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BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC was the form of Middle Aramaic employed by writers in Babylonia between the 4th century and the 11th century CE. It is most commonly identified with the language of the Babylonian Talmud (which was completed in the seventh century) and of post-Talmudic (Geonic ) literature, which are the most important cultural products of Babylonian Jews . The most important epigraphic sources for the dialect are the hundreds of Aramaic magic bowls written.

CONTENTS

* 1 Classification and type

* 2 Grammar

* 2.1 Pronouns

* 2.1.1 Independent nominative pronouns * 2.1.2 copulative pronouns * 2.1.3 Genitive pronominal suffixes * 2.1.4 Demonstrative pronoun * 2.1.5 Accusative pronominal suffixes

* 2.2 Six major verbal patterns

* 2.2.1 Verbal pattern (binyan): pe‘al (פְּעַל) Basic Verb - Active * 2.2.2 Verbal pattern (binyan): Itpe\'el (אִתְפְּעֵל) Basic Verb - Passive * 2.2.3 Verbal pattern (binyan): pa‘el (פַּעֵל) Frequentative - Active * 2.2.4 Verbal pattern (binyan): Itpa\'al (אִתְפַּעַל) Frequentative - Passive * 2.2.5 Verbal pattern (binyan): aph‘el (אַפְעֵל) Causative - Active * 2.2.6 Verbal pattern (binyan): itaphal (אִתַפְעַל) Causative - Passive voice

* 2.3 Noun: singular/plural * 2.4 List of verbs

* 3 Idiom * 4 Modern study * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links

CLASSIFICATION AND TYPE

The language was closely related to other Eastern Aramaic dialects such as Mandaic and Syriac language
Syriac language
. Its original pronunciation is uncertain, and has to be reconstructed with the help of these kindred dialects and of the reading tradition of the Yemenite Jews , and where available those of the Iraqi , Syrian and Egyptian Jews . The value of the Yemenite reading tradition has been challenged by some scholars. (The vocalized Aramaic texts with which Jews are familiar, from the Bible and the prayer book , are of limited usefulness for this purpose, as they are in a different dialect.)

Talmudic Aramaic bears all the marks of being a specialist language of study and legal argumentation, like Law French , rather than a vernacular mother tongue, and continued in use for these purposes long after Arabic had become the language of daily life. It has developed a battery of technical logical terms, such as tiyuvta (conclusive refutation) and tiqu (undecidable moot point), which are still used in Jewish legal writings, including those in other languages, and have influenced modern Hebrew .

Like the Judean (Galilean Aramaic ) and Assyrian Jewish dialects it was written with Hebrew alphabet.

GRAMMAR

PRONOUNS

Independent Nominative Pronouns

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL PRONOUNS MEANING EXAMPLES

אנא‎ First person, singular, common

את‎ Second person, singular, common

הוא / איהו‎ Third person, singular, masculine

היא / איהי‎ Third person, singular, feminine

אנן‎ First person, plural, common אנן קשישי ואינו דרדקי‎ We are old and they are young (bekarot 8b)

אתון‎ Second person, plural, masculine אתון דשאליתו לי דיאילו‎ It is you that I borrowed (Baba Mesia 97a) אתון דמיקרביתו לרב‎ You, who are attached to Rav (Shabbat 37b)

אינהו‎ Third person, plural, masculine אנן קשישי ואינו דרדקי‎ We are old and they are young (bekarot 8b)

אינהי‎ Third person, plural, feminine

copulative Pronouns

COPULATIVE PRONOUNS MEANING EXAMPLES

נא‎ First person, singular, common עדיפנא‎ I am more worthy (Kiddushin 29b)

ת‎ Second person, singular, common עציבת‎ You (common singular) are sad (Pesahim 3b)

ניהו‎ Third person, singular, masculine מי ידענא היכא ניהו‎ Do I know where he is (Sanhedrin 39a) הי ניהו‎ which is it (Nid. 41b)

ניהי‎ Third person, singular, feminine

נן‎ First person, plural, common זוטרינן‎ we are young (Baba Qama 92b)

תו(ן)‎ Second person, plural, masculine חכימתו‎ You (masculine plural) are wise (Gitin 56b)

נינהו‎ Third person, plural, masculine הני הילכתה נינהו‎ These are laws from tradition (they) Mo'ed Qatan 3b גזלני נינהו‎ Robbers, they (Baba Batra 100a) שהדי שקרי נינהו‎ Lying witnesses, they (Baba Batra 92b)

