Jiaqing Emperor
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The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 - 2 September 1820), whose personal name is Yongyan, was the sixth
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...
of the
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
-led
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over
China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu people, Manchu-led Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China pr ...

China proper
, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western write ...

Qianlong Emperor
. During his reign, he prosecuted
Heshen Heshen (; ; 1 July 1750 – 22 February 1799) of the Manchu Niohuru The Niohuru ( Manchu: ; in Manchu) were a prominent Manchu clan during the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of Chi ...

Heshen
, the corrupt
favorite by Diego Velázquez Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spaniards, Spanish painter, the leading artist in the Noble court, court of King Philip IV of Spain, Philip IV and of the Spanish Golden Age ...

favorite
of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire while curbing the smuggling of
opium Opium (or poppy tears, scientific name: ''Lachryma papaveris'') is dried latex LaTeX ( or , often stylized as LaTeX) is a software system for document preparation. When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text f ...

opium
into China.


Early years

Yongyan was born in the
Old Summer Palace The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuanming Yuan (), originally called the Imperial Gardens (), and sometimes called the Winter Palace, was a complex of palaces and gardens in present-day Haidian District, Beijing, China. It is northwest o ...
, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. His personal name, "Yongyan" (永琰), was later changed to "Yongyan" (顒琰) when he became the emperor. The
Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it ...

Chinese character
for ''yong'' in his name was changed from the more common 永 to the less common 顒. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of
naming taboo A naming taboo is a cultural taboo A taboo is an implicit prohibition on something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural sense that it is excessively repulsive or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.''Encyclopædia ...
in the imperial family. Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (魏清泰), a
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu: ''jakūn gūsa'', ) were administrative and military divisions under the Later Jin and the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty ...
as part of a Han Banner. The Qianlong Emperor originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia
of the First Rank
of the First Rank
" (嘉親王; or simply "Prince Jia").


Accession to the throne

In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia. He made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western ...

Kangxi Emperor
, who was on the throne for 61 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the
era name A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''super ...
"Jiaqing" in February 1796, hence he is historically known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a ''
Taishang Huang In Chinese history, a Taishang Huang or Taishang Huangdi is an honorific and institution of retired emperorship. The former emperor had, at least in name, abdicated in favor of someone else. Although technically no longer the reigning sovereign, ...
'' (emperor emeritus) after his abdication. After the death of the Qianlong Emperor in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government and prosecuted
Heshen Heshen (; ; 1 July 1750 – 22 February 1799) of the Manchu Niohuru The Niohuru ( Manchu: ; in Manchu) were a prominent Manchu clan during the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of Chi ...

Heshen
, a
favourite by Diego Velázquez Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spaniards, Spanish painter, the leading artist in the Noble court, court of King Philip IV of Spain, Philip IV and of the Spanish Golden Age ...
official of his father. Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a half-sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates. At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most importantly the large-scale
White Lotus The White Lotus () is a Syncretism, syncretic religious and political movement which forecasts the imminent advent of the "King of Light" (), i.e., the future Buddha Maitreya. As White Lotus sects developed, they appealed to many Han Chinese who f ...
(1796–1804) and
MiaoMiao may refer to: * Miao people, linguistically and culturally related group of people, recognized as such by the government of the People's Republic of China * Miao script or Pollard script, writing system used for Miao languages * Miao (Unicode b ...
(1795–1806) rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury. The Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the pacification of the empire and the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China back to its 18th-century prosperity and power.


Renaming Vietnam

The Jiaqing Emperor refused the Vietnamese ruler
Gia Long Gia Long (; 8 February 1762 – 3 February 1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh, was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn dynasty, the last of the ...
's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt. He changed the name instead to
Việt Nam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...
. Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.


Opposition to Christianity

The
Great Qing Legal Code The Great Qing Legal Code (or Great Ching Legal Code), also known as the Qing Code (Ching Code) or, in Hong Kong law The law of Hong Kong is unique, being a common law system preserved, after the handover to China in 1997, within the civil law ...
includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術). In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity. It was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the Daoguang Emperor, and abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading Catholic Church in China, Catholicism among Han Chinese and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to Muslim cities in Xinjiang, to be given as slaves to Muslim leaders and Baig, beys.


Chinese nobility

The Jiaqing Emperor granted the title ''Wujing Boshi'' () to the descendants of Han Yu.


Death and burial

On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor died at the Chengde Mountain Resort, Rehe (Jehol) Traveling Palace (熱河行宫), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, where the imperial court was in summer quarters. The ''Draft History of Qing'' did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a stroke, as the emperor was quite obese. He was succeeded by his second son, Mianning, who became known as the Daoguang Emperor. Renzong was interred amidst the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, in the Chang (昌; lit. "splendid") mausoleum complex.


