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The Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
(13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favourite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire and curb the smuggling of opium into China.

Jiaqing Emperor

Chinese name

Traditional Chinese 嘉慶帝

Simplified Chinese 嘉庆帝

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Jiāqìng Dì

Wade–Giles Chia1-ch'ing4 Ti4

IPA [tɕjátɕʰîŋ tî]

Mongolian name

Mongolian ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Сайшаалт ерөөлт хаан

Transcriptions

SASM/GNC sayishiyaltu yirugertu khaan

Manchu name

Manchu script ᠰᠠᡳᠴᡠᠩᡤᠠ ᡶᡝᠩᡧᡝᠨ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡩᡳ

Romanization saicungga fengšen hūwangdi

Contents

1 Early years 2 Accession to the throne

2.1 Court intrigues and incidents 2.2 Renaming Vietnam 2.3 Opposition to Christianity 2.4 Chinese nobility

3 Death and burial 4 Family

4.1 Spouses

4.1.1 Empresses 4.1.2 Imperial Noble Consorts 4.1.3 Consorts 4.1.4 Imperial Concubines

4.2 Issue

4.2.1 Sons 4.2.2 Daughters

5 Ancestry 6 See also 7 References

Early years[edit] Yongyan was born in the Old Summer Palace, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of Beijing. His personal name, "Yongyan" (永琰), was later changed to "Yongyan" (顒琰) when he became the emperor. The Chinese character
Chinese character
for yong in his name was changed from the more common 永 to the less common 顒. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character
Chinese character
in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family. Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (魏清泰), a Han Chinese official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu Eight Banners as part of a Han Banner. The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia of the First Rank" (嘉親王; or simply "Prince Jia"). Accession to the throne[edit] In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia. He made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, who was on the throne for 60 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the era name "Jiaqing" (Chinese: 嘉慶; Manchu: ᠰᠠᡳᠴᡠᠩᡤᠠ ᡶᡝᠩᡧᡝᠨ saicungga fengšen) in February 1796, hence he is historically known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a Taishang Huang (emperor emeritus) after his abdication. After the death of the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
took control of the government and prosecuted Heshen, a favourite official of his father. Heshen
Heshen
was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates. At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most importantly the large-scale White Lotus (1796–1804) and Miao (1795–1806) rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury. The Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the pacification of the empire and the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China
China
back to its 18th-century prosperity and power. However, due in part to large outflows of silver from the country as payment for the opium smuggled into China
China
from British India, the economy declined. Court intrigues and incidents[edit] Members of the Qing imperial family tried to assassinate him twice – in 1803 and in 1813. The princes involved in the attempts on his life were executed. Other members of the imperial family, numbering in the hundreds, were sent into exile.[1][2][3] Renaming Vietnam[edit] The Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
refused the Vietnamese ruler Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt. He changed the name instead to Việt Nam.[4] Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục
Đại Nam thực lục
contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.[5] Opposition to Christianity[edit] The Great Qing Code includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術). In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity. It was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the Daoguang Emperor, and abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism
Catholicism
among Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to Muslim
Muslim
cities in Xinjiang, to be given as slaves to Muslim
Muslim
leaders and beys.[6] Chinese nobility[edit] The Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
granted the title Wujing Boshi (五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Han Yu.[7][8][9][10] Death and burial[edit] On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
died at the Rehe (Jehol) Traveling Palace (熱河行宫), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court was in summer quarters. The Draft History of Qing did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a stroke as the emperor was quite obese. He was succeeded by his second son, Mianning, who became known as the Daoguang Emperor. Renzong was interred amidst the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Changling (昌陵; lit. "splendid tomb") mausoleum complex. Family[edit] Spouses[edit] See also: Ranks of imperial consorts in China
China
§ Qing Empresses[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Empress Xiaoshu Rui 孝淑睿皇后 Lady Hitara 喜塔腊氏 2 Oct 1760 5 Mar 1797 Horchingo, third class Duke of Cheng'en 三等承恩公和尔经额 Lady Wanggiya 王佳氏 2. daughter 2. Xuanzong 4. Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank Married Renzong and become primary consort (嫡福晋) in 1774 Became Empress in 1796

