JEWISH PRAYER (Hebrew : תְּפִלָּה, tefillah ; plural
Hebrew : תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot ;
tfile , plural תּפֿלות tfilles ;
Yinglish : DAVENING
Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the
prayer recitations and
Jewish meditation traditions that form part of
the observance of Rabbinic
Judaism . These prayers, often with
instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur , the traditional
Jewish prayer book. However, if the
Talmud mentions tefillah, it
refers to the
Shemoneh Esreh only.
Prayer—as a "service of the heart"—is in principle a Torah-based
commandment . It is not time-dependent and is mandatory for both
Jewish men and women.
You shall serve God with your whole heart. —
However, in general, today, Jewish men are obligated to conduct
tefillah ("prayer") three times a day within specific time ranges
(zmanim) , while, according to some posekim ("Jewish legal
authorities"), women are only required to engage in tefillah once a
day, others say at least twice a day.
Traditionally, since the
Second Temple period, three prayer services
are recited daily:
* Morning prayer:
Shacharit or Shaharit (שַחֲרִת), from the
Hebrew shachar or shahar (שַחָר) "morning light,"
* Afternoon prayer:
Mincha or Minha (מִנְחָה), the afternoon
prayers named for the flour offering that accompanied sacrifices at
the Temple in
* Additional prayer: Arvit (עַרְבִית, "of the evening") or
Maariv (מַעֲרִיב, "bringing on night"), from "nightfall."
Further additional prayers:
Musaf (מוּסָף, "additional") are recited by Orthodox and
Conservative congregations on
Shabbat , major Jewish holidays
Chol HaMoed ), and
Rosh Chodesh .
* A fifth prayer service, Ne\'ila (נְעִילָה, "closing"), is
recited only on
Yom Kippur , the Day of Atonement.
Talmud Bavli gives two reasons why there are three basic prayers
de-rabbanan ("from our Rabbis") since the early
Second Temple period
on: to recall the daily sacrifices at the Temple in
Jerusalem , and/or
because each of the Patriarchs instituted one prayer:
Isaac the afternoon and
Jacob the evening prayer. The Talmud
yerushalmi states that the
Anshei Knesset HaGedola ("The Men of the
Great Assembly") learned and understood the beneficial concept of
regular daily prayer from personal habits of the forefathers (avoth,
Avraham, Isaac, Yaacov) as hinted in the Tanach, and instituted the
three daily prayers. A distinction is made between individual prayer
and communal prayer, which requires a quorum known as a minyan , with
communal prayer being preferable as it permits the inclusion of
prayers that otherwise would be omitted.
Maimonides (1135–1204 CE) relates that until the Babylonian exile
(586 BCE), all
Jews had composed their own prayers, but thereafter the
sages of the
Great Assembly in the early
Second Temple period composed
the main portions of the siddur. Modern scholarship dating from the
Wissenschaft des Judentums movement of 19th-century Germany, as well
as textual analysis influenced by the 20th-century discovery of the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls , suggests that dating from this period there existed
"liturgical formulations of a communal nature designated for
particular occasions and conducted in a centre totally independent of
Jerusalem and the Temple, making use of terminology and theological
concepts that were later to become dominant in Jewish and, in some
cases, Christian prayer." The language of the prayers, while clearly
Second Temple period (516 BCE – 70 CE), often employs
Biblical idiom. Jewish prayerbooks emerged during the early Middle
Ages during the period of the
Over the last two thousand years traditional variations have emerged
among the traditional liturgical customs of different Jewish
communities, such as
Sephardic , Yemenite , Eretz Yisrael
and others, or rather recent liturgical inventions such as
Chabad , and various Reform minhagim . However the differences are
minor compared with the commonalities. Halachically,
Jews can switch
from one nusach tefillah to an other (and back) at any time, even on a
daily basis, and are not bound to follow the nusach of their
forefathers. Most of the Jewish liturgy is sung or chanted with
traditional melodies or trope . Synagogues may designate or employ a
professional or lay hazzan (cantor) for the purpose of leading the
congregation in prayer, especially on
Shabbat or holidays.
* 1 Origin and history of
* 1.1 Biblical origin
* 1.1.1 Babylon
* 1.2 Text and language
* 1.3 The siddur
* 2 Denominational variations
* 3 Philosophy of prayer
* 3.1 The rationalist approach
* 3.2 The educational approach
* 3.3 Kabbalistic view
* 4 Methodology and terminology
* 4.1 Terms for praying
* 4.3 Attire
* 5 Daily prayers
Shacharit (morning prayers)
Mincha (afternoon prayers)
* 5.3 Ma\'ariv/Arvit (evening prayers)
* 6.1 Friday night
* 6.5 Ma\'ariv
Special observances and circumstances
Rosh Hashana and
* 7.2 Pesach,
* 7.3 Missed prayer
* 8 Related customs
* 9 Role of women
* 10 Role of minors
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links
ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF JEWISH PRAYER
According to the
Talmud Bavli (tractate
Taanit 2a), tefillah
("prayer") is a Biblical command : "'You shall serve God with your
whole heart.' (
Deuteronomy 11:13) What service is performed with the
heart? This is tefillah."
Prayer is therefore referred to as Avodah
sheba-Lev ("service that is in the heart"). It is not time-dependent
and is mandatory for both Jewish men and women. Mentioning tefillah,
Talmud always refers to the
Amidah , that is also called Shemoneh
Esreh . The noted rabbi
Maimonides (RaMBaM) likewise categorizes
tefillah as a Biblical command of
Written law , as the Babylon Talmud
says. However, corresponding with the
Jerusalem Talmud, the RaMBaM did
hold that the number of tefillot ("prayers") and their times are not a
Biblical command of
Written law and that the forefathers did not
institute such a
Takkanah , rather it was a rabbinical command
de-rabbanan ("from our Rabbis") based on a takkanah of the Anshei
Knesset HaGedola ("The Men of the Great Assembly").
The Oral law , according to the
Talmud Bavli (tractate Berachoth 26b)
gives two reasons why there are three basic prayers:
* According to
Jose b. Hanina , each of the Patriarchs
instituted one prayer:
Abraham the morning,
Isaac the afternoon and
Jacob the evening prayers. This view is supported with Biblical quotes
indicating that the Patriarchs prayed at the times mentioned. However,
even according to this view, the exact times of when the services are
held, and moreover the entire concept of a mussaf service, are still
based on the sacrifices.
