11 ^ New York Times, 30 March 1882: 'COLORED METHODISTS INDIGNANT OVER THE EXPULSION OF THEIR SENIOR BISHOP FROM A FLORIDA RAILWAY CAR. :...Colored men of spirit and culture are resisting the conductors, who attempt to drive them into the "Jim Crow cars," and they sometimes succeed...' ^ "Constitutional Amendments and Major Civil Rights Acts of Congress Referenced in Black Americans in Congress". History, Art & Archives. US House of Repsentatives. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ New York Times, 30 July 1887: 'NO "JIM CROW" CARS. :"...The answer further avers that the cars provided for the colored passengers are equally as safe, comfortable, clean, well ventilated, and cared for as those provided for whites. The difference, it says, if any, relates to matters aesthetical only..." ^ a b "Plessy v. Ferguson". Know Louisiana. Louisiana
Louisiana
Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ Congress rejected by a majority of 140 to 59 a transport bill amendment proposed by James Thomas Heflin
James Thomas Heflin
(Ala.) to introduce racially segregated streetcars to the capital's transport system. The New York Times, 23 February 1908: '"JIM CROW CARS" DENIED BY CONGRESS' ^ John McCutheon. The Mysterious Stranger and Other Cartoons by John T. McCutcheon, New York, McClure, Phillips & Co. 1905. ^ Gates, Henry Louis and Appiah, Anthony. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. 1999, p. 1211. ^ Murphy, Edgar Gardner. The Problems of the Present South. 1910, p. 37 ^ Taylor, Jon E. (2013-05-02). Freedom to Serve: Truman, Civil Rights, and Executive Order 9981. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-415-89449-4.  ^ "Full text of Korematsu v. United States
Korematsu v. United States
opinion". Findlaw.  ^ Steele v. Louisville, Findlaw. ^ Lopez, Ian F. Haney (February 1, 2007), "A nation of minorities: race, ethnicity, and reactionary colorblindness", Stanford Law Review ^ The Other Rosa Parks: Now 73, Claudette Colvin
Claudette Colvin
Was First to Refuse Giving Up Seat on Montgomery Bus ^ "Jim Crow Laws and Racial Segregation". VCU Libraries Social Welfare History Project. Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "Former Pa. House speaker K. Leroy Irvis
K. Leroy Irvis
dies". Pittsburg Post-Gazette. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ a b c d " Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
- CRA - Title VII - Equal Employment Opportunities - 42 US Code Chapter 21".  ^ "LBJ for Kids – Civil rights
Civil rights
during the Johnson Administration". University of Texas. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012.  ^ See generally, Lopez, Ian F. Haney (February 1, 2007). "A nation of minorities: race, ethnicity, and reactionary colorblindness". Stanford Law Review.  ^ "Introduction To Federal Voting Rights Laws" Archived March 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. United States Department of Justice. ^ "RELICS OF RACISM: BIG RAPIDS MUSEUM LETS ITS MEMORABILIA TELL THE UGLY STORY OF JIM CROW IN AMERICA".  ^ Alexander, Michelle (2012). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. ISBN 978-1595586438.  ^ Michael O'Hear (November 8, 2014). "The "New Jim Crow" Reconsidered". Retrieved November 8, 2014. 