נינהי‎ Third person, plural, feminine קדושה והבדלה חדה מילתא נינהי‎ Qedusha and Havdalah are one thing, they are (Pesah 102b) כולהי חדא ברכתא נינהי‎ all one long blessing, they are (Pesah 103b)

Genitive Pronominal Suffixes

GENITIVE PRONOMINAL SUFFIX GENITIVE PRONOMINAL SUFFIX (HEBREW) MEANING EXAMPLES

ַ אי‎ ִ י‎ First person, singular possessive. MY נַפְשַאי‎ my person (jevamot 64b) דוּכְתַּאי‎ my position (ketuvot 77b)

ִי ךְ‎ ְ ךָ‎ Second person, singular, possessive. YOUR פְּסוּקִיךְ‎ your verse (chagiga 15)

ָ ךְ‎ ֵ ךְ‎ Second person, singular, possessive. YOUR רַבָּךְ‎ your teacher (pesachim 24) שוּפְרָךְ‎ your beauty (Bava Metzia 84a) אמר ליה {רבי יוחנן} חילך לאורייתא {כמה יפה כוחך לסבול עול תורה} אמר ליה{ריש לקיש} שופרך לנשי {יופיך ראוי לנשים}

ֵי הּ‎ וֹ‎ Third person, singular, masculine possessive. HIS

ָ הּ‎ ָ הּ‎ Third person, singular, feminine possessive. HER אסירא לייחודי בגברא דלא דידָהּ‎ She is forbidden to be together in the room alone with a man who is not her husband (Erubin 100b)

ִי ן‎ ֵ נוּ‎ First person, plural possessive. OUR אַרְעִין‎ our land (shanhedrin 94)

ַ יְכוּ‎ ְ כֶם‎ Second person, plural, masculine possessive. YOUR גַבְרַיְיכוּ‎ Your men (Shabbat 140b)

ַ יְיכִי‎

ְ כֶן‎ Second person, plural, feminine possessive. YOUR קַרְחַיְיכִי‎ your baldness (pesachim 110) פַּרְחַיְיכִי‎ your crumbs (pesachim 110)

ַ יְהוּ‎ ָ ם‎ Third person, plural, masculine possessive. THEIR מָנַיְיהוּ‎ their clothes (Shabbat 133b) מִינַיְיהוּ(ן)‎ from the men

ַ יְהִי‎ ָ ן‎ Third person, plural, feminine possessive. THEIR עָלַיְיהִי(ן)‎ about the women

SUFFIX + אִית MEANING EXAMPLES

אִיתֵיהּ‎ HE IS/EXISTS

אִיתָהּ‎ SHE IS/EXISTS

אִיתְנָן‎ WE ARE/EXIST

אִיתַנְכוּ‎ YOU (PL. M.) ARE/EXIST

אִיתַנְכִי‎ YOU (PL. F.) ARE/EXIST

אִיתַנְהוּ‎ THEY (M.) ARE/EXIST

אִיתַנְהִי‎ THEY (F.) ARE/EXIST

Demonstrative Pronoun

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN (NEAR/PROXIMAL) MEANING EXAMPLES

הַאי(י)‎ Third person, singular, masculine demonstrative. THIS (HEBREW:זֶה) מהַאי גִּיסָא ומהַאי גִּיסָא אַדַּעְתָּא דְדיקלא‎ on the one side..., on the other side with precise intention for האיי דיאנא‎ this judge האיי קלא‎ this voice

הָא‎ Third person, singular, feminine demonstrative. THIS (HEBREW:זֹאת) הא מילתא‎ this word/thing

הָ(א)נֵי

‎ Third person, plural, masculine demonstrative. THESE (HEBREW:אֵלֶּה, אֵלּוּ) הָנֵי מילי‎ these words/things

הָנֵי

‎ Third person, plural, feminine demonstrative. THESE (HEBREW:אֵלֶּה, אֵלּוּ) הָנֵי אִין הָנַך לאָ‎ (Chagiga 11b) (THESE YES, THOSE NOT )

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN (MEDIAL) MEANING EXAMPLES

הַאי(י)+ךְ←הַאִיךְ‎ Third person, singular, masculine demonstrative. THAT איתתיה דהאייך‎ His wife of that (man)

הָא+ךְ←הָךְ‎ Third person, singular, feminine demonstrative. THAT הך ארעא‎ that land הך לשנא‎ that language

