JEWISH BOLSHEVISM, also known as JUDEO-BOLSHEVISM, is an antisemitic
and anti-communist canard which alleges that the
Jews were at the
origin of the
Russian Revolution and held the primary power among
Bolsheviks . Similarly, the JEWISH COMMUNISM theory implies that Jews
have been dominating the Communist movements in the world. It is
similar to the ZOG conspiracy theory , which asserts that
world politics. The expressions have been used as a catchword for the
Communism is a Jewish conspiracy.
In Poland, "Judeo-Bolshevism" was known as "
Żydokomuna " and was
used as an antisemitic stereotype.
The expression was the title of a pamphlet, _The Jewish Bolshevism_,
and became current after the 1917
October Revolution in Russia,
featuring prominently in the propaganda of the anti-communist "White "
forces during the
Russian Civil War .
The theory was later propagated by the
Nazi Party and their American
* 1 Origins
* 2 Jewish involvement in Russian
* 4 Outside
* 4.1 Great Britain, 1920s
* 5 Works propagating the Jewish
* 5.1 The Jewish
* 5.2 The Octopus
* 5.3 Behind
* 6 Criticism of the Jewish
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
White movement propaganda poster from the
Russian Civil War era
(1919), a caricature of
Leon Trotsky , who was viewed as a symbol of
The conflation of
Jews and revolution emerged in the atmosphere of
destruction of Russia during World War I . When the revolutions of
1917 crippled Russia's war effort, conspiracy theories grew up - even
far from Berlin and Petrograd, many Britons for example, ascribed the
Russian Revolution to an "apparent conjunction of Bolsheviks, Germans
The worldwide spread of the concept in the 1920s is associated with
the publication and circulation of _The Protocols of the Elders of
Zion _, a fraudulent document that purported to describe a secret
Jewish conspiracy aimed at world domination. The expression made an
issue out of the Jewishness of some leading
Bolsheviks (most notably
Leon Trotsky ) during and after the October Revolution. Daniel Pipes
says that "primarily through _the Protocols of the Elders of Zion_,
the Whites spread these charges to an international audience." James
Webb wrote that it is rare to find an antisemitic source after 1917
that ..."does not stand in debt to the White Russian analysis of the
JEWISH INVOLVEMENT IN RUSSIAN COMMUNISM
History of the Jews in Russia and History of the Jews
Antisemitism in the
Russian Empire existed both culturally and
Jews were restricted to live within the Pale of
Settlement , and suffered pogroms . Between 1881 and 1920, more
than two million
Jews left Russia.
As a result, many
Jews supported gradual or revolutionary changes
Russian Empire . Those movements ranged from the far left
Jewish Anarchism , Bundists ,
Mensheviks ) to moderate
Trudoviks ) and constitutionalist (Constitutional Democrats )
parties. On the eve of the
February Revolution in 1917, of about
23,000 members of the
Bolshevik party 364 (about 1.6%) were known to
be ethnic Jews. According to the 1922
Bolshevik party census, there
were 19,564 Jewish Bolsheviks, comprising 5.21% of the total, and in
the 1920s of the 417 members of the Central Executive Committee, the
party Central Committee, the Presidium of the Executive of the Soviets
of the USSR and the Russian Republic, the People's Commissars, 6% were
ethnic Jews. Between 1936 and 1940, during the
Great Purge ,
Yezhovshchina and after the rapprochement with
Nazi Germany , Stalin
had largely eliminated
Jews from senior party, government, diplomatic,
security and military positions.
Some scholars have grossly exaggerated Jewish presence in the Soviet
Communist Party. For example, journalist
David Aaronovitch quotes
Alfred Jensen as saying that in the 1920s "75 per cent of the leading
Bolsheviks" were "of Jewish origin". According to Aaronovitch, "a
cursory examination of membership of the top committees shows this
figure to be an absurd exaggeration".
Vladimir Lenin ,
Karl Radek ,
Julius Martov , and Emma Goldman
. Caricatures of
Bolshevik leaders from
Alfred Rosenberg 's The Jewish
Walter Laqueur traces the Jewish-
Bolshevik conspiracy theory to Nazi
Alfred Rosenberg , for whom
Bolshevism was "the revolt of
the Jewish, Slavic and Mongolian races against the German (
element in Russia". Germans, according to Rosenberg, had been
responsible for Russia's historic achievements and had been sidelined
by the Bolsheviks, who did not represent the interests of the Russian
people, but instead those of its ethnic Jewish and Chinese population.
