JIBāL (Arabic : جبال) was the name given by the
Arabs to a
region and province located in western
Iran , under the
Its name means "The Mountains", and is the plural of jabal,
"mountain, hill", highlighting the region's mountainous nature .
Between the 12th and 14th centuries, the name
Jibal was progressively
abandoned, and it came to be mistakenly referred to as ʿIrāq
Persian Iraq ") to distinguish it from "Arab Iraq" in
Mesopotamia . The region never had any precisely defined
boundaries, but was held to be bounded by the
Maranjab Desert in the
east, by Fars and
Khuzistan in the south, by
Iraq in the south-west
and west, by
Adharbayjan in the north-west and by the Alborz Mountains
in the north, making it roughly coterminous with the ancient country
of Media .
Abbasid Caliphate ,
Jibal formed a separate province, with
its capital usually at Rayy , until the Abbasids lost control in the
early 10th century. For most of the 9th century, however, the area
was ruled by an autonomous local dynasty, the
Dulafids . In the late
10th and early 11th century, the larger portion of
Jibal became one of
Buyid emirates, while the south passed to the
* ^ A B C Lockhart 1965 , p. 534.
* ^ Le Strange 1905 , p. 185.
* ^ A B C D E Bosworth 1998 , p. 538.
* ^ Le Strange 1905 , pp. 185–186.
* ^ Donner 1995 , pp. 476–477.
* Bosworth, C. E. (1998). "ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)". Encyclopaedia
Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 5. p. 538. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
* Donner, Fred M. (1995). "DOLAFIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol.
VII, Fasc. 5. pp. 476–477. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
* Le Strange, Guy (1905). The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate:
Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia, from the Moslem Conquest to the
Time of Timur. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc.
OCLC 1044046 .
* Lockhart, L. (1965). "D̲j̲ibāl". In Lewis, B. ; Pellat, Ch. ;
Schacht, J. The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume II: C–G.
Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 534. ISBN 90-04