הָ(א)נֵי+ךְ←הָנַךְ‎ Third person, plural, masculine demonstrative. THOSE מן הָנַךְ טעמי‎ Because of those reasons הָנַךְ אֲזַלוּ לְעָלְמָא והָנֵי אַחֲרִינֵי נינהו‎ Those others have gone away, and these are others here

הָנֵי+ךְ←הָנַךְ‎ Third person, plural, feminine demonstrative. THOSE הָנֵי אִין הָנַך לאָ‎ (Chagiga 11b) (THESE YES, THOSE NOT )

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN (REMOTE/DISTAL) MEANING EXAMPLES

הָהוּ(א)‎ Third person, singular, masculine demonstrative. THAT (HEBREW:הוּא) הָהוּא גַבְרָא‎ (Berachot 6b) (ANY MAN, ANYBODY, THAT MAN )

הָהִי(א)‎ Third person, singular, feminine demonstrative. THAT (HEBREW:הִיא) הָהִיא אִתְּתָא דַאֲתָא לְקָמֵיהּ‎ (nedarim 50b) (THAT WOMAN, WHO CAME BEFORE HIM )

הָנְהוּ

‎ Third person, plural, masculine demonstrative. THOSE (HEBREW:הֵם)

הָנְהִי

‎ Third person, plural, feminine demonstrative. THOSE (HEBREW:הֵן)

Accusative Pronominal Suffixes

ACCUSATIVE PRONOMINAL SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES

ַ ן‎

ַ ני‎ First person, singular, common גַנְבַן‎ (Nedarim 62) he stole me

נַטְרַנִי‎ he supervised me

נֵיעָרְבִינְהוּ וְנִכְתְּבִינְהוּ

ך

‎ Second person, singular, masculine

יך

‎ Second person, singular, feminine

יה

‎ Third person, feminine, singular

ה

‎ Third person, masculine, singular

ה

‎ Third person, masculine, singular

ינן

‎ First person, plural, common

ינכו

‎ second person, plural, masculine

נכי

‎ second person, plural, feminine

ינון / ינ(ה)ו

‎ Third person, plural, masculine נֵיעָרְבִינְהוּ וְנִכְתְּבִינְהוּ‎ (pessachim 13) he shall put them (the words) together and write them

ינון / י(נ)הי

‎ Third person, plural, feminine וּרְמִי אִינְהִי ← וּרְמִינְהִי‎ (berachot 9) you shall opposite them (the two sentences)

SIX MAJOR VERBAL PATTERNS

There are six major verb stems or verbal patterns (binyanim) in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. The form pe‘al (פְּעַל) “to do”, the form Aph'el (אַפְעֵל) “let do”, and the form Pa'el (פַּעֵל) “like to do”, are all in the active voice. But the form Itpe'el (אִתְפְּעֵל), the form Itaph'al (אִתַפְעַל) and the form Itpa'al (אִתְפַּעַל) are essentially reflexive and have usually function in a passive sense.

Aramaic binyan Hebrew binyan Aramaic example Hebrew parallel English translation

פְּעַל Pe'al קַל Qal/Pa'al כְּתַב כָּתַב he wrote

אִתְפְּעֵל Itpe'el נִפְעַל Niphal אִתְכְּתֵיב נִכְּתַב it was written

אַפְעֵל Aph'el הִפְעִיל Hiph'il אַפְקֵד הִפְקִיד he deposited

אִתַפְעַל Itaph'al הֻפְעַל Huph‘al אִתַפְקַד הֻפְקַד it was deposited

פַּעֵל Pa'el פִּעֵל Pi'el קַדֵיש קִדֵש he sanctifed

אִתְפַּעַל Itpa'al הִתְפַּעֵל Hitpa'el וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ הִתְקַדֵּשׁ it was sanctifed

Verbal Pattern (binyan): pe‘al (פְּעַל) Basic Verb - Active

past tense

Aramaic verb WROTE Hebrew verb parallel WROTE Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא כְּתַבִית אֲנִי כָּתַבְתִּי ana q'tavit ani qatavti I wrote

