Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions or
ostracism by various local authorities and have sought refuge in other
Land of Israel
Land of Israel was always regarded by
Jews as the
though throughout most of
Jewish history they were barred from the
land. After its establishment in 1948, the
State of Israel
State of Israel adopted the
Law of Return
Law of Return restoring Israel as the
Jewish homeland and making
it the place of refuge for
Jewish refugees at the time and into the
future. This law was intended to encourage
Jews to return to their
homeland in Israel.
2 See also
4 External links
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
The following is a list of
Jewish expulsions and events that prompted
major streams of
Jews expelled by king Tiglath-Pileser III.
Jews expelled and captured by king Sargon II. The Assyrians led by
Shalmaneser conquered the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel and sent the
Israelites into captivity at Khorasan. Ten of twelve Tribes of Israel
are considered lost; but these tribes are not considered Jewish,
rather than Samaritan. These tribes have been living since then near
the city of
Nablus in what is today the West Bank.
The Babylonian captivity. In 537 BCE the Persians, who conquered
Babylon two years earlier, allowed
Jews to return and rebuild
Jerusalem and the Temple.
Jews expulsion and killing plot by Haman.
The defeat of the Great
Jewish Revolt. Masses of
Jews were sold to
slavery across the Roman Empire, many fled.
Jewish communities of Cyprus, Cyrene and Alexandria become
extinct after the
Jewish defeat in
Kitos War against Rome. This event
caused a major demographic shift in the Levant and North Africa.
According to Eusebius of Caesarea the outbreak of violence left Libya
depopulated to such an extent that a few years later new colonies had
to be established there by the emperor
Hadrian just to maintain the
viability of continued settlement.
The Romans defeated Bar Kokhba's revolt. Emperor
hundreds of thousands
Jews from Judea, wiped the name off the maps,
replaced it with Syria Palaestina, forbade
Jews to set foot in
Jewish population of Galilee is massacred or expelled,
Jewish rebellion against Byzantium.
Banu Qaynuqa and
Banu Nadir from
Banu Qurayza tribe was slaughtered and the Jewish
settlement of Khaybar was ransacked. All three tribes previously had a
peace treaty with Muhammad, but they broke the treaty and sided with
the opposition. The Banu Qurayza, not only sided with the opposing
leaders (The Quraish) but they also waged war against Muhammad.
1095 – mid-13th century
The waves of Crusades destroyed hundreds of
Jewish communities in
Europe and in the Middle East, including Jerusalem.
The invasion of
Almohades brought to end the Golden age of Jewish
culture in Spain. Among other refugees was Maimonides, who fled to
Morocco, then Egypt, then Eretz Israel.
Jews expelled from Upper Bavaria.
Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600
France. The practice of expelling the
Jews accompanied by confiscation
of their property, followed by temporary readmissions for ransom, was
used to enrich the crown: expulsions from
Paris by Philip Augustus in
France by Louis IX in 1254, by Charles IV in 1322, by
Charles V in 1359, by Charles VI in 1394.
The influential philosopher and logician
Ramon Llull (1232-1315)
called for expulsion of all
Jews who would refuse conversion to
Christianity. Some scholars regard Llull's as the first comprehensive
articulation, in the Christian West, of an expulsionist policy
Naples issues first expulsion of
Jews in Southern Italy.
Edward I of England
Edward I of England issues the
Edict of Expulsion
Edict of Expulsion for all Jews
from England. The policy was reversed after 365 years in 1655 by
Destruction of most of the
Jewish communities in the Kingdom of
Jews expelled from Bern, Switzerland. Although between 1408 and 1427
Jews were again residing in the city, the only
Jews to appear in Bern
subsequently were transients, chiefly physicians and cattle
Jews again expelled from Upper Bavaria.
Jews expelled from Passau.
Ravenna expelled, synagogues destroyed.
Ferdinand II and Isabella I issued the Alhambra decree, General Edict
on the Expulsion of the
Spain (approx. 200,000), from Sicily
(1493, approx. 37,000), from
Portugal (1496) from
It is important to note that this event happened on Tisha B'Av, as
with many other events in
Charles VIII of
France occupies Kingdom of Naples, bringing new
persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from
Jews expelled from Portugal
Jews expelled from Nuremberg.
Jews expelled from Naples.
Jews expelled from Regensburg.
Jews expelled from the duchy of Bavaria. Jewish
Bavaria ceased until toward the end of the 17th century,
when a small community was founded in Sulzbach by refugees from
Pope Pius V expels the
Jews from the papal states, with the exception
of Ancona and Rome.
Pope Clement VIII expels the
Jews living in all the papal states,
except Rome, Avignon and Ancona.
