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In Jewish
Jewish
history, Jews
Jews
have experienced numerous mass expulsions or ostracism by various local authorities and have sought refuge in other countries. The Land of Israel
Land of Israel
was always regarded by Jews
Jews
as the Jewish
Jewish
homeland, though throughout most of Jewish history
Jewish history
they were barred from the land. After its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel
State of Israel
adopted the 1950 Law of Return
Law of Return
restoring Israel as the Jewish
Jewish
homeland and making it the place of refuge for Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
at the time and into the future. This law was intended to encourage Jews
Jews
to return to their homeland in Israel.

Contents

1 List 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

List[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. The following is a list of Jewish
Jewish
expulsions and events that prompted major streams of Jewish
Jewish
refugees.

733 BCE Samaria
Samaria
(Israel/Judah), Jews
Jews
expelled by king Tiglath-Pileser III.[1]

722 BCE Jews
Jews
expelled and captured by king Sargon II.[1] The Assyrians led by Shalmaneser conquered the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel and sent the Israelites
Israelites
into captivity at Khorasan. Ten of twelve Tribes of Israel are considered lost; but these tribes are not considered Jewish, rather than Samaritan. These tribes have been living since then near the city of Nablus
Nablus
in what is today the West Bank.

597 BCE The Babylonian captivity. In 537 BCE the Persians, who conquered Babylon
Babylon
two years earlier, allowed Jews
Jews
to return and rebuild Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple.[2]

475 BCE Persia - Jews
Jews
expulsion and killing plot by Haman.[3]

70 AD The defeat of the Great Jewish
Jewish
Revolt. Masses of Jews
Jews
were sold to slavery across the Roman Empire, many fled.[4]

119 Large Jewish
Jewish
communities of Cyprus, Cyrene and Alexandria become extinct after the Jewish
Jewish
defeat in Kitos War
Kitos War
against Rome. This event caused a major demographic shift in the Levant and North Africa. According to Eusebius of Caesarea the outbreak of violence left Libya depopulated to such an extent that a few years later new colonies had to be established there by the emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
just to maintain the viability of continued settlement.[citation needed]

135/6 The Romans defeated Bar Kokhba's revolt. Emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
expelled hundreds of thousands Jews
Jews
from Judea, wiped the name off the maps, replaced it with Syria Palaestina, forbade Jews
Jews
to set foot in Jerusalem.[5]

629 The entire Jewish
Jewish
population of Galilee is massacred or expelled, following the Jewish
Jewish
rebellion against Byzantium.

7th century Muhammad
Muhammad
expelled Jewish
Jewish
tribes Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
from Medina, The Banu Qurayza tribe was slaughtered and the Jewish settlement of Khaybar was ransacked. All three tribes previously had a peace treaty with Muhammad, but they broke the treaty and sided with the opposition. The Banu Qurayza, not only sided with the opposing leaders (The Quraish) but they also waged war against Muhammad.

1095 – mid-13th century The waves of Crusades destroyed hundreds of Jewish
Jewish
communities in Europe and in the Middle East, including Jerusalem.[5]

Mid-12th century The invasion of Almohades
Almohades
brought to end the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. Among other refugees was Maimonides, who fled to Morocco, then Egypt, then Eretz Israel.

1276 Jews
Jews
expelled from Upper Bavaria.[6][7]

Expulsions of Jews
Jews
in Europe from 1100 to 1600

12th–14th centuries France. The practice of expelling the Jews
Jews
accompanied by confiscation of their property, followed by temporary readmissions for ransom, was used to enrich the crown: expulsions from Paris
Paris
by Philip Augustus in 1182, from France
France
by Louis IX in 1254, by Charles IV in 1322, by Charles V in 1359, by Charles VI in 1394.

13th century The influential philosopher and logician Ramon Llull
Ramon Llull
(1232-1315) called for expulsion of all Jews
Jews
who would refuse conversion to Christianity. Some scholars regard Llull's as the first comprehensive articulation, in the Christian West, of an expulsionist policy regarding Jews.

1288 Naples
Naples
issues first expulsion of Jews
Jews
in Southern Italy.[8]

1290 King Edward I of England
Edward I of England
issues the Edict of Expulsion
Edict of Expulsion
for all Jews from England. The policy was reversed after 365 years in 1655 by Oliver Cromwell.