Empress Xiaohe Rui 孝和睿皇后 Lady Niohuru 钮祜禄氏 1776 1850 Gong'ala, secretary of the Ministry of Rites 礼部尚书恭阿拉 unknown 7. daughter 3. Prince Ke of Dun of the First Rank 4. Prince Huai of Rui of the First Rank Started out as secondary consort (侧福晋) Became Noble Consort (贵妃) in 1796 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort (皇贵妃) in 1797 Became Empress in 1801 Became Empress Dowager Gongci (恭慈皇太后) in 1820

Imperial Noble Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Imperial Noble Consort Heyu 和裕皇贵妃 Lady Liugiya 刘佳氏 9 Jan 1761 27 Apr 1834 Liu Fuming, baitang'a 拜唐阿刘福明 1. Prince Mu of the Second Rank 3. Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank Started out as secondary consort (侧福晋) Became Consort Xian (諴妃) in 1796 Promoted to Noble Consort Xian (諴贵妃) in 1808 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort Xianxi (𫍯禧皇贵妃) in 1820

Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun 恭顺皇贵妃 Lady Niohuru 钮祜禄氏 1787 23 Apr 1860 Shanqing, managerial official 主事善庆 8. daughter 9. Princess Huimin of the First Rank 5. Prince Duan of Hui of the First Rank Started out as Noble Lady Ru (如贵人) in 1801 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Ru (如嫔) in 1805 Promoted to Consort Ru (如妃) in 1810 Promoted to Noble Consort Ru (如贵妃) in 1820 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort Ru (如皇贵妃) in 1846

Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Consort Shu 恕妃 Lady Wanyan 完颜氏 unknown unknown Hafeng'a, qingche duwei 轻车都尉哈丰阿 none Started out as secondary consort (侧福晋) Posthumously honoured in 1797

Consort Hua 华妃 Lady Hougiya 侯佳氏 c.1771 1804 Taozhu 上驷院卿讨住 6. daughter Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Became Imperial Concubine Ying (莹嫔) in 1796 Promoted in 1801

Consort Zhuang 庄妃 Lady Wanggiya 王佳氏 unknown 1811 Yilibu 文举人伊里布 none Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Became First Class Female Attendant Chun (春常在) in 1796 Promoted to Noble Lady Chun (春贵人) in 1798 Promoted to Imperial Concubine Ji (吉嫔) in 1801 Promoted in 1808

Consort Xin 信妃 Lady Liugiya 刘佳氏 unknown 1822 Benzhi, general 将军本志 none Started out as Noble Lady Xin (信贵人) Promoted to Imperial Concubine Xin (信嫔) in 1808 Promoted in 1820

Imperial Concubines[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Imperial Concubine Jian 简嫔 Lady Guan 关氏 c.1762 1780 Decheng, baitang'a 拜唐阿德成 1. daughter Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Posthumously honoured in 1797

Imperial Concubine Xun 逊嫔 Lady Shen 沈氏 c.1768 unknown Yonghe, zhixian 内务府大臣职衔永和 5. Princess Hui'an of the Second Rank Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Posthumously honoured in 1797

Imperial Concubine Chun 淳嫔 Lady Donggiya 董佳氏 unknown 1819 Shitai, executive bureau store officer 委署库长时泰 none Started as Noble Lady Chun (淳贵人) Promoted in 1801

Imperial Concubine Rong 荣嫔 Lady Liang 梁氏 unknown 1826 Guangbao, yuanwailang 员外郎光保 none Started out as ordinary consort (格格) Became First Class Female Attendant Rong (荣常在) in 1796 Promoted to Noble Lady Rong (荣贵人) Promoted in 1820