* Each service was instituted parallel to a sacrificial act in the
Jerusalem : the morning Tamid offering , the afternoon Tamid
offering, and the overnight burning of this last offering.
Rabbi Yisrael Meir HaCohen Kagan —the "
Chofetz Chaim "—at
prayer towards the end of his life.
Torah , according to the
Talmud yerushalmi (tractate
Berachoth 4) states why there are three basic tefillot ("prayers") and
who instituted them:
Rabbi Yehoshua said that the
Anshei Knesset HaGedola ("The Men of
the Great Assembly") learned and understood the beneficial concept of
regular daily tefillot from the habit of the forefathers (avoth)
Isaac and Yaakov. Therefore, the Anshei Knesset HaGedola
Takkanah that Jewish men were required to pray three times
a day from hints to personal habits of the forefathers in the tanach.
Additional references in the
Hebrew Bible have been interpreted to
suggest that King
David and the prophet Daniel prayed three times a
Evening, morning, and noontime, I speak and moan, and He hearkened to
my voice. —
As in the
Book of Daniel
Book of Daniel :
And Daniel, when he knew that a writ had been inscribed, came to his
house, where there were open windows in his upper chamber, opposite
Jerusalem, and three times a day he kneeled on his knees and prayed
and offered thanks before his God just as he had done prior to this.
— Daniel 6:11
Modern Orthodox and Sefardic strands of
halakha (the collective body of religious laws for Jews) as requiring
Jewish men to say tefillot ("prayers") three times daily and four
times daily on the Sabbath and most
Jewish holidays , and five times
Yom Kippur . Some Jewish women from those movements regard the
system of multiple daily prayer services as optional for them due to a
need to be constantly taking care of small children, but—in
accordance with halakha—still pray at least daily, without a
specific time requirement. Moreover, it is generally accepted by
Orthodox, Modern Orthodox, and
Sephardic religious authorities that
women are exempt from the evening prayer. Conservative Judaism
regards the halakhic system of multiple daily services as mandatory.
Since 2002, Jewish women from Conservative congregations have been
regarded as having undertaken a communal obligation to pray the same
prayers at the same times as men, with traditional communities and
individual women permitted to opt out. Reform and Reconstructionist
congregations do not regard halakha as binding and hence regard
appropriate prayer times as matters of personal spiritual decision
rather than a matter of religious requirement.
TEXT AND LANGUAGE
According to halakha , all individual prayers and virtually all
communal prayers may be said in any language that the person praying
understands. For example, the
Mishnah mentions that the
Shema need not
be said in Hebrew A list of prayers that must be said in Hebrew is
given in the Mishna, and among these only the
Priestly Blessing is in
use today, as the others are prayers that are to be said only in a
Jerusalem , by a priest , or by a reigning King .
Despite this, the tradition of most
Ashkenazi Orthodox synagogues is
to use Hebrew (usually
Ashkenazi Hebrew ) for all except a small
number of prayers, including the
Kaddish ("holy"), which
formerly had been in Hebrew , and sermons and instructions, for which
the local language is used. In other streams of
Judaism there is
Sephardic communities may use Ladino or
Portuguese for many prayers; Conservative synagogues tend to use the
local language to a varying degree; and at some Reform synagogues
almost the whole service may be in the local language.
Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Laws of
Prayer 1:4) relates that until the
Babylonian exile , all
Jews composed their own prayers. After the
exile, however, the sages of the time (united in the
Great Assembly )
found the ability of the people insufficient to continue the practice,
and they legendarily composed the main portions of the siddur , such
Amidah , from which no fragments survived. The origins of
Jewish prayer were established during the period of the Tannaim
, "from their traditions, later committed to writing, we learn that
the generation of rabbis active at the time of the destruction of the
Second Temple (70 CE) gave
Jewish prayer its structure and, in outline
form at least, its contents." This liturgy included the twice-daily
recitation of the Shema, the
Amidah , or Shmoneh Esrei, including 18
blessings recited several times daily, and the public recitation of
Torah in installments. The oldest prayer books date from the time
Babylonia ; "some were composed by respected rabbinic
scholars at the request of far-flung communities seeking an
authoritative text of the required prayers for daily use, Shabbat, and
The language of the prayers, while clearly being from the Second
Temple period, often employs Biblical idiom, and according to some
authorities it should not contain rabbinic or Mishnaic idiom apart
from in the sections of
Mishnah that are featured (see Baer).
Over the last two thousand years, the various branches of Judaism
have resulted in small variations in the Rabbinic liturgy customs
among different Jewish communities, with each community having a
Nusach (customary liturgy). The principal
difference is between
Sephardic customs, although there
are other communities (e.g., Yemenite
Jews , Eretz Yisrael ), and
rather recent liturgical inventions such as
Hassidic , Chabad , Reform
and other communities also have distinct customs, variations, and
special prayers. The differences are quite minor compared with the
commonalities. The idea that a Jew should not change his Nusach
Tefillah and has to continue to pray in the way of his forefathers is
an invented Halacha of the galut (diaspora, "scattering,
dispersion"). According to halakha , a Jew may change his nusach
tefilla at any time, even on a daily basis.
The earliest parts of
Jewish prayer are the
Shema Yisrael ("Hear O
Deuteronomy 6:4 et seq), and the
Priestly Blessing (Numbers
6:24–26), which are in the
Torah . A set of eighteen (currently
nineteen) blessings called the
Shemoneh Esreh or the
Amidah (Hebrew ,
"standing "), is traditionally ascribed to the
Great Assembly in the
Ezra , at the end of the Biblical period.
The name Shemoneh Esreh, literally "eighteen", is an historical
anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only
near the end of the
Second Temple period that the eighteen prayers of
Amidah became standardized. Even at that time their
precise wording and order was not yet fixed, and varied from locale to
locale. It was not until several centuries later that the prayers
began to be formally fixed. By the
Middle Ages the texts of the
prayers were nearly fixed, and in the form in which they are still
The siddur was printed by Soncino in Italy as early as 1486, though a
siddur was first mass-distributed only in 1865. The siddur began
appearing in the vernacular as early as 1538. The first English
translation , by Gamaliel ben Pedahzur (a pseudonym ), appeared in
London in 1738; a different translation was released in the United
States in 1837.