Jews are invited to settle in
Leghorn, the main port of Tuscany, where they are granted full
religious liberty and civil rights, by the Medici family, who want to
develop the region into a center of commerce.
Jews expelled from Milan.
The fall of the Dutch colony of
Brazil to the Portuguese
prompted the first group of
Jews to flee to North America.[citation
War of the Spanish Succession. After the war,
Jews of Austrian origin
were expelled from Bavaria, but some were able to acquire the right to
reside in Munich.
The reforms of Frederick II, Joseph II and Maria Theresa sent masses
of impoverished German and Austrian
Jews east. See also:
1862 Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky
Jews expelled by
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant by General Order No. 11.[citation
First Batch of
Refugee children arrive in
England from Germany.
Buchenwald survivors arrive in Haifa.
German Nazi persecution started with the Nazi boycott of Jewish
businesses in 1933, reached a first climax during
1938 and culminated in the Holocaust of European Jewry. The British
Mandate of Palestine prohibited
Jewish emigration to Mandatory
Palestine. The 1938 Evian Conference, the 1943
Bermuda Conference and
other attempts failed to resolve the problem of
Jewish refugees, a
fact widely used in
Nazi propaganda (see also MS St. Louis). Many
German and Austrian
Jewish refugees from
Nazism emigrated to Britain
where many were well treated, but many weren't and many fought for
Britain in the Second World War. After WW-II eastern European
Holocaust survivors migrated to the allied controlled part of Europe
Jewish society to which most of them belonged did not exist
anymore. Often they were lone survivors consumed by the often futile
search for other family and friends, and often unwelcome in the towns
from which they came. They were known as displaced persons (also known
as Sh'erit ha-Pletah) and placed in displaced persons camps, most of
which were by 1951 closed. The last camp
Föhrenwald was closed in
Jewish refugees look out through the portholes of a ship while docked
in the port of Haifa.
Jews displaced 1951.
The Exodus bringing in refugees.
In the course of the operation "Magic Carpet" (1949–1950), the
entire community of Yemenite
Jews (called Teimanim, about 49,000)
immigrated to Israel.
Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, in which the
combined population of
Jewish communities of the
Middle East and North
Africa (excluding Israel) was reduced from about 900,000 in 1948 to
less than 8,000 today, and approximately 600,000 of whom became
citizens of Israel. The history of the exodus is politicized, given
its proposed relevance to a final settlement Israeli-Palestinian peace
negotiations.> When presenting the history,
those who view the
Jewish exodus as equivalent to the 1948 Palestinian
exodus, such as the
Israeli government and NGOs such as JJAC and
JIMENA, emphasize "push factors", such as cases of anti-Jewish
violence and forced expulsions, and refer to those affected as
"refugees". Those who argue that the exodus does not equate to the
Palestinian exodus emphasize "pull factors", such as the actions of
Jewish Agency for Israel officials aiming to fulfil the One
Million Plan, highlight good relations between the Jewish
communities and their country's governments, emphasize the impact
of other push factors such as the decolonization in the
Suez War and
Lavon Affair in Egypt, and argue that many or all
of those who left were not refugees.
UNHCR announced in February 1957 and in July 1967, that these
Jews who had fled from Arab countries "may be considered prima facie
within the mandate of this office," so according them in international
law, as bona fide refugees.
Egypt passed the Companies' Law. This law required that no less than
75% of employees of companies in
Egypt must be Egyptian citizens. This
law strongly affected Jews, as only about 20% of all
Jews in Egypt
were Egyptian citizens. The rest, although in many cases born in Egypt
and living there for generations, did not hold Egyptian
State of Israel
State of Israel established.
intensified. On May 15, 1948, emergency law was declared, and a royal
Egyptian citizens to leave the country without a
special permit. This was applied to Jews. Hundreds of
arrested and many had their property confiscated. In June through
August 1948, bombs were planted in
Jewish neighborhoods and Jewish
businesses looted. About 250
Jews were killed or wounded by the bombs.
Egypt between 1948–50.
Jordan occupies and then annexes the
West Bank – largely allotted by
the 1947 UN Partition of Palestine to an Arab state, proposal rejected
by the Arab leadership – and conducts large scale discrimination and
persecution of all non-Muslim residents – Jewish, Christian (of many
denominations), Druze, Circassian, etc. – and forces Arabisation of
all public activity, including schools and public administration.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser seizes power in Egypt. Nasser immediately arrested
Jews who were tried on various charges, mainly for Zionist and
Jews were forced to donate large sums of money
to the military. Strict supervision of
Jewish enterprises was
introduced; some were confiscated and others forcibly sold to the
Suez Crisis. Roughly 3,000 Egyptian
Jews were interned without charge
in four detention camps. The government ordered thousands of
leave the country within a few days, and they were not allowed to sell
their property, nor to take any capital with them. The deportees were
made to sign statements agreeing not to return to
transferring their property to the administration of the government.