Michael Kellogg in his Ph.D. thesis argues that the racist ideology
of Nazis was to a significant extent influenced by White emigres in
Germany, many of whom while being former subjects of the Russian
Empire, were of non-Russian descent: ethnic Germans, residents of
Baltic lands, including Baltic Germans, and Ukrainians. Of particular
role was their _Aufbau_ organization (Aufbau: Wirtschafts-politische
Vereinigung für den Osten (Reconstruction: Economic-Political
Organization for the East). For example, its leader was instrumental
in making the _Protocols of The Elders of Zion_ available in German
language. He argues that early Hitler was rather philosemitic , and
became rabidly anti-Semitic since 1919 under the influence of the
White emigre convictions about the conspiracy of the Jews, an unseen
unity from financial capitalists to Bolsheviks, to conquer the world.
Therefore, his conclusion is that White emigrees were at the source of
the Nazist concept of Jewish Bolshevism. Annemarie Sammartino argues
that this view is contestable. While there is no doubt that White
emigres were instrumental in reinforcing the idea of 'Jewish
Boslhevism' among Nazis, the concept is also found in many German
early post-World-War-I documents. Also, Germany had its own share of
Jewish Communists "to provide fodder for the paranoid fantasies of
German antisemites" without Russian Bolsheviks.
During the 1920s, Hitler declared that the mission of the Nazi
movement was to destroy "Jewish Bolshevism". Hitler asserted that the
"three vices" of "Jewish Marxism" were democracy, pacifism and
internationalism, and that the
Jews were behind Bolshevism, communism
Nazi Germany , this concept of Jewish
Bolshevism reflected a
common perception that
Communism was a Jewish-inspired and Jewish-led
movement seeking world domination from its origin. The term was
popularized in print in German journalist
Dietrich Eckhart 's 1924
pamphlet "Der Bolschewismus von
Moses bis Lenin" ("
Moses to Lenin") which depicted
Moses and Lenin as both being
Communists and Jews. This was followed by
Alfred Rosenberg 's 1923
edition of the _
Protocols of the Elders of Zion _ and Hitler 's _Mein
Kampf _ in 1925, which saw
Bolshevism as "Jewry's twentieth century
effort to take world dominion unto itself."
According to French spymaster and writer
Henri Rollin , "Hitlerism"
was based on "anti-Soviet counter-revolution" promoting the "myth of a
Bolshevik plot", entailing that the First
World War had been instigated by a vast Jewish-Masonic conspiracy to
topple the Russian, German, and Austro-Hungarian Empires and implement
Bolshevism by fomenting liberal ideas.
A major source for propaganda about Jewish
Bolshevism in the 1930s
and early 1940s was the pro-Nazi and antisemitic international
_Welt-Dienst_ news agency founded in 1933 by
Ulrich Fleischhauer .
Within the German Army, a tendency to see Soviet
Communism as a
Jewish conspiracy had grown since the First World War, something that
became officialised under the Nazis. A 1932 pamphlet by
Ewald Banse of
the Government-financed German National Association for the Military
Sciences described the Soviet leadership as mostly Jewish, dominating
an apathetic and mindless Russian population. Anti-Soviet Nazi
propaganda poster in the Polish language, the text reads "Death! to
Bolshevik pestilence of murdering!"
Propaganda produced in 1935 by the psychological war laboratory of
the German War Ministry described Soviet officials as "mostly filthy
Jews" and called on
Red Army soldiers to rise up and kill their
"Jewish commissars". This material was not used at the time, but
served as a basis for propaganda in the 1940s.
Members of the SS were encouraged to fight against the "Jewish
Bolshevik sub-humans". In the pamphlet _The SS as an Anti-Bolshevist
Fighting Organization_, published in 1936, _
Heinrich Himmler wrote:
We shall take care that never again in Germany, the heart of Europe,
will the Jewish-Bolshevistic revolution of subhumans be able to be
kindled either from within or through emissaries from without.
In his speech to the _Reichstag_ justifying
Operation Barbarossa in
1941, Hitler said:
For more than two decades the Jewish
Bolshevik regime in Moscow had
tried to set fire not merely to Germany but to all of Europe…The
Bolshevik rulers in Moscow have unswervingly undertaken to
force their domination upon us and the other European nations and that
is not merely spiritually, but also in terms of military power…Now
the time has come to confront the plot of the Anglo-Saxon Jewish
war-mongers and the equally Jewish rulers of the
Bolshevik centre in
Wilhelm Keitel gave an order on 12 September 1941 which
declared: "the struggle against
Bolshevism demands ruthless and
energetic, rigorous action above all against the Jews, the main
carriers of Bolshevism.