Readings from the
Torah (five books of Moses) and the Nevi\'im
("Prophets") form part of the prayer services. To this framework
various Jewish sages added, from time to time, various prayers, and,
for festivals especially, numerous hymns.
The earliest existing codification of the prayerbook was drawn up by
Amram Gaon of Sura, Babylon, about 850 CE. Half a century later
Saadia Gaon , also of Sura, composed a siddur , in which the
rubrical matter is in
Arabic . These were the basis of Simcha ben
Machzor Vitry (11th-century France), which was based on the
ideas of his teacher,
Rashi . Another formulation of the prayers was
that appended by
Maimonides to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah
: this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, and has had some
influence on other rites. From this point forward all Jewish
prayerbooks had the same basic order and contents.
Conservative services generally use the same basic format for
services as in Orthodox
Judaism with some doctrinal leniencies and
some prayers in English. In practice there is wide variation among
Conservative congregations. In traditionalist congregations the
liturgy can be almost identical to that of Orthodox
Judaism , almost
entirely in Hebrew (and Aramaic), with a few minor exceptions,
including excision of a study session on Temple sacrifices, and
modifications of prayers for the restoration of the sacrificial
system. In more liberal Conservative synagogues there are greater
changes to the service, with up to a third of the service in English;
abbreviation or omission of many of the preparatory prayers; and
replacement of some traditional prayers with more contemporary forms.
There are some changes for doctrinal reasons, including egalitarian
language, fewer references to restoring sacrifices in the Temple in
Jerusalem , and an option to eliminate special roles for Kohanim and
The liturgies of Reform and Reconstructionist are based on
traditional elements, but contains language more reflective of liberal
belief than the traditional liturgy. Doctrinal revisions generally
include revising or omitting references to traditional doctrines such
as bodily resurrection , a personal
Jewish Messiah , and other
elements of traditional
Jewish eschatology , Divine revelation of the
Mount Sinai , angels , conceptions of reward and punishment,
and other personal miraculous and supernatural elements. Services are
often from 40% to 90% in the vernacular.
Judaism has made greater alterations to the traditional
service in accord with its more liberal theology including dropping
references to traditional elements of
Jewish eschatology such as a
personal Messiah , a bodily resurrection of the dead, and others. The
Hebrew portion of the service is substantially abbreviated and
modernized and modern prayers substituted for traditional ones. In
addition, in keeping with their view that the laws of Shabbat
(including a traditional prohibition on playing instruments) are
inapplicable to modern circumstances, Reform services often play
instrumental or recorded music with prayers on the Jewish Sabbath .
All Reform synagogues are
Egalitarian with respect to gender roles.
PHILOSOPHY OF PRAYER
An Israeli soldier lays tefillin at the
Western Wall (Kotel )
prior to prayer.
Jewish philosophy and in
Rabbinic literature , it is noted that
the Hebrew verb for prayer—hitpallel התפלל—is in fact the
reflexive form of palal פלל, to judge. Thus, "to pray" conveys the
notion of "judging oneself": ultimately, the purpose of
prayer—tefilah תפלה—is to transform ourselves.
This etymology is consistent with the Jewish conception of divine
simplicity . It is not God that changes through our prayer—Man does
not influence God as a defendant influences a human judge who has
emotions and is subject to change—rather it is man himself who is
changed. It is further consistent with
Maimonides ' view on Divine
Providence . Here, Tefillah is the medium which God gave to man by
means of which he can change himself, and thereby establish a new
relationship with God—and thus a new destiny for himself in life;
see also under
THE RATIONALIST APPROACH
In this view, ultimate goal of prayer is to help train a person to
focus on divinity through philosophy and intellectual contemplation.
This approach was taken by
Maimonides and the other medieval
THE EDUCATIONAL APPROACH
In this view, prayer is not a conversation. Rather, it is meant to
inculcate certain attitudes in the one who prays, but not to
influence. This has been the approach of Rabbenu Bachya, Yehuda Halevy
Joseph Albo ,
Samson Raphael Hirsch , and
Joseph Dov Soloveitchik .
This view is expressed by
Nosson Scherman in the overview to the
Siddur (p. XIII); note that Scherman goes on to also affirm
the Kabbalistic view (see below).
Kabbalah (esoteric Jewish mysticism) uses a series of kavanot,
directions of intent, to specify the path the prayer ascends in the
dialogue with God, to increase its chances of being answered
favorably. Kabbalism ascribes a higher meaning to the purpose of
prayer, which is no less than affecting the very fabric of reality
itself, restructuring and repairing the universe in a real fashion. In
this view, every word of every prayer, and indeed, even every letter
of every word, has a precise meaning and a precise effect. Prayers
thus literally affect the mystical forces of the universe, and repair
the fabric of creation.
This approach has been taken by the
Chassidei Ashkenaz (German
pietists of the Middle-Ages), the
Zohar , the Arizal\'s Kabbalist
tradition, the Ramchal , most of Hassidism , the
Vilna Gaon and Jacob
METHODOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY
TERMS FOR PRAYING
Daven is the originally exclusively Eastern
Yiddish verb meaning
"pray"; it is widely used by
Jews . In
this has become the Anglicised davening.
The origin of the word is obscure, but is thought by some to have
Arabic (from "diwan", a collection of poems or prayers),
French (from "devoner", to devote or dedicate),
Latin (from "divin",
Divine) or even English (from "dawn"). Others believe that it derives
from a Slavic word meaning "to give" (давать, davat'). Some
claim that it originates from an
Aramaic word, "de'avuhon" or
"d'avinun", meaning "of their/our forefathers", as the three prayers
are said to have been invented by
Jacob . Another
Aramaic derivation, proposed by Avigdor Chaikin, cites the Talmudic
phrase, "ka davai lamizrach", "gazing wistfully to the east" (Shab.
35a). Kevin A. Brook, cites Zeiden's suggestion that the word
'daven' comes from Turkish root 'tabun-' meaning 'to pray', and that
in Kipchak Turkish, the initial t morphs into d.