Further reading

Ayers, Edward L. The Promise of the New South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Barnes, Catherine A. Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation
Desegregation
of Southern Transit. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983. Bartley, Numan V. The Rise of Massive Resistance: Race and Politics in the South during the 1950s. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana
Louisiana
State University Press, 1969. Bond, Horace Mann. "The Extent and Character of Separate Schools in the United States." Journal of Negro Education vol. 4 (July 1935), pp. 321–327. Chin, Gabriel, and Karthikeyan, Hrishi. Preserving Racial Identity: Population Patterns and the Application of Anti- Miscegenation
Miscegenation
Statutes to Asians, 1910 to 1950, 9 Asian L.J. 1 (2002) Campbell, Nedra. More Justice, More Peace: The Black Person's Guide to the American Legal System. Lawrence Hill Books; Chicago Review Press, 2003. Cole, Stephanie and Natalie J. Ring (eds.), The Folly of Jim Crow: Rethinking the Segregated South. College Station, TX: Texas
Texas
A&M University Press, 2012. Dailey, Jane; Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth and Simon, Bryant (eds.), Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights. 2000. Delany, Sarah; Delany, A. Elizabeth; and Hearth, Amy Hill. Having Our Say; The Delany Sisters' First 100 Years. Thorndike, ME: G.K. Hall & Co., 1993. Fairclough, Adam. "'Being in the Field of Education and Also Being a Negro…Seems…Tragic': Black Teachers in the Jim Crow South." The Journal of American History vol. 87 (June 2000), pp. 65–91. Feldman, Glenn. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915–1949. University of Alabama
Alabama
Press, 1999. Harvey Fireside, Separate and Unequal: Homer Plessy
Homer Plessy
and the Supreme Court Decision That Legalized Racism, 2004. ISBN 0-7867-1293-7 Foner, Eric. Reconstruction, America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. New York: HarperCollins, 1988. Gaines, Kevin. Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press, 1996. Gaston, Paul M. The New South Creed: A Study in Southern Mythmaking New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow Women and the Politics ... in North Carolina, 1896–1920 (1996) Griffin, John Howard Black Like Me. New York: Signet, 1996. Haws, Robert, ed. The Age of Segregation: Race Relations in the South, 1890–1945 University Press of Mississippi, 1978. Hackney, Sheldon. Populism to Progressivism in Alabama
Alabama
(1969) Johnson, Charles S. Patterns of Negro Segregation Harper and Brothers, 1943. Klarman, Michael J. From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004 Litwack, Leon F.. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1998. Lopez, Ian F. Haney. "A nation of minorities": race, ethnicity, and reactionary colorblindness. Stanford Law Review, February 1, 2007. Kantrowitz, Stephen. Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (2000) McMillen, Neil R. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989. Medley, Keith Weldon. We As Freemen: Plessy v. Ferguson. Pelican. March, 2003. Murray, Pauli. States' Law on Race and Color. University of Georgia Press. 2d ed. 1997 (Davison Douglas ed.). ISBN 978-0-8203-1883-7 Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Harper and Row, 1944. Newby, I.A. Jim Crow's Defense: Anti-Negro Thought in America, 1900–1930. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana
Louisiana
State University Press, 1965. Percy, William Alexander. Lanterns on the Levee: Recollections of a Planter's Son. 1941. Reprint, Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana
Louisiana
State University Press, 1993. Pye, David Kenneth. "Complex Relations: An African-American Attorney Navigates Jim Crow Atlanta". Georgia Historical Quarterly, Winter 2007, vol. 91, issue 4, 453-477. Rabinowitz, Howard N. Race Relations in the Urban South, 1856–1890 (1978) Smith, J. Douglas. Managing: Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia
Virginia
University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press, 2002. Smith, J. Douglas. "The Campaign for Racial Purity and the Erosion of Paternalism in Virginia, 1922–1930: "Nominally White, Biologically Mixed, and Legally Negro." Journal of Southern History vol. 68 (February 2002), pp. 65–106. Smith, J. Douglas. "Patrolling the Boundaries of Race: Motion Picture Censorship and Jim Crow in Virginia, 1922–1932." Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 21 (August 2001): 273–91. Sterner, Richard. The Negro's Share (1943) detailed statistics Woodward, C. Vann. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. 1955. Woodward, C. Vann. The Origins of the New South: 1877–1913 (1951).

External links

The History of Jim Crow, Ronald L. F. Davis – A series of essays on the history of Jim Crow. Archived index at the Wayback Machine.

Creating Jim Crow – Origins of the term and system of laws. Racial Etiquette: The Racial Customs and Rules of Racial Behavior in Jim Crow America – The basics of Jim Crow etiquette.

