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An ethnonym is the name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (where the name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms or endonyms (self-designation; where the name is created and used by the ethnic group itself). This article does not cover ethnic slurs.

Contents

1 List 2 Obsolete 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 References

List[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Albanian çifut (i/ja) (ethnic)

hebre (u/ja) (ethnic)

izraelit (i/ja)

Arabic يهودي Yahūdī (sl.); يهود Yahūd (pl.) بنو إسرائيل Banū Isra’il عبري ʕibrī

Armenian հրեա hrea (sing.); հրեաներ (pl.); ջհուդ jhud (sing., pejorative)

Basque Judu or judutar

Bengali Yeuhudi

Bulgarian Евреин, evrein (masc.); еврейка, evreika (fem.); евреи, evrei (pl.); юдеи, yudei (pl., archaic)

Bosnian Jevrej,Jevrejin, Židov, Ćifut, Ćifo/Ćifko (probably from Turkish (Çıfıt) or Kurdish (Cihû), derogatory)

Catalan Jueu (masc. sig.); jueus (masc. pl.), jueva (fem. sing.); jueves (fem. pl.)

Chinese 猶太人, Chinese, Traditional

犹太人, Chinese, Simplified, pinyin: Yóutài Rén

Cornish Yedhoweth

Croatian Židov

Czech Žid (as a member of nation) or žid (as a confessor of Judaism)

Danish Jøde (sing.); Jøder (pl.)

Dutch Jood

English Jews, see Jew (word)1, old formal term israélite (as in the Crémieux Decree)

Hebrews2

Israelites or Children of Israel3

Esperanto Judoj. L.L. Zamenhof described himself as hebreo.

Estonian Juut

Finnish Juutalainen

French Juif (masc.); Juive (fem.)

Galego Xudeu (masc. sing.); Xudía (fem. sing.); Xudeus (masc. pl.); Xudías (fem. pl.)

Georgian ებრაელი, Ebraeli

German Jude (masc.); Jüdin (fem.); Juden (pl.)

Greek Ἰουδαῖος, Ioudaios1

Ἑβραῖος, Hebraios (from Evrei)2

Ἰσραηλίτης, Israelites (from Israel)3

Hebrew יהודי, Yehudi (sl.m); יהודיה, Yehudia (sl.f);יהודים, Yehudim/Yehudioth (pl.) 1

עברי, Ivri (sl.m); עבריה, Ivria (sl.f); עברים, Ivrim/Ivrioth2

בני ישׂראל, Bnei Yisrael (pl.)3

Hindi Yahudi

Hungarian Zsidó

Icelandic gyðingur (sl.)

Indonesian/Malay Yahudi, Banī Israel

Irish Giúdach

Italian Giudeo (masc. sing.); giudei (masc. pl.);[1]

Ebreo (masc. sing.); ebrei (masc. pl.); ebrea (fem. sing.); ebree (fem. pl.)

Japanese ユダヤ人, Yudayajin

Korean 유태인, Yutae-in

Kurdish Cihû, Mûsayî/مووسایی, Cûleke/جوله که

Ladino djudio, Judio (singular)

los ebreos (the Jews)

Latin Iudaeus1

Latvian Ebrejs (masc. sg.), ebrejiete (fem. sg.), ebreji (masc. pl.), ebrejietes (fem. pl). The terms žīds (masc. sg.), žīdiete (fem. sg.), žīdi (masc. pl.) and žīdietes (fem. pl.) were also used alongside up until World War II as a neutral ethnonym. However, post-World War II mainly due to it being used in the Nazi propaganda and the influence of Russian, the term has become to be traditionally considered derogatory.

Lithuanian Žydas (sg.), žydai (pl.)

Norwegian Jøde

Ojibwe Zhoodawi (from the French: judéité) or Joowiwi (from the English: Jew)

Persian جهود or يهود -- Johud (Persian) or Yahūdī (from Arabic); former sometimes considered pejorative.

کلیمی, Kalimi (religious) a follower of Kalim Allah, also a euphemism for Johud.

Polish Żyd (sg.), Żydzi (pl. neutral), , Żydowie (pl. respectful), Żydy (pl. contemptuous)[2]

Portuguese Judeu ; judeus (masc. pl.); judia ; judias (fem. pl.). Also hebreus and israelitas (both masc. pl.)

Romanian Evreu, israelit, jidov(archaic), ovrei (archaic and demeaning), jidan (highly pejorative)

Russian Еврей, Yevrey (sg.); Евреи, Yevrei2 (pl.): Typically denotes the ethnicity; жид, zhid (masc. sing, pejorative), жидовка, zhidovka (fem. sing., pejorative); Russian language being rich in inflection, there is a large number of pejorative forms derived from the two basic ones.

Иудей, Iudey (sg.); Иудеи, Iudei1 (pl.): Typically denotes the followers of Judaism.

Serbian Јевреј Jevrej

Slovak Žid

Spanish Judío (m. sing) Judía (f. sing) Judíos (plu) Judías (f. plu)

Hebreo (m. sing) Hebrea (f. sing) Hebreos (plu) Hebreas (f. plu)

Israelita (sing) Israelitas (plu) as in "Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina".

Swahili Yahudi

Swedish Jude

Tagalog Hudyo, Israelita (both derived from Spanish)

Thai คนยิว, khon yiu (from the English: Jew)

Tibetan Yahutapa

Ukrainian Жид (sl.); Жиди (pl.)

Urdu Yahudi (sl.); Yahud (pl.)

Vietnamese người Do Thái

Turkish Yahudi, Çıfıt (religious) something related to, or a follower of Judaism, latter usually considered pejorative.

Musevi, (religious) a follower of Moses, also a euphemism for Yahudi.

İbrani, (ethnic) a Hebrew.

Welsh Iddewon

Yiddish איד,ייִד Yid1 (pronounced [ˈjɪd]) (sing.); ייִדן, Yidn (pronounced [ˈjɪdn̩]) (pl.)

Obsolete[edit]

Jews were often called (and occasionally called themselves) Palestinians, but after the emergence of Arab Palestinian nationalism and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the term "Palestinians" came to be used almost exclusively for Palestinian Arabs. (See Definitions of Palestinian)[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Jew (word)

Footnotes[edit]

1 Ioudaios, Yehudi, Jewish, a "Judaean", "from the land of Yehuda (Judah, Judea)". 2 Ivri, Hebrew, "one who passes over", a reference to the Biblical patriarch Abraham (or possibly Eber). 3 Israel, "one who has struggled with God", the name given to the Biblical patriarch Jacob.

References[edit]

^ http://www.wordreference.com/iten/giudeo ^ Anna Wierzbicka, The Semantics of Grammar, ISBN 902723

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