In Western Yiddish, the term for "pray" is oren, a word with clear
Romance languages —compare Spanish and Portuguese orar and
Members of the
Israel Defense Forces ' Givati Brigade pray the
Evening Service (Ma\'ariv ) at the
Western Wall , October 2010. Main
Individual prayer is considered acceptable, but prayer with a quorum
of ten adults—a minyan —is the most highly recommended form of
prayer and is required for some prayers. An adult in this context
means over the age of 12 or 13 (bat or bar mitzvah ).
originally counted only men in the minyan for formal prayer, on the
basis that one does not count someone who is not obligated to
participate. The rabbis had exempted women from almost all
time-specific positive mitzvot (commandments), including those parts
of the prayer that cannot be recited without a quorum, due to women in
the past being bound up in an endless cycle of pregnancy, birthing and
nursing from a very early age. Orthodox
Judaism still follows this
reasoning and excludes women from the minyan. Since 1973, Conservative
congregations have overwhelmingly become egalitarian and count women
in the minyan. A very small number of congregations that identify
themselves as Conservative have resisted these changes and continue to
exclude women from the minyan. Those Reform and Reconstructionist
congregations that consider a minyan mandatory for communal prayer,
count both men and women for a minyan. All denominations of Judaism
except for Orthodox
Judaism ordain female rabbis and cantors. In
Judaism , according to some authorities, women can count in
the minyan for certain specific prayers, such as the Birchot HaGomel
blessing, which both men and women are obligated to say publicly.
* Head covering. In most synagogues, it is considered a sign of
respect for male attendees to wear a head covering, either a dress hat
or a kippa (skull cap, plural kipot also known by the
yarmulke). It is common practice for both
Jews and non-
Jews who attend
a synagogue to wear a head covering. Some Conservative synagogues
may also encourage (but rarely require) women to cover their heads.
Many Reform and Progressive temples do not require people to cover
their heads, although individual worshipers, both men and women, may
choose to. Many Orthodox and some conservative men and women wear a
head covering throughout their day, even when not attending religious
Tallit (prayer shawl) is traditionally worn during all morning
services, during Aliyah to the Torah, as well as during all the
Yom Kippur . During the daily afternoon and evening
services, the hazzan alone wears a tallit. In Orthodox synagogues they
are expected to be worn only by men who are halakhically Jewish and in
Conservative synagogues they should be worn only by men and women who
are halakhically Jewish. In most Orthodox
Ashkenazi synagogues they
are worn only by men who are or have been married.
IDF soldier, Asael lubotzky prays with tefillin.
Tefillin (phylacteries) are a set of small cubic leather boxes
painted black, containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses
from the Torah. They are tied to the head and arm with leather straps
dyed black, and worn by
Jews only, during weekday morning prayers. In
Orthodox synagogues they are expected to be worn only by men; in
Conservative synagogues they are also worn by some women. The Karaite
Jews, however, do not don tefillin.
Tzeniut (modesty) applies to men and women. When attending
Orthodox synagogues, women will likely be expected to wear long
sleeves (past the elbows), long skirts (past the knees), a high
neckline (to the collar bone), and if married, to cover their hair
with a wig, scarf, hat or a combination of the above. For men, short
pants or sleeveless shirts are generally regarded as inappropriate. In
some Conservative and Reform synagogues the dress code may be more
lax, but still respectful.
SHACHARIT (MORNING PRAYERS)
Shacharit (from shachar, morning light) prayer is recited in the
morning. Halacha limits parts of its recitation to the first three
(Shema) or four (Amidah) hours of the day, where "hours" are 1/12 of
daylight time, making these times dependent on the season.
Various prayers are said upon arising; the tallit katan (a garment
with tzitzit ) is donned at this time. The tallit (large prayer shawl)
is donned before or during the actual prayer service, as are the
tefillin (phylacteries); both are accompanied by blessings.
The service starts with the "morning blessings" (birkot ha-shachar),
including blessings for the
Torah (considered the most important
ones). In Orthodox services this is followed by a series of readings
from Biblical and rabbinic writings recalling the offerings made in
the Temple in
Jerusalem . The section concludes with the "Rabbis'
Kaddish " (kaddish de-rabbanan).
The next section of morning prayers is called Pesukei D'Zimrah
("verses of praise"), containing several psalms (100 and 145–150),
and prayers (such as yehi chevod) made from a tapestry of Biblical
verses, followed by the Song at the Sea (Exodus, chapters 14 and 15).
Barechu, the formal public call to prayer, introduces a series of
expanded blessings embracing the recitation of the
Shema . This is
followed by the core of the prayer service, the
Amidah or Shemoneh
Esreh, a series of 19 blessings. The next part of the service, is
Tachanun , supplications, which is omitted on days with a festive
character (and by Reform services usually entirely).
On Mondays and Thursdays a
Torah reading service is inserted, and a
longer version of
Tachanun takes place.
Concluding prayers (see
Uva letzion ) and
Aleinu then follow, with
Kaddish of the mourners generally after Aleinu.
MINCHA (AFTERNOON PRAYERS)
Mincha or Minha (derived from the flour offering that accompanied
each sacrifice) may be recited from half an hour after halachic
noontime. This earliest time is referred to as mincha gedola (the
"large mincha"). There is, however, another time to daven mincha,
which is then known as mincha ketana (2.5 halachic hours before
nightfall ). Ideally, one should complete the prayers before sunset,
although many authorities permit reciting
Mincha until nightfall.
Mincha is allowed to be recited during any of the hours between mincha
gedola and mincha ketana also.
Sephardim and Italian
Jews start the
Mincha prayers with
Psalm 84 and
Korbanot (Numbers 28:1–8), and usually continue with the Pittum
hakketoret. The opening section is concluded with Malachi 3:4. Western
Ashkenazim recite the
Ashrei, containing verses from
Psalms 84:5, 144:15 and the entire
Psalm 145, is recited, immediately followed by Chatzi Kaddish
(half-Kaddish) and the
Shemoneh Esreh (or
Amidah ). This is followed
Tachanun , supplications, and then the full Kaddish. Sephardim
Psalm 67 or 93, followed by the Mourner's Kaddish. After this
follows, in most modern rites, the
Aleinu . Ashkenazim then conclude
with the Mourner's Kaddish. Service leaders often wear a tallit even
on normal days, and must wear one during the fast days . Minyan
Ma'ariv prayer in a Jaffa
Tel Aviv flea-market shop
MA\'ARIV/ARVIT (EVENING PRAYERS)
In many congregations, the afternoon and evening prayers are recited
back-to-back on a working day, to save people having to attend
synagogue twice. The
Vilna Gaon discouraged this practice, and
followers of his set of customs commonly wait until after nightfall to
Ma'ariv (the name derives from the word "nightfall").