1293 Destruction of most of the Jewish
Jewish
communities in the Kingdom of Naples.[8]

1392 Jews
Jews
expelled from Bern, Switzerland. Although between 1408 and 1427 Jews
Jews
were again residing in the city, the only Jews
Jews
to appear in Bern subsequently were transients, chiefly physicians and cattle dealers.[9]

1442 Jews
Jews
again expelled from Upper Bavaria.[6]

1478 Jews
Jews
expelled from Passau.[6]

1491 Jews
Jews
of Ravenna
Ravenna
expelled, synagogues destroyed.[8]

1492 Ferdinand II and Isabella I issued the Alhambra decree, General Edict on the Expulsion of the Jews
Jews
from Spain
Spain
(approx. 200,000), from Sicily (1493, approx. 37,000), from Portugal
Portugal
(1496) from Calabria
Calabria
Italy
Italy
1554. It is important to note that this event happened on Tisha B'Av, as with many other events in Jewish
Jewish
history.

1495 Charles VIII of France
France
occupies Kingdom of Naples, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain.[8]

1496 Jews
Jews
expelled from Portugal

1499 Jews
Jews
expelled from Nuremberg.[6]

1510 Jews
Jews
expelled from Naples.[8]

1519 Jews
Jews
expelled from Regensburg.[6]

1551 All remaining Jews
Jews
expelled from the duchy of Bavaria. Jewish settlement in Bavaria
Bavaria
ceased until toward the end of the 17th century, when a small community was founded in Sulzbach by refugees from Vienna.[6] 1569 Pope Pius V expels the Jews
Jews
from the papal states, with the exception of Ancona and Rome.[8]

1593 Pope Clement VIII expels the Jews
Jews
living in all the papal states, except Rome, Avignon and Ancona. Jews
Jews
are invited to settle in Leghorn, the main port of Tuscany, where they are granted full religious liberty and civil rights, by the Medici family, who want to develop the region into a center of commerce.[6]

1597 Nine hundred Jews
Jews
expelled from Milan.[8]

1654 The fall of the Dutch colony of Recife
Recife
in Brazil
Brazil
to the Portuguese prompted the first group of Jews
Jews
to flee to North America.[citation needed]

1701–1714 War of the Spanish Succession. After the war, Jews
Jews
of Austrian origin were expelled from Bavaria, but some were able to acquire the right to reside in Munich.[6]

1744–1790s The reforms of Frederick II, Joseph II and Maria Theresa sent masses of impoverished German and Austrian Jews
Jews
east. See also: Schutzjude.[citation needed]

1862 Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky Jews
Jews
expelled by Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
by General Order No. 11.[citation needed]

1933–1957

First Batch of Refugee
Refugee
children arrive in England
England
from Germany.

Buchenwald survivors arrive in Haifa.

The German Nazi
German Nazi
persecution started with the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in 1933, reached a first climax during Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
in 1938 and culminated in the Holocaust of European Jewry. The British Mandate of Palestine prohibited Jewish
Jewish
emigration to Mandatory Palestine. The 1938 Evian Conference, the 1943 Bermuda Conference
Bermuda Conference
and other attempts failed to resolve the problem of Jewish
Jewish
refugees, a fact widely used in Nazi propaganda
Nazi propaganda
(see also MS St. Louis). Many German and Austrian Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
from Nazism
Nazism
emigrated to Britain where many were well treated, but many weren't[10] and many fought for Britain in the Second World War. After WW-II eastern European Holocaust survivors migrated to the allied controlled part of Europe as the Jewish
Jewish
society to which most of them belonged did not exist anymore. Often they were lone survivors consumed by the often futile search for other family and friends, and often unwelcome in the towns from which they came. They were known as displaced persons (also known as Sh'erit ha-Pletah) and placed in displaced persons camps, most of which were by 1951 closed. The last camp Föhrenwald
Föhrenwald
was closed in 1957.

1947–1972

Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
look out through the portholes of a ship while docked in the port of Haifa.

Iraqi Jews
Jews
displaced 1951.

The Exodus bringing in refugees.

In the course of the operation "Magic Carpet" (1949–1950), the entire community of Yemenite Jews
Jews
(called Teimanim, about 49,000) immigrated to Israel.