Richard J. Evans wrote that Wehrmacht officers regarded the
Russians as "sub-human", and were from the time of the invasion of
Poland in 1939 telling their troops the war was caused by "Jewish
vermin", explaining to the troops that the war against the Soviet
Union was a war to wipe out what were variously described as "Jewish
Bolshevik subhumans", the "Mongol hordes", the "Asiatic flood" and the
"red beast", language clearly intended to produce war crimes by
reducing the enemy to something less than human.
Joseph Goebbels published an article in 1942 called "the so-called
Russian soul" in which he claimed that
Bolshevism was exploiting the
Slavs and that the battle of the
Soviet Union determined whether
Europe would become under complete control by international Jewry.
Nazi propaganda presented Barbarossa as an ideological-racial war
between German National Socialism and "Judeo-Bolshevism", dehumanising
the Soviet enemy as a force of Slavic _
Untermensch _ (sub-humans) and
"Asiatic" savages engaging in "barbaric Asiatic fighting methods"
commanded by evil Jewish commissars whom German troops were to grant
no mercy. The vast majority of the Wehrmacht officers and soldiers
tended to regard the war in Nazi terms, seeing their Soviet opponents
While National Socialism brought about a new version and formulation
of European culture,
Bolshevism is the declaration of war by
Jewish-led international subhumans against culture itself. It is not
only anti-bourgeois, it is anti-cultural. It means, in the final
consequence, the absolute destruction of all economic, social, state,
cultural, and civilizing advances made by western civilization for the
benefit of a rootless and nomadic international clique of
conspirators, who have found their representation in Jewry.
— Joseph Goebbels,
Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg, September
OUTSIDE NAZI GERMANY
GREAT BRITAIN, 1920S
In the early 1920s, a leading British antisemite, Henry Hamilton
Beamish , stated that
Bolshevism was the same thing as Judaism. In
the same decade, future wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill
penned an editorial entitled "
Zionism versus Bolshevism," which was
published in the _Illustrated Sunday Herald._ In the article, which
Bolshevism were engaged in a "struggle for
the soul of the Jewish people", he called on
Jews to repudiate "the
Bolshevik conspiracy" and make clear that "the
Bolshevik movement is
not a Jewish movement" but stated that:
Jews is nothing new. From the days of Spartacus-Weishaupt
to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun
Rosa Luxemburg (Germany), and
Emma Goldman (United States),
this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilisation and for
the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of
envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily
Gisela C. Lebzelter noted that Churchill's analysis failed to
analyze the role that Russian oppression of
Jews had played in their
joining various revolutionary movements, but instead "to inherent
inclinations rooted in Jewish character and religion."
WORKS PROPAGATING THE JEWISH BOLSHEVISM CANARD
THE JEWISH BOLSHEVISM
_The Jewish Bolshevism_ is a 31- or 32-page antisemitic pamphlet
published in London in 1922 and 1923 by the Britons Publishing Society
. It included a foreword by the German Nazi leader Alfred Rosenberg
who promulgated the concept of "Jewish Bolshevism".
This relatively obscure publication embodies the Nazi doctrine that
"Jewishness " and
Bolshevism are the same; or that
Jewish, whether everything Jewish is included within Bolshevism. The
methodology used consists of identifying
Bolsheviks as Jews; by birth,
or by name or by demographics .
According to Singerman, _The Jewish Bolshevism_, which he dubs as
item "0121" in his Bibliography, is "Identical in content to item
"0120", the pamphlet _The Grave Diggers of Russia_, which was
published in 1921 in Germany, by Dr.
E. Boepple . In 1922, historian
Gisela C. Lebzelter wrote: "The Britons published a brochure entitled
Jewish Bolshevism, which featured drawings of Russian leaders
supplemented by brief comments on their Jewish descent and
affiliation. This booklet, which was prefaced by
Alfred Rosenberg ,
had previously been published in English by _völkisch Deutscher
_The Octopus_ is a 256-page book self-published in 1940 by Elizabeth
Dilling under the pseudonym "Rev. Frank Woodruff Johnson". In it she
describe her theories of Jewish Bolshevism.