This service begins with the Barechu, the formal public call to
Shema Yisrael embraced by two benedictions before and two
after. Ashkenazim outside of
followers of the
Vilna Gaon ) then add another blessing (Baruch Adonai
le-Olam), which is made from a tapestry of biblical verses. (This
prayer is also said by
Baladi Temanim in and out of Israel.) This is
followed by the Half-Kaddish, and the
Shemoneh Esreh (Amidah),
bracketed with the full Kaddish. Sephardim then say
Psalm 121, say the
Mourner's Kaddish, and repeat
Barechu before concluding with the
Aleinu. Ashkenazim , in the diaspora , do neither say
Psalm 121 nor
repeat Barechu, but conclude with
Aleinu followed by the Mourner's
Kaddish (in Israel, Ashkenazim do repeat Barcheu after mourner's
PRAYER ON SHABBAT (SABBATH)
On the Sabbath, prayers are similar in structure to those on
weekdays, although almost every part is lengthened. One exception in
Amidah , the main prayer, which is abridged. The first three and
last three blessings are recited as usual, but the middle thirteen are
replaced with a single blessing known as "sanctity of the day,"
describing the Sabbath. Atypically, this middle blessing is different
for each of the prayers.
Shabbat services begin on Friday evening with the weekday
above), followed in some communities by the
Song of Songs
Song of Songs , and then
in most communities by the Kabbalat Shabbat, the mystical prelude to
Shabbat services composed by 16th-century
Kabbalists . This Hebrew
term literally means "Receiving the Sabbath". In many communities, the
Yedid Nefesh introduces the Kabbalat
Shabbat is, except amongst many Italian and Spanish and
Jews , composed of six psalms, 95 to 99, and 29,
representing the six week-days. Next comes the poem
Lekha Dodi .
Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz in the mid-16th century, it
is based on the words of the Talmudic sage Hanina: "Come, let us go
out to meet the Queen Sabbath" (
Shabbat 119a). Kabbalat Shabbat
is concluded by
Psalm 92 (the recital of which constitutes men's
acceptance of the current
Shabbat with all its obligations) and Psalm
93. Many add a study section here, including Bameh Madlikin and Amar
rabbi El'azar and the concluding
Kaddish deRabbanan and is then
followed by the
Maariv service; other communities delay the study
session until after Maariv. Still other customs add here a passage
Zohar . In modern times the Kabbalat
Shabbat has been set to
music by many composers including:
Robert Strassburg .
Shema section of the Friday night service varies in some details
from the weekday services—mainly in the different ending of the
Hashkivenu prayer and the omission of Baruch Adonai le-Olam prayer in
those traditions where this section is otherwise recited. In the
Italian rite , there are also different versions of the Ma'ariv
'aravim prayer (beginning asher killah on Friday nights) and the
Ahavat 'olam prayer.
Most commemorate the
Shabbat at this point with VeShameru (Exodus
31:16–17). The custom to recite the biblical passage at this point
has its origins in the Lurianic
Kabbalah , and does not appear before
the 16th century. It is therefore absent in traditions and prayer
books less influenced by the
Kabbalah (such as the Yemenite Baladi
tradition), or those that opposed adding additional readings to the
siddur based upon the
Kabbalah (such as the
Vilna Gaon ).
The middle blessing of the
Amidah (see above) discusses the
conclusion of the Creation, quoting the relevant verses from Genesis .
This is then followed by the hazzan 's mini-repetition of the Amidah,
Magen Avot, a digest of the seven benedictions (hence it's Hebrew name
Achat Me'ein Sheva). In some
Ashkenazi Orthodox synagogues the second
Mishnah tractate Shabbat, Bameh Madlikin, is read at this
point, instead of earlier.
Kiddush is recited in the synagogue in
Ashkenazi and a few
Sephardi communities. The service then follows
Aleinu . Most
Sephardi and many
Ashkenazi synagogues end with the
Yigdal , a poetic adaptation of
Maimonides ' 13 principles
of Jewish faith. Other
Ashkenazi synagogues end with Adon `olam
Shabbat morning prayers commence as on week-days. Of the hymns, Psalm
100 (Mizmor LeTodah, the psalm for the Thanksgiving offering), is
omitted because the todah or Thanksgiving offering could not be
Shabbat in the days of the Temple in
Jerusalem . Its place
is taken in the
Ashkenazi tradition by
Psalms 19, 34, 90, 91, 135,
136, 33, 92, 93.
Jews maintain a different order, add
several psalms and two religious poems. The
Nishmat prayer is recited
at the end of the Pesukei D'Zimrah. The blessings before
expanded, and include the hymn El Adon, which is often sung
The intermediary benediction of the
Amidah begins with
Yismach Moshe and discusses Moses' receiving of the
according to tradition took place on the morning of the Sabbath).
Kedushah , which is always recited during the
Hazzan 's repetition of
the third blessing, is significantly expanded. After the repetition is
Torah scroll is taken out of the Ark in a ritual much
longer than the ritual during the week, and the weekly portion is read
, followed by the haftarah .
Torah reading, three prayers for the community are recited.
Two prayers starting with
Yekum Purkan , composed in Babylon in
Aramaic , are similar to the subsequent Mi sheberakh, a blessing for
the leaders and patrons of the synagogue. The Sephardim omit much of
the Yekum Purkan. Prayers are then recited (in some communities) for
the government of the country, for peace, and for the State of Israel
After these prayers,
Ashrei is repeated and the
Torah scroll is
returned to the Ark in a procession through the Synagogue. Many
congregations allow children to come to the front in order to kiss the
scroll as it passes. In many Orthodox communities, the
Rabbi (or a
learned member of the congregation) delivers a sermon at this point,
usually on the topic of the
Musaf service starts with the silent recitation of the
The middle blessing includes the Tikanta
Shabbat reading on the
Shabbat , and then by a reading from the biblical Book of
Numbers about the sacrifices that used to be performed in the Temple
Jerusalem . Next comes Yismechu, "They shall rejoice in Your
sovereignty", and Eloheynu, "Our God and God of our Ancestors, may you
be pleased with our rest" (which is recited during all
Amidah s of the
Kedushah is greatly expanded.