אַתְּ כְּתַבְתְּ אַתָּה כָּתַבְתָּ at q'tavt ata qatavta you (m.) wrote

אַתְּ כְּתַבְתְּ אַתְּ כָּתַבְתְּ at q'tavt at qatavt you (f.) wrote

הוּא כְּתַב הוּא כָּתַב u q'tav u qatav he wrote

הִיא כְּתַבָה הִיא כָּתְּבָה i q'tava i qatva she wrote

אֲנָן כְּתַבִינָן אָנוּ כָּתַבְנוּ anan q'tavinan anu qatavnu we wrote

אַתּוּ כְּתַבִיתּוּ אַתֶּם כְּתַבְתֶּם atu q'tavitu atem qotvim you (m.pl.) wrote

אינון כְּתַבוּ הם כָּתְּבוּ innun q'tavu em qatvu they (m.) wrote

Aramaic verb CAME Hebrew verb parallel CAME Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אֲתֵיתִי אֲנָא אֲתַאי אֲנִי בָּאתִי ana ateti/ana atai ani bati I came

אַתְּ אֲתֵית אַתָּה בָּאתָ at atet ata bata you (m.) came

אַתְּ ? אַתְּ בָּאת at ? at bat you (f.) came

הוּא אֲתָא הוּא בָּא u ata hu ba he came

הִיא אֲתָת הִיא אֲתַאי הִיא אתיא הִיא בָּאָה i atat/atai/atjia hi ba'a she came

אֲנָן אֲתַאן אֲנָן אֲתַן אֲנָן אֲתֵינַן אָנוּ בָּאנוּ anan atan/atenan anu banu we came

אַתּוּ אֲתֵיתוּ אַתֶּם בָּאתֶם atu atetu atem batem you (m.pl.) came

אינון אֲתוּ הם בָּאוּ innun atu em ba'u they (m.) came

אינין אֲתַיָין אינין אֲתַאָן יאינין אתן הן בָּאוּ innin attajan en ba'u they (f.) came

Participle

The Aramaic verb has two participles : an active participle with suffix and a passive participle with suffix : active participles with suffix

Aramaic active participle WRITE with suffix Hebrew active participle WRITE Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

כָּתֵיב + אֲנָא ← כָּתֵיבְנָא אֲנִי כּוֹתֵב qatevna←qatev+ana ani qotev I write

כָּתֵיב + אַתְּ ← כָּתְבַתְּ אַתָּה כּוֹתֵב qatvat← qatev+ata ata qotev you write

כָּתְבִי + אֲנָן ← כָּתְבִינָן אָנוּ כּוֹתְבִים qatvinan←qatvi+anan anu qotvim we write

כָּתְבִי + אַתּוּ ← כָּתְבִיתּוּ אַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִים qatvitu← qatvi+atu atem qotvim you (pl.) write

Aramaic active participle COME with suffix Hebrew active participle COME Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אָתֵי / אָתְיָא + אֲנָא ← אָתֵינָא אֲנִי בָּא atena←ate+ana ani ba I come

אָתֵי / אָתְיָא + אַתְּ ← אָתֵיתְּ אַתָּה בָּא atet← ate+at ata ba You come

אָתוּ / אָתֵיָין + אֲנָן ← אָתִינָן אָנוּ בָּאִים atinan←atu+anan anu ba'iim we come

passive participle with suffix

Aramaic passive participle with suffix BUSY Hebrew passive participle BUSY Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

עֲסִיק + אֲנָא ← עֲסִיקְנָא אֲנִי עָסוּק assiqna←assiq+ana ani assuq I am busy

עֲסִיק + אַתְּ ← עֲסִיקַתְּ אַתָּה עָסוּק assiqat← assiq+ata ata assuq you are busy

עֲסִיקִי + אֲנַן ← עֲסִיקִינַן אָנוּ עֲסוּקִים assiqinan←assiqi+anan anu assuqim we are busy

עֲסִיקִי + אַתּוּ ← עֲסִיקִיתּוּ אַתֶּם עֲסוּקִים assiqitu← assiqi+atu atem assuqim you (pl.) are busy

infinitive /gerund

Aramaic infinitive /gerund TO COME Hebrew infinitive /gerund Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

(לְ)מֵיתֵי / לְמֵיתָא (לָ)בוֹא Lemeta/meteji la'vo TO COME

Future tense

Aramaic verb WILL WRITE Hebrew verb parallel WILL WRITE Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אֶיכְתּוֹב אֲנִי אֶכְתּוֹב ana aehtov ani aehtov I will write

אַתְּ תִּיכְתּוֹב אַתָּה תִּכְתּוֹב at tihtov ata tihtov You (m.sing.)will write

אַתְּ תִּיכְתְּבִין אַתְּ תִּיכְתְּבִי at tihtevin at tihtevi You (f.sing.) will write