"You Don't Have to Ride Jim Crow!" PBS documentary on first Freedom Ride, in 1947. List of laws enacted in various states Ferris University page about Jim Crow Voices on Antisemitism
Antisemitism
Interview with David Pilgrim, founder of Jim Crow Museum from the US Holocaust Memorial Museum Jim Crow Era, History in the Key of Jazz, Gerald Early, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (esp. see section "Jim Crow is Born") "Jim Crow Laws". National Park Service. Retrieved November 17, 2010.  Examples of Jim Crow laws Jim Crow Signs at A History of Central Florida
Florida
Podcast

v t e

Jim Crow Era

Participants

Federal government

Presidents

Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt William Howard Taft Woodrow Wilson Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry S. Truman

Congress

African-American Senators African-American Representatives Henry Cabot Lodge William E. Chandler George F. Hoar John J. Ingalls Henry W. Blair Benjamin Harrison John Sherman James G. Blaine Joseph B. Foraker

US Supreme Court

Waite Court
Waite Court
(1874–88) Fuller Court
Fuller Court
(1888–1910) White Court (1910–21) Taft Court
Taft Court
(1921–30) Hughes Court
Hughes Court
(1930–41) Stone Court (1941–46) Vinson Court
Vinson Court
(1946–53)

Federal bureaucracy

Home Owners' Loan Corporation National Labor Relations Board Fair Employment Practice Committee

State governments

Southern United States Alabama

Joseph F. Johnston John B. Knox Stouten H. Dent William C. Oates George P. Harrison Frank S. White

Arkansas

J.E. Williams John N. Tillman Ambrose H. Sevier, Jr.

Florida Georgia

Thomas E. Watson M. Hoke Smith

Kentucky

Carl Day James Hargis

Louisiana

Murphy J. Foster Ernest Kruttschnitt

Maryland Mississippi

James Z. George James K. Vardaman Horatio F. Simrall

North Carolina

Marion Butler Furnifold Simmons

Oklahoma South Carolina

Benjamin Tillman Robert Smalls Coleman Blease

Tennessee

Robert Love Taylor Thomas R. Myers Josiah H. Dortch Benjamin J. Lea J.C. Myers

Texas

Alexander W. Terrell

Virginia

Alfred P. Thom Allen Caperton Braxton

Others

African Americans Ku Klux Klan Democratic Party Republican Party Farmers' Alliance Greenback Party Bourbon Democrat Grange Agricultural Wheel Union Labor Party of Arkansas

Timeline

Prelude

Reconstruction Era African-American Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
(1865–95) Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era Nadir of American race relations Arkansas
Arkansas
Civil Rights Act of 1868 Tennessee
Tennessee
State Constitution of 1870 Blyew v. United States (1871) Chicot County massacre of 1871 Illinois School Laws of 1872 Arkansas
Arkansas
Civil Rights Act of 1873 Illinois School Laws of 1874 Vagrancy Law (Mississippi) (1876) Pig Law (Mississippi) (1876) Ex parte Siebold (1879) Exodusters

1880–1889

Strauder v. West Virginia
Virginia
(1880) Virginia
Virginia
v. Rives (1880) Ex parte Virginia
Virginia
(1880) Neal v. Delaware (1881) Civil Rights Cases
Civil Rights Cases
(1883) United States v. Harris
United States v. Harris
(1883) Danville riot of 1883 Pace v. Alabama
Alabama
(1883) Ohio Public Accommodations Law of 1884 Iowa Civil Rights Act of 1884 Ex parte Yarbrough (1884) Illinois Civil Rights Act of 1885 Yick Wo v. Hopkins
Yick Wo v. Hopkins
(1887) Thibodaux massacre
Thibodaux massacre
(1887) Assassination of John M. Clayton (1888) Paragould race riots (1888–1908) Myers Law (Tennessee) (1889) Lea Law (Tennessee) (1889) Dortch Law (Tennessee) (1889) Tennessee
Tennessee
implements poll tax (state constitution 1870) (1889)