Family


Parent

Father — Qianlong Emperor, Hongli, the Qianlong Emperor () of the Aisin Gioro Clan (愛新覺羅) Mother —Empress Xiaoyichun () of the Weigiya Clan (魏佳)


Consorts and Issue

Empress * Empress Xiaoshurui () of the Hitara Clan (喜塔臘)
Titles: Primary Consort of the Fifteenth Prince (十五王子福晋) → Princess Consort Jia of the First Rank (嘉親王妃) → Empress (皇后) ** Second daughter (2 June 1780 – 6 September 1783) ** Minning (; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850), the Daoguang Emperor (), second son ** Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank (; 20 October 1784 – 27 June 1811), fourth daughter. Married Manibadala (; d. 1832) of the Borjigin#Tumed Mongols, Tumed Borjigit clan in November/December 1802. ** Miscarriage at three months (18 August 1785) * Empress Xiaoherui () of the Niohuru Clan (鈕祜祿)
Titles: Secondary Consort (侧福晋) → Noble Consort (貴妃) → Imperial Noble Consort (皇貴妃) → Empress (皇后) → Empress Dowager Gongci (恭慈皇太后) ** Seventh daughter (2 August 1793 – July/August 1795) ** Miankai, Prince Dun, Prince Dunke of the First Rank (; 6 August 1795 – 18 January 1838), third son ** Mianxin, Prince Rui (瑞), Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank (; 9 March 1805 – 27 September 1828), fourth son Imperial Noble Consort * Imperial Noble Consort Heyu () of the Liugiya Clan (劉佳氏)
Titles: Mistress (格格) → Consort Xian (諴妃) → Noble Consort Xian (諴貴妃) → Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Xianxi (諴禧太皇貴妃) ** Prince Mu of the Second Rank (; 4 February 1779 – 10 June 1780), first son ** Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank (; 30 January 1782 – 4 April 1811), third daughter. Married Sodnamdorji (; d. 1825) of the Borjigin#Khorchin Mongols, Khorchin Borjigit clan on 24 December 1801.(one daughter) * Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun () of the Niohuru Clan (鈕祜祿)
Titles: Noble Lady Ru (如貴人) → Imperial Concubine Ru (如嬪) → Consort Ru (如妃) → Dowager Noble Consort Ru (如貴太妃)→ Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Ru (如太皇貴妃) ** ''Eighth daughter'' (8 March 1805 – December 1805 or January 1806) ** Princess Huimin of the First Rank (; 18 February 1811 – June/July 1815), ninth daughter ** Mianyu, Prince Hui (first rank), Prince Huiduan of the First Rank (; 8 March 1814 – 9 January 1865), fifth son Consort * Consort Hua (華妃) of the Hougiya Clan (侯佳氏)
Titles: Servant (管女子) → Mistress (格格) → Imperial Concubine Ying (莹嫔) → Consort Hua (华妃) ** ''Sixth daughter'' (2 August 1789 – 1790) * Consort Zhuang () of the Wanggiya (surname), Wanggiya Clan (王佳氏)
Titles: Mistress (格格) → First Class Female Attendant Chun (春常在) → Noble Lady Chun (春貴人) → Imperial Concubine Ji (吉嬪) → Consort Zhuang (莊妃) * Consort Xin (信妃) of the Liugiya Clan (劉佳氏)
Titles: Noble Lady Xin (信贵人) → Imperial Concubine Xin (信嫔) → Dowager Consort Xin (信太妃) *Consort Shu (恕妃) of the Wanyan Clan (完顏氏)
Titles: Secondary Consort (侧福晋) Concubine * Concubine Chun (淳嬪) of the Donggiya Clan (董佳氏)
Titles: Noble Lady Chun (淳贵人) → Imperial Concubine Chun (淳嫔) *Concubine Rong () of the Liang Clan (梁氏) * Concubine En () of the Uya Clan (烏雅氏) *Concubine An () of the Gūwalgiya Clan (瓜爾佳氏)
Titles: First Class Female Attendant An (安常在) → Dowager Imperial Concubine Kaoan (皇考安嫔). *Concubine Jian () of the Guan Clan (關)
Titles: Mistress (格格) ** ''First daughter'' (14 May 1780 – 24 November 1783) * Concubine Xun () of the Shen Clan (沈)
Titles: Mistress (格格) ** Princess Hui'an of the Second Rank (; 31 December 1786 – June/July 1795), fifth daughter Noble Lady *Noble Lady Yun (芸贵人) of a certain clan
Titles: Noble Lady Yun (芸贵人) *Noble Lady Yu (玉贵人) of a certain clan
Titles: Noble Lady Yu (玉贵人) First Class Female Attendant *First Class Female Attendant Hui (慧常在) of a certain clan
Titles: First Class Female Attendant Hui (慧常在)


Ancestry


In fiction and popular culture

* Portrayed by Yu Yang in ''War and Beauty'' (2004) * Portrayed by Xin Baiqing ''Legend of Jiaqing'' (2005) * Portrayed by Shaun Tam in ''Succession War (TV series), Succession War'' (2018) * Portrayed by Tang Jiatong in ''Story of Yanxi Palace'' (2018) * Portrayed in ''Throne of Jade'' (2006), a historical fantasy novel by Naomi Novik.


See also

* Chinese emperors family tree (late)


References


Citations


Sources

* * *


Further reading

*


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Jiaqing Emperor 1760 births 1820 deaths Qing dynasty emperors 18th-century Chinese monarchs 19th-century Chinese monarchs Persecution of Christians 1790s in China 1800s in China 1810s in China Qianlong Emperor's sons