Frank L. Britton, editor of _The American Nationalist_ published a
book, _Behind Communism_, in 1952 which disseminated the myth that
Communism was a Jewish conspiracy originating in Palestine .
CRITICISM OF THE JEWISH BOLSHEVISM CANARD
Researchers in the topic, such as Polish philosopher Stanisław
Krajewski " or André Gerrits, denounce the concept of Jewish
Bolshevism as a prejudice. Law professor
Ilya Somin agrees, and
compares Jewish involvement in other communist countries.
"Overrepresentation of a group in a political movement does not prove
either that the movement was "dominated" by that group or that it
primarily serves that group’s interests. The idea that communist
oppression was somehow Jewish in nature is belied by the record of
communist regimes in countries like
North Korea , and Cambodia
, where the Jewish presence was and is minuscule."
* Cultural Marxism
* ^ Alderman 1983 .
* ^ Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, "Żydzi w kierownictwie UB. Stereotyp czy
rzeczywistość?", _Biuletyn IPN_ (11/2005), pp. 37-42
* ^ Partridge, Christopher and Ron Geaves. (2007). Antisemitism,
conspiracy culture, Christianity, and Islam: the history and
contemporary religious significance of the Protocols of the Learned
Elders of Zion. In: James R. Lewis and Olav Hammer (eds.) The
Invention of Sacred Tradition. pp. 75-95. . Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. Available from: Cambridge Books Online doi
* ^ Frederickson, Kari (1996). "CATHRINE CURTIS AND CONSERVATIVE
ISOLATIONIST WOMEN, 1939-1941". _The Historian_. 58 (4): 826. ISSN
0018-2370 . doi :10.1111/j.1540-6563.1996.tb00977.x .
* ^ Glen Jeansonne (9 June 1997). _Women of the Far Right: The
Mothers\' Movement and World War II_. University of Chicago Press. p.
8. ISBN 978-0-226-39589-0 .
* ^ Laqueur, Walter Ze'ev (1965-01-01). _Russia and Germany_.
Transaction Publishers. p. 105. ISBN 9781412833547 .
* ^ Serhii Plokhy (1 December 2015). _The Gates of Europe: A
History of Ukraine_. Basic Books. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-465-07394-8 .
* ^ Fromkin (2009) pp. 247-248.
* ^ Pipes 1997 , p. 93.
* ^ Webb 1976 , p. 295.
* ^ "Who could live outside the Pale of Settlement?". _Jewish
Family Search_. 3 May 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
* ^ "Modern Jewish History: Pogroms". _
Jewish Virtual Library
Jewish Virtual Library _.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (The Gale Group). 2008. Retrieved 19 August
* ^ Wein, Berel (1990-09-01). _Triumph of Survival: The Story of
Jews in the Modern Era 1650-1990_. Mesorah Publications. p. 173.
ISBN 9780899064987 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Political Activity and Emigration. Beyond the Pale. The
Jews in Russia. (Exhibition by Joke Kniesmeyer and Daniel
* ^ Goncharok, Moshe. _Century of Will: Russian Anarchism and Jews
(XIX-XX Centuries)_. Jerusalem: Mishmeret Shalom, 1996.
http://makhno.ru/lit/vek_voli/3.php (in Russian)
* ^ Levin 1988 , p. 13.
* ^ Ascher 1992 , p. 148.
* ^ Witte & 24 March 1907 .
* ^ Herf 2008 , p. 96.
* ^ Levin 1988 , pp. 318-325.
* ^ Aaronovitch, David. "Our Jewish Communist past". _September 23,
2011_. RSS Twitter Facebook Archives Subscribe S & P About THE JEWISH
CHRONICLE ONLINE. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
* ^ Laqueur 1990 , pp. 33-34.
* ^ Michael Kellogg, _The Russian Roots of
Nazism - White Émigrés
and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945_,New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2005. xiv + 327 pp., ISBN 978-0-521-84512-0
* ^ "A review by Annemarie Sammartino " of Michael Kellogg's _The
Russian Roots of Nazism_
* ^ Kershaw 1999 , p. 257.
* ^ 1999 , p. 303.
* ^ 1999 , p. 259.
* ^ Kellogg 2008 .
* ^ Förster 2005 , p. 119.
* ^ Förster 2005 , pp. 122-127.
* ^ Himmler 1936 , p. 8.