Amidah comes the full
Kaddish , followed by Ein keloheinu.
Judaism this is followed by a reading from the
the incense offering called Pittum Haketoreth and daily psalms that
used to be recited in the Temple in Jerusalem. These readings are
usually omitted by Conservative Jews, and are always omitted by Reform
Musaf service culminates with the Rabbi's Kaddish, the
and then the Mourner's Kaddish. Some synagogues conclude with the
reading of An'im Zemirot, "The Hymn of Glory", Mourner's Kaddish, the
Psalm of the Day and either
Adon Olam or Yigdal.
Mincha commences with
Ashrei (see above) and the prayer
Uva letzion ,
after which the first section of the next weekly portion is read from
Torah scroll . The
Amidah follows the same pattern as the other
Amidah prayers, with the middle blessing starting Attah Echad.
Ma'ariv is recited on the evening immediately following
Shabbat, concluding with Vihi No'am, Ve-Yitten lekha, and
SPECIAL OBSERVANCES AND CIRCUMSTANCES
ROSH HASHANA AND YOM KIPPUR
REPENTANCE IN JUDAISM TESHUVA "RETURN"
Repentance, atonement and
higher ascent in
IN THE HEBREW BIBLE
Prophecy within the Temple
Confession · Atonement
Love of God · Awe of God
Meditation · Services
IN THE JEWISH CALENDAR
Ten Days of Repentance
Sukkot · Simchat
Ta\'anit · Tisha B\'Av
Passover · The Omer
IN CONTEMPORARY JUDAISM
Baal Teshuva movement
Jewish Renewal ·
The services for the Days of Awe —
Rosh Hashana and Yom
Kippur—take on a solemn tone as befits these days. Traditional
solemn tunes are used in the prayers.
The musaf service on
Rosh Hashana has nine blessings; the three
middle blessings include biblical verses attesting to sovereignty,
remembrance and the shofar , which is sounded 100 times during the
Yom Kippur is the only day in the year when there are five prayer
services. The evening service, containing the
Ma'ariv prayer, is
widely known as "
Kol Nidrei ", the opening declaration made preceding
the prayer. During the daytime, shacharit, musaf (which is recited on
Shabbat and all festivals) and mincha are followed, as the sun begins
to set, by Ne\'ila , which is recited just this once a year.
PESACH, SHAVUOT AND SUKKOT
The services for the three festivals of
Pesach ("Passover"), Shavuot
("Feast of Weeks" or "Pentecost"), and
Sukkot ("Feast of Tabernacles")
are alike, except for interpolated references and readings for each
individual festival. The preliminaries and conclusions of the prayers
are the same as on Shabbat. The
Amidah on these festivals only
contains seven benedictions, with Attah Bechartanu as the main one.
Hallel (communal recitation of
Psalms 113-118) follows.
Musaf service includes Umi-Penei Hata'enu, with reference to the
special festival and Temple sacrifices on the occasion. A blessing on
the pulpit ("dukhen") is pronounced by the "kohanim " (Jewish priests)
during the Amidah. While this occurs daily in
Israel and most
Sephardic congregations, it occurs only on
Rosh Hashanah , and
Yom Kippur in
Ashkenazic congregations of the
diaspora . (Those
Ashkenazic congregations substitute a prayer recited
by the hazzan after the Modim ("Thanksgiving") prayer) on week-days
and Sabbath in commemoration of the priestly blessing.) (American
Jews omit the
In the event one of the prayers was missed inadvertently, the Amidah
prayer is said twice in the next service—a procedure known as
Jews sway their body back and forth during prayer. This practice
(referred to as shoklen in
Yiddish ) is not mandatory, and in fact the
Isaac Luria felt that it should not be done. In contrast,
the German Medieval authority Maharil (
Jacob Molin) linked the
practice to a statement in the
Talmud that the Mishnaic sage Rabbi
Akiva would sway so forcefully that he ended up at the other side of
the room when praying (
Talmud tractate Berachot).
Many are accustomed to giving charity before, during (especially
David ) or after prayer, in the hopes that this will
make their prayer more likely to be heard.
ROLE OF WOMEN
Men are obligated to perform public prayer three times a day with
additional services on
Jewish holidays . According to Jewish law, each
prayer must be performed within specific time ranges (zmanim) , based
on the time that the communal sacrifice the prayer is named after
would have been performed in the days of the Temple in
According to the
Talmud women are generally exempted from obligations
that have to be performed at a certain time. Orthodox authorities have
generally interpreted this exemption due to women's higher spiritual
level and therefore a lack of need to connect to God at specific
times, since they are always connected to God. In accordance with the
general exemption from time-bound obligations, most Orthodox
authorities have exempted women from performing evening prayers
Maariv ), but most believe that women are obligated to pray Shacharit
Mincha , the morning and afternoon prayers, respectively, when
possible. Jewish women praying by the Western Wall, early 1900s
Women praying in the
Western Wall tunnel at the closest physical
point to the
Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
Orthodox authorities have been careful to note that although some
women with small children have been exempted from praying at specific
fixed times, they are not exempted from the obligation of prayer
itself. The 19th-century posek
Yechiel Michel Epstein , author of the
Arukh HaShulkhan , notes: "Even though the rabbis set prayer at fixed
times in fixed language, it was not their intention to issue a
leniency and exempt women from this ritual act". Traditionally women
were also reciting individual tkhine prayers in Yiddish.
Authorities have disagreed on the minimum amount that women's prayer
should contain. Many Jewish women have relied on an idea expressed
Avraham Gombiner in his
Magen Avraham commentary
Shulkhan Arukh , and more recently the (
Sephardi ) Rabbi
Ovadia Yosef (Yabiah Omer vol. 6, 17), that women are only required to
pray once a day, in any form they choose, so long as the prayer
contains praise of (brakhot), requests to (bakashot), and thanks of
(hodot) God. However, most Orthodox authorities agree that women are
not completely exempt from time-bound prayer. The
Mishnah Berurah by
Yisrael Meir Kagan
Yisrael Meir Kagan , an important code of Ashkenzic Jewish law,
holds that the Men of the
Great Assembly obligated women to say
Shacharit (morning) and Minchah (afternoon) prayer services each day,
"just like men". The
Mishnah Berurah also states that although women
are exempt from reciting the
Shema Yisrael , they should nevertheless
say it anyway. Nonetheless, even the most liberal Orthodox authorities
hold that women cannot count in a minyan for purposes of public
Judaism , including its most liberal forms, men
and women are required to sit in separate sections with a mechitza
(partition) separating them. Historically, a learned woman in the
weibershul (women's section or annex) of a synagogue took on the
informal role of precentress or firzogerin for the women praying in
parallel to the main service led in the men's section.