1890–1899

Louisville, New Orleans, and Texas
Texas
Railroad v. Mississippi
Mississippi
(1890) Lodge Bill (1890) Sevier Law (Arkansas) (1890) Ferguson v. Gies (1890) (Michigan) Lodge Bill (1891) Tillman Act (Arkansas) (1891) Separate Coach Law of 1891 (Arkansas) Southern Horrors (1892) Hampton race riot of 1892 Baltimore Afro-American
Baltimore Afro-American
(1892) Sayre Law (Alabama) (1893) Lea Law (Tennessee) (1893) Dodson v. State (1894) (Arkansas) Ohio Civil Rights Act of 1894 Mills v. Green (1895) Atlanta Exposition Speech
Atlanta Exposition Speech
(1895) The Red Record (1895) Plessy v. Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) Gibson v. Mississippi
Mississippi
(1896) Smith v. Mississippi
Mississippi
(1896) Canfield race riot of 1896 Polk County race riot of 1896 Ohio Anti-Mob Violence Act of 1896 Atkins race riot of 1897 Nevada County race riot of 1897 Williams v. Mississippi
Mississippi
(1898) Wilmington insurrection of 1898 Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education
Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education
(1899) Imperium in Imperio (1899) Little River County race riot of 1899

1900–1909

Carter v. Texas
Texas
(1900) Robert Charles riots
Robert Charles riots
of 1900 Alabama
Alabama
Constitutional Convention of 1901 Up from Slavery
Slavery
(1901) Omaha race riot of 1901 Booker T. Washington dinner at the White House
Booker T. Washington dinner at the White House
(1901) Louisiana
Louisiana
State Penitentiary (1901) The Leopard's Spots
The Leopard's Spots
(1902) Giles v. Harris
Giles v. Harris
(1903) The Souls of Black Folk
The Souls of Black Folk
(1903) Tarrance v. Florida
Florida
(1903) Brownfield v. South Carolina
South Carolina
(1903) Streetcar Segregation Act of 1903 (Arkansas) Bonanza race riot of 1904 Rogers v. Alabama
Alabama
(1904) Mississippi
Mississippi
State Penitentiary (1904) Day Law (Kentucky) (1904) Springfield race riot of 1904 Niagara Movement
Niagara Movement
(1905) The Clansman
The Clansman
(1905) Clyatt v. United States (1905) The Chicago Defender
The Chicago Defender
(1905) Springfield race riot of 1906 Chattanooga riot of 1906 Greensburg race riot of 1906 Atlanta race riot
Atlanta race riot
of 1906 Brownsville Affair
Brownsville Affair
(1906) Hodges v. United States
Hodges v. United States
(1906) Berea College v. Kentucky
Kentucky
(1908) Springfield race riot of 1908 Twining v. New Jersey
Twining v. New Jersey
(1908) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(1909)

1910–1919

Great Migration (1910) Jack Johnson race riots of 1910 Slocum massacre of 1910 Franklin v. South Carolina
South Carolina
(1910) El Dorado race riot of 1910 Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Courier (1910) Crumpacker Bill (1911) Universal Negro Improvement Association (1914) United States v. Reynolds (1914) National Urban League
National Urban League
(1911) Bailey v. Alabama
Alabama
(1911) Walnut Ridge race riot of 1912 The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation
(1915) Guinn v. United States
Guinn v. United States
(1915) Association for the Study of African American Life and History (1915) Lynching
Lynching
of Jesse Washington (1916) The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race
(1916) Buchanan v. Warley
Buchanan v. Warley
(1917) Houston riot of 1917 East St. Louis riot
East St. Louis riot
of 1917 Philadelphia race riot of 1918 Chester race riot of 1918 Negro World
Negro World
(1918) Red Summer Charleston race riot of 1919 Omaha race riot of 1919 Bisbee riot of 1919 Longview race riot of 1919 Chicago race riot of 1919 Knoxville riot of 1919 Elaine race riot of 1919 Washington, D.C. riot of 1919 "If We Must Die" poem (1919) Thirty Years of Lynching
Lynching
in the United States 1889-1918 (1919)