* ^ Hillgruber 1987 .
* ^ Kershaw 2000 , p. 465.
* ^ Evans 1989 , pp. 59-60.
* ^ "Goebbels on the
Soviet Union (July, 1942)". _calvin.edu_.
* ^ Förster 2005 , p. 126.
* ^ Förster 2005 , p. 127.
* ^ "GOEBBELS CLAIMS JEWS WILL DESTROY CULTURE". United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum. September 1935.
* ^ Webb 1976 , p. 130.
* ^ Churchill & 8 February 1920 .
* ^ Lebzelter 1978 , p. 181.
* ^ Political Anti-Semitism in England, 1918-1939_, p. 64_
* ^ Glen Jeansonne (9 June 1997). _Women of the Far Right: The
Mothers\' Movement and World War II_. University of Chicago Press. p.
25. ISBN 978-0-226-39589-0 .
* ^ Primary Source Microfilm 2005 .
* ^ Krajewski, Stanislaw (October 2007). "Jews, Communists and
Jewish Communists, in Poland, Europe and Beyond". _Covenant_. 1 (3).
Retrieved October 2007. Check date values in: access-date= (help ),
originally in a CEU annual Jewish Studies at the Central European
University, ed. by Andras Kovacs, co-editor Eszter Andor, CEU 2000,
* ^ Gerrits 2009 , p. 195.
* ^ Somin, Ilya (October 29, 2011). "
Communism and the Jews". _The
* Alderman, G. (1983). _The Jewish Community in British Politics_.
Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 102.
* Ascher, Abraham (1992). _The Revolution of 1905_. Palo Alto:
Stanford University Press.
* Churchill, Winston (8 February 1920). "
Zionism versus Bolshevism".
_Illustrated Sunday Herald_.
* Evans, Richard J. (1989). _In Hitler's Shadow West German
Historians and the Attempt to Escape the Nazi Past_. New York:
Pantheon. ISBN 978-0-394-57686-2 .
* Figes, Orlando (2008). _The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's
Russia_. London: Picador.
* Förster, Jürgen (2005). "The German Military's Image of Russia".
In Erickson, Ljubica; Erickson, Mark. _Russia War, Peace and
Diplomacy_. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
* Friedman, Isaiah (1997). _Germany, Turkey, and
Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0765804075
* Fromkin, David (2009). _A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the
Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East._ Holt
Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0805088090
* Gerrits, André (2009). _The Myth of Jewish Communism: A
Historical Interpretation_. Peter Lang.
* Herf, Jeffrey (2008). _The Jewish Enemy: Nazi
World War II and the Holocaust_. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
* Hillgruber, Andreas (1987). "War in the East and the Extermination
of the Jews" (PDF). 18.
Yad Vashem Studies: 103–132.
* Himmler, Heinrich (1936). _Die Schutzstaffel als
Antibolschewistische Kampforganisation_ (in German). Franz Eher
Verlag. External link in title= (help )
* Hoffman, Stefani; Mendelsohn, Ezra (2008). _The Revolution of 1905
and Russia's Jews_. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
* Kellogg, Michael (2008). _The Russian Roots of Nazism. White
Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945_.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521070058 .
* Kershaw, Ian (1999). _Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris_. Penguin Books
Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-192579-0 .
* Kershaw, Ian (2000). _Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis_. Penguin Books
Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-027239-0 .
* Laqueur, Walter (1990). _Russia and Germany: A Century of
Conflict_. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
* Lebzelter, Gisela (1978). _Political anti-Semitism in England:
1918-1939_. Oxford: Macmillan. ISBN 9780333242513 .
* Levin, Nora (1988). _The
Jews in the
Soviet Union Since 1917_. New
York University Press: New York.
* "Mohammad Ali Ramin, Advisor to Iranian President Ahmadinejad:
‘Hitler Was Jewish’". Middle East Media Research Institute. 3
* McMeekin, Sean (2012). _The Berlin-Baghdad Express: The Ottoman
Empire and Germany's Bid for World Power_. Belknap Press. ISBN
* Moss, Walter (2005). _A History of Russia: Since 1855_. Anthem
Press. ISBN 1-84331-034-1 .
* Pinkus, Benjamin (1990). _The
Jews of the Soviet Union: The
History of a National Minority_. Cambridge: Cambridge University
* Pipes, Daniel (1997). _Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style
Flourishes and Where it Comes From_. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN
* "Radicalism and Reactiona