Judaism permits mixed seating (almost universally
in the United States, but not in all countries). All Reform and
Reconstructionist congregations have mixed seating.
Haredi and much of
Judaism has a blanket prohibition
on women leading public congregational prayers. Conservative Judaism
has developed a blanket justification for women leading all or
virtually all such prayers, holding that although only obligated
individuals can lead prayers and women were not traditionally
obligated, Conservative Jewish women in modern times have as a
collective whole voluntarily undertaken such an obligation. Reform
and Reconstructionist congregations permit women to perform all prayer
roles because they do not regard halakha as binding.
A small liberal wing within
Modern Orthodox Judaism, particularly
rabbis friendly to the
Jewish Orthodox Feminist Alliance (JOFA), has
begun re-examining the role of women in prayers based on an
individual, case-by-case look at the historical role of specific
prayers and services, doing so within classical halakhic
interpretation. Accepting that where obligation exists only the
obligated can lead, this small group has typically made three general
arguments for expanded women's roles:
* Because women were required to perform certain korbanot
(sacrifices) in the Temple in
Jerusalem , women today are required to
perform, and hence can lead (and can count in the minyan for if
required), the specific prayers substituting for these specific
sacrifices. Birchat Hagomel falls in this category.
* Because certain parts of the service were added after the Talmud
defined mandatory services, such prayers are equally voluntary on
everyone and hence can be led by women (and no minyan is required).
Pseukei D'Zimrah in the morning and Kabbalat
Shabbat on Friday nights
fall in this category.
* In cases where the
Talmud indicates that women are generally
qualified to lead certain services but do not do so because of the
"dignity of the congregation", modern congregations are permitted to
waive such dignity if they wish.
Torah reading on
Shabbat falls in
this category. An argument that women are permitted to lead the
services removing and replacing the
Torah in the Ark on Shabbat
extends from their ability to participate in
Torah reading then.
A very small number of
Modern Orthodox congregations accept some such
arguments, but very few Orthodox congregations or authorities accept
all or even most of them. Many of those who do not accept this
reasoning point to kol isha, the tradition that prohibits a man from
hearing a woman other than his wife or close blood relative sing. JOFA
refers to congregations generally accepting such arguments as
Partnership Minyanim . On
Shabbat in a Partnership Minyan, women can
typically lead Kabbalat Shabbat, the P'seukei D'Zimrah, the services
for removing the
Torah from and replacing it to the Ark, and Torah
reading, as well as give a D'Var
Torah or sermon.
The first Orthodox Jewish women's prayer group was created on the
holiday of Simhat
Torah at Lincoln Square
Synagogue in Manhattan in
the late 1960s.
Ephraim Mirvis , an Orthodox rabbi who serves as the Chief
the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth, supports Shabbat
prayer groups for Orthodox women, saying, "Some of our congregations
have women prayer groups for Friday night, some Saturday mornings.
This is without women reading from the Torah. But for women to come
together as a group to pray, this is a good thing."
ROLE OF MINORS
In most divisions of
Judaism boys prior to Bar
Mitzvah cannot act as
a Chazzen for prayer services that contain devarim sheb'kidusha, i.e.
Kaddish , Barechu, the amida, etc., or receive an aliya or chant the
Torah for the congregation. Since Kabbalat
Shabbat is just psalms and
does not contain devarim sheb'kidusha, it is possible for a boy under
Mitzvah to lead until
Barechu of Ma'ariv. Some eastern
Jews let a
boy under bar mitzvah read the
Torah and have an aliyah.
List of Jewish prayers and blessings
List of Jewish prayers and blessings
* ^ Tractate
* ^ A B Steinsaltz, Adin (2000). A guide to
Jewish prayer (1st
American paperback ed.). New York: Schocken Books. pp. 26 ff. ISBN
978-0805211474 . Retrieved 25 April 2016.
* ^ Bar-Hayim,
David (Rabbi, Posek). "Women and Davening: Shemone
Shema and Birkoth HaShahar". machonshilo.org. כל
הזכויות שמורות ל. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
* ^ (editor-in-chief) Weinreb, Tzvi Hersh; (senior content editor)
Berger, Shalom Z.; (managing editor) Schreier, Joshua; (commentary by)
Israel (Steinsaltz), Adin ; (2012). = Koren
Talmud Bavli (1st
Hebrew/English ed.). Jerusalem: Shefa Foundation. p. 176. ISBN
9789653015630 . Retrieved 25 April 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link )
* ^ Tractate Berachoth 26b: the morning sacrifice Tamid, the
afternoon Tamid, and the overnight burning of the afternoon offering.
The latter view is supported with Biblical quotes indicating that the
Patriarchs prayed at the times mentioned. However, even according to
this view, the exact times of when the services are held, and moreover
the entire concept of a mussaf service, are still based on the
* ^ A B “'Anshei Knesset HaGedolah' – Men of the Great
Assembly; founded by
Ezra in approximately 520 B.C.E.; instituted the
Prayer (recited at least three times a day, and
ultimately to serve as a substitute for the Temple sacrifices), and
the enacting of many laws to protect and bolster the observance of the
Torah commands.” ~ OU Staff. "Anshei Knesset HaGedolah".
www.ou.org/judaism-101/. Orthodox Union – February 7, 2014.
Retrieved 16 February 2015.
* ^ A B Mishneh Torah, Laws of
* ^ Reif, Stefan C. (19–23 January 2000). "The Second Temple
Period, Qumran Research and Rabbinic Liturgy: Some Contextual and
Linguistic Comparisons". Fifth Orion International Symposium
LITURGICAL PERSPECTIVES: PRAYER AND POETRY IN LIGHT OF THE DEAD SEA
SCROLLS. The Orion Center for the Study of the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls and
Associated Literature. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
* ^ ″Some explain that this means that prayers were instituted
(..) after the destruction of the Temple to replace the offerings.