1920–1929

Harlem Renaissance 1920 Duluth lynchings Ocoee massacre of 1920 Nineteenth Amendment (1920) North Carolina
North Carolina
repeals poll tax (1920) Dyer Anti- Lynching
Lynching
Bill (1921) Newberry v. United States
Newberry v. United States
(1921) Tulsa race riot
Tulsa race riot
of 1921 Rosewood massacre
Rosewood massacre
of 1923 Catcher race riot of 1923 Moore v. Dempsey
Moore v. Dempsey
(1923) Racial Integrity Act of 1924
Racial Integrity Act of 1924
(Virginia) Love v. Griffith (1924) Chandler v. Neff (1924) Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
(1925) Corrigan v. Buckley
Corrigan v. Buckley
(1926) Nixon v. Herndon
Nixon v. Herndon
(1927) Great Mississippi
Mississippi
Flood of 1927 Rope and Faggot (1929) Jessie De Priest tea at the White House
Jessie De Priest tea at the White House
(1929)

1930–1939

Lynching
Lynching
of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith (1930) Sainte Genevieve race riot of 1930 Scottsboro Boys
Scottsboro Boys
(1931) Federal Home Loan Bank Board
Federal Home Loan Bank Board
(1932) Nixon v. Condon
Nixon v. Condon
(1932) Powell v. Alabama
Alabama
(1932) Highlander Folk School Hocutt v. Wilson (1933) (North Carolina) Home Owners' Loan Corporation
Home Owners' Loan Corporation
(1933) National Housing Act of 1934 Costigan-Wagner antilynching bill (1934) Louisiana
Louisiana
repeals poll tax (1934) National Labor Relations Board
National Labor Relations Board
(1935) National Council of Negro Women
National Council of Negro Women
(1935) Grovey v. Townsend
Grovey v. Townsend
(1935) Norris v. Alabama
Alabama
(1935) Patterson v. Alabama
Alabama
(1935) Harlem riot of 1935 Brown v. Mississippi
Mississippi
(1936) University v. Murray (1936) (Maryland) Breedlove v. Suttles
Breedlove v. Suttles
(1937) Florida
Florida
repeals poll tax (1937) Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada
(1938) New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery Co.
New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery Co.
(1938) Hale v. Kentucky
Kentucky
(1938) Arkansas
Arkansas
referendum on poll tax (1938) Alexandria Library sit-in (1939) Lane v. Wilson
Lane v. Wilson
(1939) Gone with the Wind (1939) Mills v. Board of Education of Anne Arundel County (1939)