הוּא לִיכְתּוֹב הוּא יִכְתּוֹב u lihtov u jihtov He will write

הִיא תִּיכְתּוֹב הִיא תִּכְתּוֹב i tihtov i tihtov She will write

אֲנָן לִיכְתּוֹב אָנוּ נִכְתּוֹב anan lihtov anu nihtov We will write

אַתּוּ תִּיכְתְּבוּן אַתֶּם תִּיכְתְּבוּ atu tihtevu atem tihtevun you (m.pl.) will write

אינון לִיכְתְּבוּן הם יכְתְּבוּ innun laphqedu em japhqidu they (m.pl.) will write

Verbal Pattern (binyan): Itpe\'el (אִתְפְּעֵל) Basic Verb - Passive

past tense

Aramaic verb WAS/WERE WRITTEN Hebrew verb parallel WAS/WERE WRITTEN Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אִי(תְ)כְּתֵיבִית אֲנִי נִכְתַבְתִּי ana itq'tevit ani nihtavti I was written

אַתְּ אִי(תְ)כְּתַבְתְּ אַתָּה נִכְתַבְתָּה at itq'tavt ata nihtavta you (m.s.) were written

אַתְּ אִי(תְ)כְּתַבְתְּ אַתְּ נִכְתַבְתְּ at itq'tavt at nihtavt you (f.s.) were written

הוּא אִי(תְ)כְּתֵיב הוּא נִכְתַבְ u itq'tev u nihtav it (m.) was written

הִיא אִי(תְ)כַּתְבָה הִיא נִכְתְּבָה i itqatva i nihteva it (f.) was written

אֲנָן אִי(תְ)כַּתְבִינָן אָנוּ נִכְתַבְנוּ anan itqatvinan anu nihtavnu we were written

אַתּוּ אִי(תְ)כַּתְבִיתּוּ אַתֶּם נִכְתַבְתֶּם atu itqatvitu atem nihtavtem you (m.pl.) were written

אינון אִי(תְ)כַּתְבוּ הם נִכְתְּבוּ innun itqatvu em nihtevu they (m.pl.) were written

future tense

Aramaic verb WILL BE WRITTEN Hebrew verb parallel WILL BE WRITTEN Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אֶ(תְ)כְּתֵיב אֲנִי אֶכָּתֵיב ana aeqqtev ani aeqqatev I will be written

אַתְּ תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיב אַתָּה תִכָּתֵיב at tiqqtev ata tiqqatev you (m.s.) will be written

אַתְּ תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיבִין אַתְּ תִכָּתֵיבִי at tiqqatevin at tiqqatevi you (f.s.) will be written

הוּא לִ(תְ)כְּתֵיב הוּא יִכָּתֵיב u liqqtev u iqqatev it (m.) will be written

הִיא תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיב הִיא תִכָּתֵיב i tiqqtev i tiqqatev it (f.) will be written

אֲנָן לִ(תְ)כְּתֵיב אָנוּ נִכָּתֵיב anan liqqtev anu niqqatev we will be written

אַתּוּ תִ(תְ)כַּתְבוּ אַתֶּם תִכָּתְבוּ atu tiqqat'vu atem tiqqatvu you (m.pl.) will be written

אינון לִ(תְ)קַכְּתֵיבוּן הם יִכָּתבוּ innun liqqtevun em iqqatvu they (s.pl.) will be written

אינין לִ(תְ)כַּתְבָן הן תִכָּתֵבְנָה innin liqqt'van en tiqqatevna they (m.pl.) will be written

}

Verbal Pattern (binyan): pa‘el (פַּעֵל) Frequentative - Active

The verbal pattern (binyan) pa‘el are frequentative verbs showing repeated or intense action.

