Jibāl (Arabic: جبال) was the name given by the
Arabs to a
region and province located in western Iran, under the
Its name means "The Mountains", and is the plural of jabal, "mountain,
hill", highlighting the region's mountainous nature. Between the
12th and 14th centuries, the name
Jibal was progressively abandoned,
and it came to be mistakenly referred to as ʿIrāq ʿAjamī ("Persian
Iraq") to distinguish it from "Arab Iraq" in Mesopotamia. The
region never had any precisely defined boundaries, but was held to be
bounded by the
Maranjab Desert in the east, by Fars and
the south, by
Iraq in the south-west and west, by
Adharbayjan in the
north-west and by the
Alborz Mountains in the north, making it roughly
coterminous with the ancient country of Media.
Jibal formed a separate province, with
its capital usually at Rayy, until the Abbasids lost control in the
early 10th century. For most of the 9th century, however, the area
was ruled by an autonomous local dynasty, the Dulafids. In the
late 10th and early 11th century, the larger portion of
one of the
Buyid emirates, while the south passed to the Kakuyids.
^ a b c Lockhart 1965, p. 534.
^ Le Strange 1905, p. 185.
^ a b c d e Bosworth 1998, p. 538.
^ Le Strange 1905, pp. 185–186.
^ Donner 1995, pp. 476–477.
Bosworth, C. E. (1998). "ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)". Encyclopaedia Iranica,
Vol. VIII, Fasc. 5. p. 538. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
Donner, Fred M. (1995). "DOLAFIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VII,
Fasc. 5. pp. 476–477. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
Le Strange, Guy (1905). The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate:
Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia, from the Moslem Conquest to the
Time of Timur. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc.
Lockhart, L. (1965). "D̲j̲ibāl". In Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.;
Schacht, J. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume II: C–G.
Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 534. ISBN 90