Imperial Concubine En 恩嫔 Lady Uya 乌雅氏 unknown 1846 Wanming, yushi 左副都御史万明 none Started out as Noble Lady En (恩贵人) Promoted in 1820

Imperial Concubine An 安嫔 Lady Suwan–Gūwalgiya 苏完尼瓜尔佳氏 1785 1837 unknown none Started out as First Class Female Attendant An (安常在) Promoted in 1820

Issue[edit] Sons[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes

1 Prince Mu of the Second Rank 穆郡王

4 Feb 1779 10 Apr 1780 Imperial Noble Consort Heyu Died in infancy Posthumously honoured in 1820

2 Xuanzong 宣宗 Mianning, Minning 绵宁, 旻宁 16 Sep 1782 26 Feb 1850 Empress Xiaoshu Rui Granted the title Prince Zhi of the First Rank (智亲王) in 1813 Became Emperor (皇帝) in 1820

3 Prince Ke of Dun of the First Rank 惇恪亲王 Miankai 绵恺 6 Aug 1795 18 Jan 1838 Empress Xiaohe Rui Granted the title Prince Dun
Prince Dun
of the Second Rank (惇郡王) in 1819 Promoted to Prince Dun
Prince Dun
of the First Rank in 1821 Demoted to Prince Dun
Prince Dun
of the Second Rank in 1827 and restored in 1828 Demoted and restored in 1838

4 Prince Huai of Rui of the First Rank 瑞怀亲王 Mianxin 绵忻 3 Feb 1805 1828 Granted the title Prince Rui of the First Rank in 1819

5 Prince Duan of Hui of the First Rank 惠端亲王 Mianyu 绵愉 8 Mar 1814 9 Jan 1865 Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun Granted the title Prince Hui of the Second Rank (惠郡王) in 1820 Promoted to Prince Hui of the First Rank in 1839

Daughters[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes

1

unknown 1780 1783 Imperial Concubine Jian none none Died young

2

unknown 1780 1783 Empress Xiaoshu Rui none none Died young

3 Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank 庄敬和硕公主 unknown 1781 1811 Imperial Noble Consort Heyu 1801: Suotenamuduobujiof Khorchin ((科尔沁索特纳木多布济)

4 Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank 庄静固伦公主 unknown 1784 1811 Empress Xiaoshu Rui 1802: Borjigit Manibadala (博尔济吉特•玛尼巴达喇)

Granted the title Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank in 1802

5 Princess Hui'an of the Second Rank 慧安和硕公主 unknown 1786 1795 Imperial Concubine Xun none none Died young Posthumously honoured in 1818

6

unknown 1789 1790 Consort Hua none none Died in infancy

7

unknown 1793 1795 Empress Xiaohe Rui none none Died young

8

unknown 1805 1805 Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun none none Died in infancy