1940–1949

Wagner-Gavagan antilynching bill (1940) Chambers v. Florida
Florida
(1940) Smith v. Texas
Texas
(1940) Alston v. School Board of the City of Norfolk, Virginia
Virginia
(1940) Hasqett v. Werner (1941) United States v. Classic
United States v. Classic
(1941) Fair Employment Practice Committee
Fair Employment Practice Committee
(1941) Executive Order 8802
Executive Order 8802
(1942) Hill v. Texas
Texas
(1942) "Double V" campaign Congress of Racial Equality Beaumont race riot of 1943 Detroit race riot of 1943 Harlem riot of 1943 Agana race riot
Agana race riot
of 1944 Smith v. Allwright
Smith v. Allwright
(1944) Pollock v. Williams (1944) An American Dilemma
An American Dilemma
(1944) Hedgepeth and Williams v. Board of Education (1944) Georgia repeals poll tax (1945) Executive Order 9908 (1946) Civil Rights Congress
Civil Rights Congress
(1946) Morgan v. Virginia
Virginia
(1946) Boswell Amendment 1946 Georgia lynching President's Committee on Civil Rights
President's Committee on Civil Rights
(1946) Airport Homes race riots (1946) Columbia race riot of 1946 Mendez v. Westminster
Mendez v. Westminster
(1947) Journey of Reconciliation (1947) Fernwood Park race riot (1947) Patton v. Mississippi
Mississippi
(1947) Elmore v. Rice (1947) Southern Conference Educational Fund Levi Pearson v. Clarendon County Board of Education (1947) To Secure These Rights (1947) Executive Order 9980 (1948) Executive Order 9981 (1948) Shelley v. Kraemer
Shelley v. Kraemer
(1948) Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
(1948) Perez v. Sharp
Perez v. Sharp
(1948) Elmore v. Rice (1948) Rosana Aubert v. Orleans Parish School Board (1948) Peekskill riots of 1949 Virginia
Virginia
referendum on poll tax (1949) Texas
Texas
referendum on poll tax (1949) Davis v. Schnell (1949) State of Iowa v. Katz (1949) Englewood race riot (1949)

Aftermath

Civil Rights Movement Black Power
Black Power
movement

Aspects

General

African-American Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
(1896–1954) Loophole clauses

Character clause Grandfather clause Understanding clause

Literacy test Poll tax

Cumulative poll tax Property qualifications

Voting devices

Direct primary

White primaries

Multiple box ballot

Eight-box law

Secret ballot

At-large voting Gerrymandering Moving polling stations

Historiography

Bibliography of Jim Crow Walter C. Hamm "The Three Phases of Colored Suffrage" (1899) William Alexander Mabry The Disfranchisement of the Negro in the South (1933) V. O. Key, Jr. Southern Politics in State and Nation (1949) C. Vann Woodward Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 (1951) The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1955) J. Morgan Kousser The Shaping of Southern Politics (1974) Michael Perman Struggle for Mastery (2001)

Memory

Legacy

Great Migration Harlem Renaissance

Other topics

Sproule v. Fredericks (Tennessee) Lynching Anti-miscegenation laws List of Jim Crow law examples by state Racism Social Darwinism White supremacy Color line Disfranchisement Voter suppression
Voter suppression
in the United States Historical race concepts Judicial aspects of race in the United States Segregation Racial segregation Miscegenation Military segregation Residential segregation School segregation Housing segregation Public housing Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia Stereotypes of African Americans The New Jim Crow
The New Jim Crow
(2010) Sundown town All-white jury Sharecropping Convict lease Chain gang

Category:History of racial segregation in the United States

v t e

African American topics

History

Atlantic slave trade Maafa Slavery
Slavery
in the United States Partus sequitur ventrem Free negro Reconstruction era Military history of African Americans Jim Crow laws Nadir of American race relations Redlining Great Migration Civil rights
Civil rights
movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–68 Black Power
Black Power
movement Second Great Migration Afrocentrism New Great Migration Post–civil rights era Inauguration of Barack Obama 2009 / Inauguration of Barack Obama 2013 Black Lives Matter

Culture

Art African-American names Afrofuturism Black mecca Dance Film Juneteenth Kwanzaa Literature Music Musical theater Neighborhoods Sexual orientation Soul food

Education, science and technology

Black schools Black colleges and universities Museums African-American studies Inventors and scientists Women

in computer science in medicine in STEM fields

Religion

Black church Black theology Doctrine of Father Divine American Society of Muslims Nation of Islam Black Hebrew Israelites

Political movements

Pan-Africanism Self-determination

Nationalism

Black Power Black fist Anarchism Capitalism Conservatism Populism Leftism Garveyism Back-to-Africa movement

Civic and economic groups

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) Black Panther Party National Urban League
National Urban League
(NUL) Rights organizations Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
College Fund United Negro College Fund
United Negro College Fund
(UNCF) National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC) National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) National Council of Negro Women
National Council of Negro Women
(NCNW)

