Ji River
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The Ji River was a former
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water ...
in north-eastern China which gave its name to the towns of
Jiyuan Jiyuan () is a sub-prefecture-level city in northwestern Henan Henan (; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is of ...

Jiyuan
and
Jinan Jinan (), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanization of Chinese, romanized as Tsinan, is the Capital (political), capital of Shandong province in East China, Eastern China. With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the s ...

Jinan
. It disappeared during one of the massive Yellow River floods of 1852, as the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in ...
shifted its course from below the
Shandong Peninsula The Shandong Peninsula or Jiaodong Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The su ...
to north of it. In the process, it overtook the Ji and assumed its bed.


Name

''Jì'' is the
pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, Standard Mandari ...

pinyin
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
of the present-day
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
pronunciation of the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. The entity identified by a name is called its referent. A personal ...
written in
traditional characters Traditional Chinese characters are one type of standard Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural lan ...
and in the simplified form used in
mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitics, geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since Proclamation of ...

mainland China
. The river's
Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is ...
pronunciation has been
reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for "reconstruction"), a late 20th century Soviet Union ...
as /*
s
s
əjʔ/ or /*ʔsliːlʔ/. Ancient Chinese accounts also wrote the name with the character ,. and Lin Chuanjia considered this to be identical with the that gave Yuanqu County (Shandong), Yuanqu County its name.


Geography

The Ji River changed its precise course several times over the historical period before its disappearance. Generally, it traced its course from an origin near
Jiyuan Jiyuan () is a sub-prefecture-level city in northwestern Henan Henan (; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is of ...

Jiyuan
in what is now Henan Province through Shandong to the Bohai Sea.. During the Neolithic China, Neolithic, the Ji was probably a tributary of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in ...
, merging with its lower course in the North China Plain.. At some point, its flooding shifted the lower course of the Yellow River into a separate channel, while the Ji continued to occupy its earlier path. The two rivers ran parallel to one another under the Zhou dynasty, Zhou,. Qin dynasty, Qin, and Han dynasty, Han.. Under the Han, the Ji River's central course passed through the Great Wild Marsh (traditional characters, t simplified characters, s ''Dàyězé'') and its river mouth, mouth was in Qiansheng Commandery ( ''Qiānchéng Jùn'').


History

The area around the Ji River was among the most densely populated in China during the Neolithic China, Neolithic Age, when its plains were a center for the Longshan culture, Longshan and Yueshi cultures. It was honored as a god in Chinese mythology, ancient Chinese religion. Sima Qian lists the Ji among the rivers connected by the Honggou Canal (traditional characters, t simplified characters, s ''Hónggōu'', "Canal of the Wild Geese"),. whose remote antiquity caused him to place it next after the works of the legendary figure Yu the Great.. In fact, the Heshui Canal (traditional characters, t simplified characters, s ''Héshuǐ Yùnhé'') connecting the Ji to the Si River, Si was completed by soldiers under the command of King Fuchai of state of Wu, Wu in 483 and 482BC in order to improve their supply lines while at war with the northern ancient Chinese states, states of state of Qi, Qi and Jin (Chinese state), Jin. From the Si, the Ji River then had access to the Huai River, which connected to the new course of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in ...
through the Hongguo Canal and with the Yangtze River through the Hangou Canal just completed by Fuchai's men in 486BC. Under the Zhou dynasty, Zhou, the ancient Chinese states, state of state of Qi, Qi was centered on the broad floodplain of the Ji. It also used the "clear Ji" along with the "muddy
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in ...
" as part of its borders with and defenses against the states of state of Yan, Yan and state of Zhao, Zhao.. During antiquity, the river was a center of salt in Chinese history, salt production. The river went dry during the Cao Wei, Wei and Sima Jin, Jin period (3rd–4th centuryAD).. The Ji finally disappeared during one of the massive Yellow River floods of 1852,. as the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in ...
shifted its course from below the
Shandong Peninsula The Shandong Peninsula or Jiaodong Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The su ...
to north of it. In the process, it overtook the Ji and assumed its bed. Other parts of the former course of the Ji form the present Xiaoqing River.


Legacy

The Ji River was the namesake of
Jiyuan Jiyuan () is a sub-prefecture-level city in northwestern Henan Henan (; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is of ...

Jiyuan
("Source of the Ji") and
Jinan Jinan (), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanization of Chinese, romanized as Tsinan, is the Capital (political), capital of Shandong province in East China, Eastern China. With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the s ...

Jinan
("Lands South of the Ji").


References


Citations


Bibliography

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External links


《济水》
at Baike.com Rivers of China Former rivers