However, these prayers were already extant throughout the Second
Temple era with virtually the same formula that was instituted later,
with certain known differences. Furthermore, there were already
synagogues at that time, some even in close proximity to the Temple.
There is a dispute in the
Talmud about whether the prayers were
instituted to parallel the offerings, or whether they have an
independent source, unrelated to the Temple service.″
(editor-in-chief) Weinreb, Tzvi Hersh; (senior content editor) Berger,
Shalom Z.; (managing editor) Schreier, Joshua; (commentary by)
Israel (Steinsaltz), Adin ; (2012). = Koren
Talmud Bavli (1st
Hebrew/English ed.). Jerusalem: Shefa Foundation. pp. 175 ff. ISBN
9789653015630 . Retrieved 25 April 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link )
* ^ Center for Judaic Studies, University of Pennsylvania. "Jewish
Siddur and the Mahzor". Retrieved 2009-03-12.
* ^ A B Bar-Hayim, David. "Not Changing
Nusach Tefillah - An
Invented Halacha". Machon Shilo. Machon Shilo. Retrieved 4 October
* ^ A B Bar-Hayim, David. "What is the Proper
Machon Shilo. Machon Shilo. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
* ^ A B "Not Changing
Nusach Tefillah - An Invented Halacha-
David Bar-Hayim". supermp3song.net. mp3xyz.co.
Retrieved 4 October 2017.
* ^ Mishneh
Torah , Laws of
* ^ Bar-Hayim, Ha-Rav David. "Parashath VaYera-Romanticism vs
Realism : Bavli vs Yerushalmi". machonshilo.org. Torat Eretz Yisrael.
Retrieved 16 February 2015.
* ^ Bar-Hayim, Ha-Rav David. "Parashath VaYera: Romanticism vs
Realism : Bavli vs Yerushalmi". youtube.com. Tora Nation Machon Shilo.
Retrieved 16 February 2015.
* ^ Bar-Hayim, Ha-Rav David. "Parashath Chayei Sarah: Strolling in
Nature, Meditating and Praying: Our Forefather Yitzchak".
hmachonshilo.org. Torat Eretz Yisrael. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
* ^ Gurevich, Eliyahu (2010).
Tosefta berachot : translated into
english with a commentary (Bertrams Print on Demand ed.). : Lulu Com.
pp. 115–. ISBN 978-0557389858 . Retrieved 16 February 2015.
* ^ The daily tefillah ("prayer") is to fulfill the Biblical
requirement based on Maimonides' view as above.
* ^ Mishna Berurah, Laws of Evening Prayers.
David Fine, Women and the Minyan, Rabbinical Assembly,
2002. Archived 27 November 2010 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Berakhot 2:3
* ^ Sotah 7:2
* ^ A B C "Overview: History of Jewish Prayer". Retrieved
* ^ διασπορά. Liddell, Henry George ; Scott, Robert ; A
Greek–English Lexicon at the
* ^ Power and Politics:
Prayer books and resurrection Jerusalem
* ^ This interpretation is homiletic rather than scholarly, as it
is historically more likely that the root meaning of hitpallel is "to
seek judgement for oneself", in other words to present a legal
* ^ http://www.tilb.org/sermons/moskowitzhRH5767.html
* ^ "The Cosmology of the Mitzvot".
* ^ A B "Prayer".
* ^ http://www.ou.org/torah/weiss/5758/behaalotecha58.htm
Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple. "Oz
Torah – Where does "Daven" come
from – Ask the Rabbi". Retrieved 2013-05-20.
* ^ The
Jews of Khazaria, 2nd ed. Rowman & Littlefield 2006, p. 206
* ^ Herbert Zeiden, "Davenen: a Turkic Etymology",
Yiddish 10, nos.
2–3 (1996), pp. 96–97
David Curwin. "Balashon – Hebrew Language Detective: daven".
* ^ Jewish Women's Archive. Cantors: American Jewish Women.
* ^ Jewish Virtual Archive. A History of Women\'s Ordination as
Rabbis. Retrieved 2015-05-07.
* ^ International Council of Christians and
Jews , Jewish-Christian
Relations :: A glossary of terms used in the Christian-Jewish
dialogue, "Non-Jewish male visitors to the synagogue are offered skull
caps at the entrance and are asked to wear them."
Rabbi Amy R. Scheinerman, What\'s What?, "Non-
Jews who are
guests in a synagogue can cover their heads; it is a sign of respect
and not at all inappropriate for people who are not Jewish."
Mordechai Becher , Gateway to Judaism: The What, How, And Why of
Mesorah Publications , 2005, p. 328.
* Joyce Eisenberg, Ellen Scolnic, Dictionary of Jewish Words, Jewish
Publication Society , 2006, p. 166.
* ^ On another view, before sunset
* ^ In strict law, one should only recite
Mincha between sunset and
nightfall if one recites Arvit after nightfall; conversely one should
only recite Arvit between sunset and nightfall if one recites Mincha
before sunset; in other words one should not take advantage of both
flexibilities at once so as to combine the prayers. The prevailing
practice, of doing exactly that, is regarded as an emergency measure.
On yet another view, the disputed period is not that between sunset
and nightfall but the last seasonally adjusted hour and a quarter
* ^ One reason for this is that, while the prevailing practice may
satisfy the law concerning the timing of Arvit in the sense of the
evening Amidah, it means that the evening
Shema is recited too early.
* ^ http://www.milkenarchive.org/artists/view/robert-strassburg/
* ^ Brachot 26a
Shulkhan Arukh section
Orach Chayim 106:2
* ^ Women\'s Issues:Women And
Prayer When Time is Short,
* ^ Archived 27 November 2010 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Women\'s Tefillah Movement – Jewish Women\'s Archive".
* ^ Epstein, Morris. All About Jewish Holidays and Customs. Ktav
Publishing House, 1959. p. 89
* To Pray As a Jew, Hayim Halevy Donin , Basic Books (ISBN
* Entering Jewish Prayer,
Reuven Hammer (ISBN 0-8052-1022-9 )
* Kavvana: Directing the Heart in Jewish Prayer, Seth Kadish, Jason
Aronson Inc. 1997. ISBN 0-7657-5952-7 .
* Or Hadash: A Commentary on
Siddur Sim Shalom for
Festivals, Reuven Hammer, The
Rabbinical Assembly and the United
Synagogue of Conservative
* S. Baer .