The verbal pattern pa'el is Active Frequentative . past tense

Aramaic verb SANCTIFIED Hebrew verb parallel SANCTIFIED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא קַדֵּישִית אֲנִי קִדַּשְתִּי ana qadeshit ani qiddashti I sanctified

אַתְּ קַדֵּישְתְּ אַתָּה קִדַּשְתָּ at qadesht ata qiddashta You (m.s.) sanctified

אַתְּ קַדֵּישְתְּ אַתְּ קִדַּשְתְּ at qadesht at qiddasht You (f.s.) sanctified

הוּא קַדֵּיש הוּא קִדֵּש u qaddesh u qiddesh he sanctified

הִיא קַדִּישָה הִיא קִדְּשָה i qaddisha i qiddsha she sanctified

אֲנָן קַדֵּישְנָן אָנוּ קִדַּשְנוּ anan qaddeshnan anu qiddashnu we sanctified

אַתּוּ קַדֵּישְתּוּ אַתֶּם קִדַּשְתֶּם atu qaddeshtu atem qiddashtem You (m.pl.) sanctified

אינון קַדִּישוּ הם קִדְּשוּ innun qaddishu em qiddshu they (m.pl.) sanctified

future tense

Aramaic verb WILL SANCTIFY Hebrew verb parallel WILL SANCTIFY Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אֲקַדֵּיש אֲנִי אֲקַדֵּש ana aqadesh ani aqadesh I will sanctify

אַתְּ תְקַדֵּיש אַתָּה תְקַדֵּש at teqadesh ata teqadesh You (m.s.) will sanctify

אַתְּ תְקַדְּשִי אַתְּ תְקַדְּשִי at teqadeshi at teqadeshi You (f.s.) will sanctify

הוּא יְקַדֵּיש הוּא יְקַדֵּש u jeqadesh u jeqadesh he will sanctify

הִיא תְקַדֵּיש הִיא תְקַדֵּש i teqadesh i teqadesh she will sanctify

אֲנָן לְקַדֵּיש אָנוּ נְקַדֵּש anan leqadesh anu neqadesh we will sanctify

אַתּוּ תְקַדְּשוּ אַתֶּם תְקַדְּשוּ atu teqadshu atem teqadshu You (m.pl.) will sanctify

אינון לְקַדְּשוּ הם יְקַדְּשוּ innun leqadshu em jeqadeshu they (m.pl.) will sanctify

אינין לְקַדְּשָן הן תְקַדֵּשְנָה innin leqadshan en teqadeshna they (f.pl.) will sanctify

Verbal Pattern (binyan): Itpa\'al (אִתְפַּעַל) Frequentative - Passive

The verbal pattern itpa'al is Passive Frequentative .

Aramaic verb WAS/WERE SANCTIFIED Hebrew verb parallel WAS/WERE SANCTIFIED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁית אֲנִי נִתְקַדַּשְׁתִּי ana jiqqadashit ani nitqadashti I was sanctified

אַתְּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשְׁתְּ אַתָּה נִתְקַדַּשָׁה at jiqqadasht ata nitqqadasha you (m.s.) were sanctified

אַתְּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשְׁתְּ אַתְּ נִתְקַדַּשְׁתְּ at jiqqadasht at nitqadasht you (f.s.) were sanctified

הוּא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ הוּא נִתְקַדַּשׁ u jiqqadash u nitqadash it (m.) was sanctified

הִיא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשָׁה הִיא נִתְקַדַּשָׁה i jiqqadasha i nitqadasha it (f.) was sanctified

אֲנָן יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁינָן אָנוּ נִתְקַדַּשׁנוּ anu jiqqadashinan anu nitqadashnu we were sanctified

אַתּוּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁיתּוּ אַתֶּם נִתְקַדַּשְׁתֶּם atu jiqqadashitu innu nitqadashtem they (f.) were sanctified

אִינון יִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁוּ הם נִתְקַדַּשׁוּ innun jiqqadashitu em nitqadashu they (m.) were sanctified

Aramaic verb WILL BE SANCTIFIED Hebrew verb parallel WILL BE SANCTIFIED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אֶ(תְ)קַדֵּשׁ אֲנִי אֶתְקַדַּשׁ ana aeqqadash ani aetqadesh I will be sanctified

אַתְּ תִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ אַתָּה תִתְקַדֵּשׁ at tiqqadash ata titqadesh you (m.s.) will be sanctified

אַתְּ תִ(תְ)קַדְּשִׁין אַתְּ תִתְקַדְּשִׁי at tiqqadshin at titqadshi you (f.s.) will be sanctified

הוּא לִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ הוּא יִתְקַדֵּשׁ u liqqadash u itqadesh it (m.) will be sanctified

הִיא תִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ הִיא תִתְקַדֵּשׁ i tiqqadash i titqadesh it (f.) will be sanctified

אֲנָן לִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ אָנוּ נִתְקַדֵּשׁ anan liqqadash anu nitqadesh we will be sanctified