The Jewish
Jewish
exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, in which the combined population of Jewish
Jewish
communities of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa (excluding Israel) was reduced from about 900,000 in 1948 to less than 8,000 today, and approximately 600,000 of whom became citizens of Israel. The history of the exodus is politicized, given its proposed relevance to a final settlement Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations.[11][12][13][14][15][16]> When presenting the history, those who view the Jewish
Jewish
exodus as equivalent to the 1948 Palestinian exodus, such as the Israeli government
Israeli government
and NGOs such as JJAC and JIMENA, emphasize "push factors", such as cases of anti-Jewish violence and forced expulsions,[11] and refer to those affected as "refugees".[11] Those who argue that the exodus does not equate to the Palestinian exodus emphasize "pull factors", such as the actions of local Jewish
Jewish
Agency for Israel officials aiming to fulfil the One Million Plan,[13] highlight good relations between the Jewish communities and their country's governments,[15] emphasize the impact of other push factors such as the decolonization in the Maghreb
Maghreb
and the Suez War
Suez War
and Lavon Affair
Lavon Affair
in Egypt,[15] and argue that many or all of those who left were not refugees.[11][13]

Then UNHCR
UNHCR
announced in February 1957 and in July 1967, that these Jews
Jews
who had fled from Arab countries "may be considered prima facie within the mandate of this office," so according them in international law, as bona fide refugees.[17]

1947 Egypt
Egypt
passed the Companies' Law. This law required that no less than 75% of employees of companies in Egypt
Egypt
must be Egyptian citizens. This law strongly affected Jews, as only about 20% of all Jews
Jews
in Egypt were Egyptian citizens. The rest, although in many cases born in Egypt and living there for generations, did not hold Egyptian citizenship.[18]

1948 State of Israel
State of Israel
established. Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Egypt
Egypt
strongly intensified. On May 15, 1948, emergency law was declared, and a royal decree forbade Egyptian citizens
Egyptian citizens
to leave the country without a special permit. This was applied to Jews. Hundreds of Jews
Jews
were arrested and many had their property confiscated. In June through August 1948, bombs were planted in Jewish
Jewish
neighborhoods and Jewish businesses looted. About 250 Jews
Jews
were killed or wounded by the bombs. Roughly 14,000 Jews
Jews
left Egypt
Egypt
between 1948–50.[19]

1949 Jordan occupies and then annexes the West Bank
West Bank
– largely allotted by the 1947 UN Partition of Palestine to an Arab state, proposal rejected by the Arab leadership – and conducts large scale discrimination and persecution of all non-Muslim residents – Jewish, Christian (of many denominations), Druze, Circassian, etc. – and forces Arabisation of all public activity, including schools and public administration.[20]

1954 Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
seizes power in Egypt. Nasser immediately arrested many Jews
Jews
who were tried on various charges, mainly for Zionist and communist activities. Jews
Jews
were forced to donate large sums of money to the military. Strict supervision of Jewish
Jewish
enterprises was introduced; some were confiscated and others forcibly sold to the government.[19]

1956 Suez Crisis. Roughly 3,000 Egyptian Jews
Jews
were interned without charge in four detention camps. The government ordered thousands of Jews
Jews
to leave the country within a few days, and they were not allowed to sell their property, nor to take any capital with them. The deportees were made to sign statements agreeing not to return to Egypt
Egypt
and transferring their property to the administration of the government. The International Red Cross
International Red Cross
helped about 8,000 stateless Jews
Jews
to leave the country, taking most of them to Italy
Italy
and Greece. Most of the Jews of Port Said (about 100) were smuggled to Israel by Israel agents. The system of deportation continued into 1957. Other Jews
Jews
left voluntarily, after their livelihoods had been taken from them, until only 8,561 were registered in the 1957 census. The Jewish
Jewish
exodus continued until there were about 3,000 Jews
Jews
left as of in 1967.[19]

1967 Six Day War. Hundreds of Egyptian Jews
Jews
arrested, suffering beatings, torture, and abuse. Some were released following intervention by foreign states, especially Spain, and were permitted to leave the country.[19] Libyan Jews, who numbered approximately 7,000, were subjected to pogroms in which 18 were killed, prompting a mass exodus that left fewer that 100 Jews
Jews
in Libya.[21]