International Red Cross
International Red Cross helped about 8,000 stateless
Jews to leave
the country, taking most of them to
Italy and Greece. Most of the Jews
of Port Said (about 100) were smuggled to Israel by Israel agents. The
system of deportation continued into 1957. Other
voluntarily, after their livelihoods had been taken from them, until
only 8,561 were registered in the 1957 census. The
continued until there were about 3,000
Jews left as of in 1967.
Six Day War. Hundreds of Egyptian
Jews arrested, suffering beatings,
torture, and abuse. Some were released following intervention by
foreign states, especially Spain, and were permitted to leave the
country. Libyan Jews, who numbered approximately 7,000, were
subjected to pogroms in which 18 were killed, prompting a mass exodus
that left fewer that 100
Jews in Libya.
Less than 1,000
Jews still lived in
Egypt in 1970. They were given
permission to leave but without their possessions. As of 1971, only
Jews remained in Egypt. As of 2013, only a few dozen
Due to the
1968 Polish political crisis
1968 Polish political crisis thousands of
Jews were forced
by the communist authorities to leave Poland. See also rootless
cosmopolitan, Doctors' plot, Jackson-Vanik amendment, refusenik,
Zionology, Pamyat.
Algeria as result of OAS violence. The community feared that
the proclamation of independence would precipitate a Muslim outburst.
By the end of July 1962, 70,000
Jews had left for
France and another
5,000 for Israel. It is estimated that some 80% of Algerian Jews
settled in France.
Algeria rapidly deteriorates. By 1969, fewer than
Jews remain. By the 1990s, the numbers had dwindled to
State-sponsored persecution in the
Soviet Union prompted hundreds of
thousands of Soviet
Jews to flee; most went to Israel or came to the
United States on refugee status.
Persecution of Jews
History of antisemitism
Timeline of antisemitism
Christianity and antisemitism
Islam and antisemitism
Arabs and antisemitism
Underground to Palestine
^ a b Umberto Cassuto, Elia Samuele Artom (1981). The Books of Kings
and Chronicles modern view.
^ Coogan, Michael (2009). A brief introduction to the old testament.
^ "Esther - Chapter 3 - Esther". Chabad.org. Retrieved
^ Gideon (2015-11-28). "The
Jewish Revolts Against the
Roman Empire -
Jewish Matters". On
Jewish Matters. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
^ a b Katz, Joseph. "A History of the Jews, a list of expulsions for
2000 years". EretzYisroel.Org. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
^ a b c d e f g h "Bavaria, Germany".
Jewish Virtual Library.
2018-02-27. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
^ a b c d e f g "Timeline of
Jewish History in Italy".
Library. 2018-02-27. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
Jewish Virtual Library. 2018-02-27. Retrieved
^ "Warm British welcome for
Jews fleeing Nazis a 'myth'".
University of Manchester. February 27, 2013. Retrieved August 4,
^ a b c d Changing tack, Foreign Ministry to bring '
to fore ""To define them as refugees is exaggerated,” said Alon
Liel, a former director-general of the Foreign Ministry"
^ Changing the refugee paradigm
^ a b c Israel scrambles Palestinian 'right of return' with Jewish
refugee talk "Palestinian and Israeli critics have two main arguments:
Jews were not refugees but eager participants in a new
Zionist state, and that Israel cannot and should not attempt to settle
its account with the Palestinians by deducting the lost assets of its
own citizens, thereby preventing individuals on both sides from
^ Philip Mendes The causes of the post-1948
Jewish Exodus from Arab
Countries Archived 2013-01-13 at Archive.is
^ a b c
Yehouda Shenhav The Arab Jews: A Postcolonial Reading of
Nationalism, Religion, and Ethnicity
Avi Shlaim No peaceful solution
^ "The Unbearable Silence about the
Jewish Refugees". Gatestone
Institute. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
^ a b c d e http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Egypt.html
^ Mark A. Tessler. (1994). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian
Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 329. Jordan's illegal
occupation and Annexation of the West Bank
Jews of Libya".
Jewish Virtual Library. 2018-02-27. Retrieved
^ a b http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Algeria.html
Ordinary exile, the story of Austrian
Jewish refugees in
France and in
A Lifes Worth of Living by Lys Anzia. WNN - Women News Network
Silent Exodus on YouTube, a documentary by Pierre Rehov
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Outline of Judaism
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