אַתּוּ תִ(תְ)קַדְּשׁוּ אַתֶּם תִתְקַדְּשׁוּ atu tiqqadshu atem titqadshu you (m.pl.) will be sanctified

אינון לִ(תְ)קַדְּשוּן הם יִתְקַדְּשׁוּ innun liqqadshun em itqadshu they (m.pl.) will be sanctified

אינין לִ(תְ)קַדְּשָׁן הן תִתְקַדֵּשְׁנָה innin liqqadshan en titqadeshna they (f.pl.) will be sanctified

Verbal Pattern (binyan): aph‘el (אַפְעֵל) Causative - Active

The verbal pattern aphel is Active Causative . past tense

Aramaic verb DEPOSITED Hebrew verb parallel DEPOSITED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אַפְקֵידִית אֲנִי הִפְקַדְתִּי ana aphqedit ani iphqadeti I deposited

אַתְּ אַפְקֵידְתְּ אַתָּה הִפְקַדְתָּ at aphqedt ata iphqadetta you (m.s.) deposited

אַתְּ אַפְקֵידְתְּ אַתְּ הִפְקַדְתְּ at aphqedt at iphqadett you (f.s.) deposited

הוּא אַפְקֵיד הוּא הִפְקִיד u aphqed u iphqid he deposited

הִיא אַפְקִידָה הִיא הִפְקִידָה i aphqida i iphqida she deposited

אֲנָן אַפְקְדִינָן אָנוּ הִפְקַדְנוּ anan aphqedinan anu iphqadnu we deposited

אַתּוּ אַפְקְדִיתּוּ אַתֶּם הִפְקַדְתֶּם atu aphqeditu atem iphqadtem you (m.pl.) deposited

אינון אַפְקִידוּ הם הִפְקִידוּ innun aphqidu em iphqidu they (m.pl.) deposited

Aramaic verb BROUGHT Hebrew verb parallel BROUGHT Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אַיְיתֵית אֲנִי הֵבֵאתִי ana ajtet ani heveti I brought

אַתְּ אַיְיתֵיית אַתָּה הֵבֵאתָ at ajtet ata heveta you (m.s.) brought

הוּא אַיְיתִי הוּא הֵבִיא u ajti u hevi he brought

הִיא אַיְיתָא הִיא אַתָיְא הִיא אַתָאי הִיא הֵבִיאָה i ajta i hevija she brought

אֲנָן אַיְיתֵינָא אָנוּ הֵבֵאנוּ anan ajtena anu hevenu we brought

אינון אַיְיתוּ הם הֵבִיאוּ innun ajtu em hevi'u they (m.pl.) brought

Participle

Aramaic active participle BRING with suffix Hebrew active participle BRING Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

מַיְיתֵי / מַתְיָא + אֲנָא ← מַיְיתֵינָא אֲנִי מֵבִיא maitena ←maite+ana ani mevi I bring

מַיְיתֵי / מַתְיָא + אַתְּ ← מַיְיתֵיתְּ אַתָּה מֵבִיא maitet← maite+at ata mevi you bring

מַיְיתוּ / מַיְתָן + אֲנָן ← מַיְיתִינָן אָנוּ מֵבִיאִים maitinan←atu+maitu anu mev'iim we bring

Future tense

Aramaic verb WILL DEPOSITE Hebrew verb parallel WILL DEPOSITE Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אַפְקֵד אֲנִי אַפְקִיד ana aphqed ani aphqid I will deposite

אַתְּ תַפְקֵד אַתָּה תַפְקִיד at taphqed ata taphqid you (m.) will deposite

אַתְּ תַפְקְדִי אַתְּ תַפְקִידִי at taphqedi at taphqidi you (f.) will deposite

הוּא לַפְקֵד הוּא יַפְקִיד u laphqed u japhqid he will deposite

הִיא תַפְקֵד הִיא תַפְקִיד i taphqed i taphqid she will deposite

אֲנָן לַפְקֵד אָנוּ נַפְקִיד anan laphqed anu naphqid we will deposite

אַתּוּ תַפְקְדוּ אַתֶּם תַפְקִידוּ atu taphqedu atem taphqidu you (m.pl.) will deposite

אינון לַפְקְדוּ הם יַפְקִידוּ innun laphqedu em japhqidu they (m.) will deposite

Aramaic verb WILL BRING Hebrew verb parallel WILL BRING Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