1970 Less than 1,000 Jews
Jews
still lived in Egypt
Egypt
in 1970. They were given permission to leave but without their possessions. As of 1971, only 400 Jews
Jews
remained in Egypt. As of 2013, only a few dozen Jews
Jews
remain in Egypt.[19]

1960s–1989 Due to the 1968 Polish political crisis
1968 Polish political crisis
thousands of Jews
Jews
were forced by the communist authorities to leave Poland. See also rootless cosmopolitan, Doctors' plot, Jackson-Vanik amendment, refusenik, Zionology, Pamyat.[citation needed]

1962 Jews
Jews
flee Algeria
Algeria
as result of OAS violence. The community feared that the proclamation of independence would precipitate a Muslim outburst. By the end of July 1962, 70,000 Jews
Jews
had left for France
France
and another 5,000 for Israel. It is estimated that some 80% of Algerian Jews settled in France.[22]

1965 Situation of Jews
Jews
in Algeria
Algeria
rapidly deteriorates. By 1969, fewer than 1,000 Jews
Jews
remain. By the 1990s, the numbers had dwindled to approximately 70.[22]

1970s–1990s State-sponsored persecution in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
prompted hundreds of thousands of Soviet Jews
Jews
to flee; most went to Israel or came to the United States on refugee status.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Persecution of Jews History of antisemitism Timeline of antisemitism Timeline of Jewish
Jewish
history Jewish
Jewish
diaspora Jewish
Jewish
history The Holocaust Hirsch Schwartzberg Population transfer Antisemitism Christianity and antisemitism Islam and antisemitism Arabs and antisemitism Underground to Palestine Évian Conference

References[edit]

^ a b Umberto Cassuto, Elia Samuele Artom (1981). The Books of Kings and Chronicles modern view.  ^ Coogan, Michael (2009). A brief introduction to the old testament. Oxford.  ^ "Esther - Chapter 3 - Esther". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2013-06-06.  ^ Gideon (2015-11-28). "The Jewish
Jewish
Revolts Against the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
- On Jewish
Jewish
Matters". On Jewish
Jewish
Matters. Retrieved 2018-03-06.  ^ a b Katz, Joseph. "A History of the Jews, a list of expulsions for 2000 years". EretzYisroel.Org. Retrieved 2018-03-06.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Bavaria, Germany". Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library. 2018-02-27. Retrieved 2018-03-06.  ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0003_0_02211.html ^ a b c d e f g "Timeline of Jewish
Jewish
History in Italy". Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library. 2018-02-27. Retrieved 2018-03-06.  ^ "Berne". Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library. 2018-02-27. Retrieved 2018-03-06.  ^ "Warm British welcome for Jews
Jews
fleeing Nazis a 'myth'". Phys.org / University of Manchester. February 27, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2016.  ^ a b c d Changing tack, Foreign Ministry to bring ' Jewish
Jewish
refugees' to fore ""To define them as refugees is exaggerated,” said Alon Liel, a former director-general of the Foreign Ministry" ^ Changing the refugee paradigm ^ a b c Israel scrambles Palestinian 'right of return' with Jewish refugee talk "Palestinian and Israeli critics have two main arguments: that these Jews
Jews
were not refugees but eager participants in a new Zionist state, and that Israel cannot and should not attempt to settle its account with the Palestinians by deducting the lost assets of its own citizens, thereby preventing individuals on both sides from seeking compensation." ^ Philip Mendes The causes of the post-1948 Jewish
Jewish
Exodus from Arab Countries Archived 2013-01-13 at Archive.is ^ a b c Yehouda Shenhav The Arab Jews: A Postcolonial Reading of Nationalism, Religion, and Ethnicity ^ Avi Shlaim
Avi Shlaim
No peaceful solution ^ "The Unbearable Silence about the Jewish
Jewish
Refugees". Gatestone Institute. Retrieved 2018-03-06.  ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Egypt.html#5 ^ a b c d e http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Egypt.html ^ Mark A. Tessler. (1994). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 329. Jordan's illegal occupation and Annexation of the West Bank  ^ " Jews
Jews
of Libya". Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library. 2018-02-27. Retrieved 2018-03-06.  ^ a b http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Algeria.html

External links[edit]

Ordinary exile, the story of Austrian Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
in France
France
and in Belgium A Lifes Worth of Living by Lys Anzia. WNN - Women News Network Silent Exodus on YouTube, a documentary by Pierre Rehov

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