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Jibāl (Arabic: جبال‎) was the name given by the Arabs
Arabs
to a region and province located in western Iran, under the Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphates. Its name means "The Mountains", and is the plural of jabal, "mountain, hill", highlighting the region's mountainous nature.[1][2] Between the 12th and 14th centuries, the name Jibal
Jibal
was progressively abandoned, and it came to be mistakenly referred to as ʿIrāq ʿAjamī ("Persian Iraq") to distinguish it from "Arab Iraq" in Mesopotamia.[1][3][4] The region never had any precisely defined boundaries, but was held to be bounded by the Maranjab Desert
Maranjab Desert
in the east, by Fars and Khuzistan
Khuzistan
in the south, by Iraq
Iraq
in the south-west and west, by Adharbayjan
Adharbayjan
in the north-west and by the Alborz Mountains
Alborz Mountains
in the north, making it roughly coterminous with the ancient country of Media.[1][3] Under the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate, Jibal
Jibal
formed a separate province, with its capital usually at Rayy, until the Abbasids lost control in the early 10th century.[3] For most of the 9th century, however, the area was ruled by an autonomous local dynasty, the Dulafids.[3][5] In the late 10th and early 11th century, the larger portion of Jibal
Jibal
became one of the Buyid
Buyid
emirates, while the south passed to the Kakuyids.[3] References[edit]

^ a b c Lockhart 1965, p. 534. ^ Le Strange 1905, p. 185. ^ a b c d e Bosworth 1998, p. 538. ^ Le Strange 1905, pp. 185–186. ^ Donner 1995, pp. 476–477.

Sources[edit]

Bosworth, C. E. (1998). "ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 5. p. 538. Retrieved 22 September 2014.  Donner, Fred M. (1995). "DOLAFIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VII, Fasc. 5. pp. 476–477. Retrieved 22 September 2014.  Le Strange, Guy (1905). The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate: Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia, from the Moslem Conquest to the Time of Timur. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc. OCLC 1044046.  Lockhart, L. (1965). "D̲j̲ibāl". In Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume II: C–G. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 534. ISBN 90

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