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An ethnonym is the name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (where the name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms or endonyms (self-designation; where the name is created and used by the ethnic group itself). This article does not cover ethnic slurs.

Contents

1 List 2 Obsolete 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 References

List[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Albanian

çifut (i/ja) (ethnic)

hebre (u/ja) (ethnic)

izraelit (i/ja)

Arabic

يهودي Yahūdī (sl.); يهود Yahūd (pl.) بنو إسرائيل Banū Isra’il عبري ʕibrī

Armenian

հրեա hrea (sing.); հրեաներ (pl.); ջհուդ jhud (sing., pejorative)

Basque

Judu or judutar

Bengali

Yeuhudi

Bulgarian

Евреин, evrein (masc.); еврейка, evreika (fem.); евреи, evrei (pl.); юдеи, yudei (pl., archaic)

Bosnian

Jevrej,Jevrejin, Židov, Ćifut, Ćifo/Ćifko (probably from Turkish (Çıfıt) or Kurdish (Cihû), derogatory)

Catalan

Jueu (masc. sig.); jueus (masc. pl.), jueva (fem. sing.); jueves (fem. pl.)

Chinese

猶太人, Chinese, Traditional

犹太人, Chinese, Simplified, pinyin: Yóutài Rén

Cornish

Yedhoweth

Croatian

Židov

Czech

Žid (as a member of nation) or žid (as a confessor of Judaism)

Danish

Jøde (sing.); Jøder (pl.)

Dutch

Jood

English

Jews, see Jew (word)1, old formal term israélite (as in the Crémieux Decree)

Hebrews2

Israelites or Children of Israel3

Esperanto

Judoj. L.L. Zamenhof described himself as hebreo.

Estonian

Juut

Finnish

Juutalainen

French

Juif (masc.); Juive (fem.)

Galego

Xudeu (masc. sing.); Xudía (fem. sing.); Xudeus (masc. pl.); Xudías (fem. pl.)

Georgian

ებრაელი, Ebraeli

German

Jude (masc.); Jüdin (fem.); Juden (pl.)

Greek

Ἰουδαῖος, Ioudaios1

Ἑβραῖος, Hebraios (from Evrei)2

Ἰσραηλίτης, Israelites (from Israel)3

Hebrew

יהודי, Yehudi (sl.m); יהודיה, Yehudia (sl.f);יהודים, Yehudim/Yehudioth (pl.) 1

עברי, Ivri (sl.m); עבריה, Ivria (sl.f); עברים, Ivrim/Ivrioth2

בני ישׂראל, Bnei Yisrael (pl.)3

Hindi

Yahudi

Hungarian

Zsidó

Icelandic

gyðingur (sl.)

Indonesian/Malay

Yahudi, Banī Israel

Irish

Giúdach

Italian

Giudeo (masc. sing.); giudei (masc. pl.);[1]

Ebreo (masc. sing.); ebrei (masc. pl.); ebrea (fem. sing.); ebree (fem. pl.)

Japanese

ユダヤ人, Yudayajin

Korean

유태인, Yutae-in

Kurdish

Cihû, Mûsayî/مووسایی, Cûleke/جوله که

Ladino

djudio, Judio (singular)

los ebreos (the Jews)

Latin

Iudaeus1

Latvian

Ebrejs (masc. sg.), ebrejiete (fem. sg.), ebreji (masc. pl.), ebrejietes (fem. pl). The terms žīds (masc. sg.), žīdiete (fem. sg.), žīdi (masc. pl.) and žīdietes (fem. pl.) were also used alongside up until World War II as a neutral ethnonym. However, post-World War II mainly due to it being used in the Nazi propaganda and the influence of Russian, the term has become to be traditionally considered derogatory.

Lithuanian

Žydas (sg.), žydai (pl.)

Norwegian

Jøde

Ojibwe

Zhoodawi (from the French: judéité) or Joowiwi (from the English: Jew)

Persian

جهود or يهود -- Johud (Persian) or Yahūdī (from Arabic); former sometimes considered pejorative.

کلیمی, Kalimi (religious) a follower of Kalim Allah, also a euphemism for Johud.

Polish

Żyd (sg.), Żydzi (pl. neutral), , Żydowie (pl. respectful), Żydy (pl. contemptuous)[2]

Portuguese

Judeu ; judeus (masc. pl.); judia ; judias (fem. pl.). Also hebreus and israelitas (both masc. pl.)

Romanian

Evreu, israelit, jidov(archaic), ovrei (archaic and demeaning), jidan (highly pejorative)

Russian

Еврей, Yevrey (sg.); Евреи, Yevrei2 (pl.): Typically denotes the ethnicity; жид, zhid (masc. sing, pejorative), жидовка, zhidovka (fem. sing., pejorative); Russian language being rich in inflection, there is a large number of pejorative forms derived from the two basic ones.

Иудей, Iudey (sg.); Иудеи, Iudei1 (pl.): Typically denotes the followers of Judaism.

Serbian

Јевреј Jevrej

Slovak

Žid

Spanish

Judío (m. sing) Judía (f. sing) Judíos (plu) Judías (f. plu)

Hebreo (m. sing) Hebrea (f. sing) Hebreos (plu) Hebreas (f. plu)

Israelita (sing) Israelitas (plu) as in "Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina".

Swahili

Yahudi

Swedish

Jude

Tagalog

Hudyo, Israelita (both derived from Spanish)

Thai

คนยิว, khon yiu (from the English: Jew)

Tibetan

Yahutapa

Ukrainian

Жид (sl.); Жиди (pl.)

Urdu

Yahudi (sl.); Yahud (pl.)

Vietnamese

người Do Thái

Turkish

Yahudi, Çıfıt (religious) something related to, or a follower of Judaism, latter usually considered pejorative.

Musevi, (religious) a follower of Moses, also a euphemism for Yahudi.

İbrani, (ethnic) a Hebrew.

Welsh

Iddewon

Yiddish

איד,ייִד Yid1 (pronounced [ˈjɪd]) (sing.); ייִדן, Yidn (pronounced [ˈjɪdn̩]) (pl.)

Obsolete[edit] Jews were often called (and occasionally called themselves) Palestinians, but after the emergence of Arab Palestinian nationalism and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the term "Palestinians" came to be used almost exclusively for Palestinian Arabs. (See Definitions of Palestinian)[citation needed] See also[edit] Jew (word) Person of Jewish ethnicity Footnotes[edit] 1 Ioudaios, Yehudi, Jewish, a "Judaean", "from the land of Yehuda (Judah, Judea)". 2 Ivri, Hebrew, "one who passes over", a reference to the Biblical patriarch Abraham (or possibly Eber). 3 Israel, "one who has struggled with God", the name given to the Biblical patriarch Jacob. References[edit]

^ http://www.wordreference.com/iten/giudeo

^ Anna Wierzbicka, The Semantics of Grammar, ISBN 9027230196, 1