9 Princess Huimin of the First Rank 慧愍固伦公主 unknown 1811 1815 none none Died young Posthumously honoured in 1820

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Jiaqing Emperor

Fulin of Aisin–Gioro clan, Shizu 世祖爱新觉罗•福临 1638–1661

3rd son: Aisin–Gioro Xuanye, Shengzu 圣祖爱新觉罗•玄烨 1654–1722

Concubine: Lady Tunggiya, Empress Xiaokang Zhang 孝康章皇后佟佳氏 1638–1663

4th son: Aisin–Gioro Yinzhen, Shizong 世宗爱新觉罗•胤禛 1678–1735

Uya Weiwu, first class Duke 一等公乌雅•威武

Concubine: Lady Uya, Empress Xiaogong Ren 孝恭仁皇后乌雅氏 1660–1723

Lady Saiheri 塞和里氏

4th son: Aisin–Gioro Hongli, Gaozong 高宗爱新觉罗•弘历 1711–1799

Niohuru Wulu, first class Duke of Cheng'en 一等承恩公钮祜禄•吴禄

Niohuru Lingzhu, first class Duke of Cheng'en 一等承恩公钮祜禄•凌柱

Lady Qiao 乔氏

Concubine: Lady Niohuru, Empress Xiaosheng Xian 孝圣宪皇后钮祜禄氏 1693–1777

Peng Wugong 彭武功

Lady Peng 彭氏

15th son: Aisin–Gioro Yongyan, Renzong 仁宗爱新觉罗•颙琰 1760–1820

Wei Sixing 魏嗣兴

Lady Chen 陈氏

Wei Qingtai, third class Duke of Cheng'en 三等承恩公魏清泰

Concubine: Lady Weigiya, Empress Xiaoyi Chun 孝仪纯皇后魏佳氏 1727–1775

Lady Yanggiya 杨佳氏

See also[edit]

Chinese emperors family tree (late)

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jiaqing Emperor.

 This article incorporates text from China
China
in the light of history, by Ernst Faber, a publication from 1897 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 27, a publication from 1896 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China, by Robert Samuel Maclay, a publication from 1861 now in the public domain in the United States.

^ Ernst Faber (1897). China
China
in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved 2011-06-06.  ^ The Chinese recorder, Volume 27. American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1896. p. 242. Retrieved 2011-06-06.  ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China
China
in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved 2011-06-06.  ^ Woodside 1971, p. 120. ^ Jeff Kyong-McClain; Yongtao Du (2013). Chinese History in Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-0-7391-7230-8.  ^ Robert Samuel Maclay (1861). Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China. Carlton & Porter. p. 336. Retrieved 2011-07-06.  ^ Qin ding da Qing hui dian (Jiaqing chao). 1818. p. 1084.  ^ 王士禎 [Wang Shizhen] (3 September 2014). 池北偶談 [Chi Bei Ou Tan]. 朔雪寒 [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:ESB6TEXXDCT.  ^ 徐錫麟 [Xu, Xilin]; 錢泳 [Qian, Yong] (10 September 2014). 熙朝新語 [Xi Chao Xin Yu]. 朔雪寒 [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:J62ZFNAA1NF.  ^ Brunnert, H. S.; Hagelstrom, V. V. (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–94. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9. 

Jiaqing Emperor House of Aisin-Gioro Born: 13 November 1760 Died: 2 September 1820

Regnal titles

Preceded by The Qianlong Emperor Emperor of China 1796–1820 Succeeded by The Daoguang Emperor

v t e

Emperors of the Qing dynasty

Taizu Taizong Dorgon
Dorgon
(Prince Regent) Shunzhi Kangxi Yongzheng Qianlong Jiaqing Daoguang Xianfeng Tongzhi Guangxu Xuantong

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming → Qing → ROC / PRC

v t e

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
qinwangs (first-rank princes)

Absorbed into the Crown

Prince Yong Prince Bao Prince Jia Prince Zhi

Non-downgrading peerages ("iron-cap" princes)

Prince Li ** Prince Xun ** Prince Kang Prince Rui Prince Yu Prince Zheng (Prince Jian) Prince Su
Prince Su
(Prince Xian) Prince Chengze (Prince Zhuang) Prince Shuncheng Prince Yi Prince Gong Prince Chun Prince Qing

Demoted but non-downgrading peerages

Prince Cheng

Downgrading peerages

Prince Jingjin Prince Ying (穎) Prince Ying (英) Prince Duanzhong Prince An Prince Xiang Prince Yu Prince Gong Prince Chun (純) Prince Li Prince Heng Prince Chun (淳) Prince Lian Prince Lü Prince Guo Prince Xian Prince He Prince Ding Prince Rong Prince Zhi Prince Yi Prince Cheng Prince Dun Prince Rui Prince Hui

Posthumous titles

Prince Rong Prince Duan Prince Huai Prince Zhe

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 77770705 LCCN: n853089

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