Sports

Negro league baseball

Baseball color line

Black players in professional American football African Americans
African Americans
in the Canadian Football League Black players in ice hockey

Athletic associations and conferences

Central (CIAA) Southern (SIAC) Mid-Eastern (MEAC) Southwestern (SWAC)

Ethnic subdivisions

Black Indians Gullah Fula Igbo Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole (of color) Melungeon Yoruba

Demographics

Neighborhoods

list

U.S. cities with large populations

2000 majorities 2010 majorities

Metropolitan areas Black Belt

Languages

English

American English African-American English

Gullah Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole French

By state/city

Alabama Florida Georgia (Atlanta) Illinois (Chicago) Iowa (Davenport) Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts (Boston) Michigan (Detroit) Mississippi Nebraska (Omaha) New York

New York City

Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) Puerto Rico Tennessee Texas
Texas
(Houston)

Diaspora

Africa

Gambia Ghana Liberia Sierra Leone Back-to-Africa movement

Americas

Caribbean history Canada

Nova Scotia

Dominican Republic Haiti Mexico Trinidad and Tobago

Other

France Israel

Lists

African Americans

visual artists Republicans US senators

African-American firsts

mayors US state firsts

Neighborhoods Landmark African-American legislation African American-related articles Topics related to the African diaspora

Category Portal

v t e

Racism

Types of racism

Against Jews Aversive Among White people Among LGBT people Among US minorities

Colorism

Among hipsters Consumer Covert Cultural Environmental Gendered Institutional Internalized Islamophobia Nationalist New racism

Neo-racism

Reverse Romantic Sexual Scientific Societal Symbolic

Manifestations of racism

Anti-miscegenation laws Expression

in the media in Charles Dickens' works in music in early US films

Censored Eleven

in horror films in porn online

on

in sport

baseball martial arts soccer

in school curricula in US politics Jokes Slurs

Racial antagonism Racial determinism Racial hatred Racial hierarchy

Casta

Racial polarization Racial quota Racial vilification Racial violence

Race war

Racism
Racism
by region

Africa Arab world Asia Australia Europe Middle East North America South America

Related topics

Anti-racism Psychological impact

Psychoanalysis

Racial transformation Passing Racial democracy Racial fetishism Race traitor List of racism-related articles List of anti-ethnic terms

Category

v t e

Segregation in countries by type

Geographical (religious)

Bosnia and Herzegovina Partition of India Northern Ireland Greece and Turkey Partition of Bengal Saudi Arabia Bahrain Myanmar

Racial

Australia Argentina Canada Bahrain Brazil Dominican Republic Fiji France Malaysia Nazi Germany Poland Portugal Rhodesia South Africa Spain Saudization Emiratisation United States

schools Anti-miscegenation laws
Anti-miscegenation laws
in the United States

Gender

Islam (in Iran) Taliban Saudi Arabia Judaism Separatist feminism

Dynamics

Auto-segregation Balkanization Ethnic cleansing Exclusionary zoning Forced migration Internment

labor camps

Residential segregation in the United States Social exclusion

Related topics

Apartheid

laws

Anti-miscegenation laws Black Codes Corporative federalism Discrimination Hafrada Jim Crow laws Nativism Nuremberg Laws Racism Rankism Religious intolerance Reservation in India Second-class citizen Separate but equal Separate school (Canada) Shunning Social apartheid Xenophobia

See also: Desegregation

busing

Pillarisation Category

caste gender racial

Commons

v t e

History of the United States

Timeline

Prehistory Pre-Columbian Colonial 1776–89 1789–1849 1849–65 1865–1918 1918–45 1945–64 1964–80 1980–91 1991–2008 2008–present

Topics

American Century Cities Constitution Demographic Diplomatic Economic Education Immigration Medical Merchant Marine Military Musical Religious Slavery Southern Technological and industrial Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Voting rights Women This Is America, Charlie Brown

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