אֲנָא אַיְיתֵי אֲנִי אָבִיא ana ajite ani avi I will bring

אַתְּ תַיְיתֵי אַתָּה תָּבִיא at tajite ata tavi you (m.) will bring

אַתְּ ? אַתְּ תָּבִיאי at ? at taviji you (f.) will bring

הוּא לַיְיתֵי הוּא יָבִיא u lajite u javi he will bring

הִיא תַיְיתֵי הִיא תָּבִיא i tajite i tavi she will bring

אֲנָן לַיְיתֵי אָנוּ נָבִיא anan lajite anu navi we will bring

אַתּוּ תַיְתוּ אַתֶּם תָּבִיאוּ atu tajitu atem taviju you (m.pl.) will bring

אינון לַיְתוּ הם יָבִיאוּ innun lajitu em javiju they (m.) will bring

Verbal Pattern (binyan): itaphal (אִתַפְעַל) Causative - Passive Voice

The verbal pattern itaphal is Passive Causative .

Aramaic verb WAS REFUTED/WERE REFUTED Hebrew verb parallel WAS REFUTED/WERE REFUTED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation

הוּא אִיתּוֹתַב הוּא הוּשַׁב u ittotav u ushav it (m.s.) was refuted

אינון אִיתּוֹתְבוּ הם הוּשְׁבוּ innun ittotvu em ushvu they (m.pl.) were refuted

NOUN: SINGULAR/PLURAL

noun: singular JEWISH BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC EXAMPLE HEBREW PARALLEL English translation of the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example

מַלְכָּא (malk-a) המֶלֶךְ (ha-melekh) the king

עָלְמָא (alm-a) העוֹלָם (ha-olam) the world

מְדִינְתָא (medin-ta) המְדִינָה (ha-medina) the state

מְנָא הָא מִילְּתָא דְּאָמְרִי אֱנָשֵׁי (mil-ta) מִנַּיִין מִלָּה זֹאת שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֲנָשִׁים (ha-mila) the word/thing

noun: plural JEWISH BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC EXAMPLE HEBREW PARALLEL English translation of the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example

מַלְכֵי (malkheji)/ מַלְכַיָּא (malkh-ajia) המְלָכִים (ha-melakhim) the kings

עָלְמֵי (almeji)/ עָלְמַיָּא (alm-ajia) העוֹלָמים (ha-olamim) the worlds

מְנָא הָנֵי מִילֵּי (mil-eji) מִנַּיִין המִילִּים האֵלֶּה (ha-milim) the words/things

LIST OF VERBS

Aramaic verb Hebrew verb parallel English translation

בע' רָצָה ask, request, want and require

חז' רָאָה see

עבד עָשָׂה do/make

פלג חלק divide

צרך צריך necessity

את' בָּא come

תנ' שנה teach, learn, state, recite and repeat

תוב שוב return

נפק יָצָא go out

נחת יָרַד go down

סלק עָלָה go up

ילף למד learn, teach

יתב יָשַׁב to sit

זבן מָכַר to sell

הדר חָזַר to return

סלק הוֹרִיד, הֵסִיר to remove

גלי גֵּרֵשׁ to reveale

אסי רִפֵּא to heal, cure

הוי דָּן he discussed/raised an objection

קום / קָאֵם הִתְקַיֵּם/עומד to stand

עלל יָשַׁב to sit

IDIOM

Idiom JEWISH BABYLONIAN ARAMAIC EXAMPLE HEBREW PARALLEL English translation of the Jewish Babylonian Aramaic example

קָאֵים (qa'em) - "rising, standing, referring to"

קָאֵים - קָא (qa) - -

מַאי קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן (mai qa mashma lan) מָה מַשְׁמִיעַ לָנּוּ (ma mashma lanu) "What new point is he teaching us "

מַאי קָאָמַר (mai qa'amar ) מָה הוּא אוֹמֵר (ma hu omer) "What does he mean "

תָּנוּ רַבָּנָן (tanu rabanan) שָׁנוּ חֲכָמִים (shanu khakhamim) "the rabbis taught"

מְנָא הָנֵי מִילֵּי (mena hane mileji) מִנַּיִין המִילִּים האֵלֶּה (minajin ha-milim ha-ele) "What is the source"

MODERN STUDY

The language has received considerable scholarly attention, as shown in the Bibliography below. However, the majority of those who are familiar with it, namely Orthodox Jewish students of Talmud, are given no systematic instruction in the language, and are expected to "sink or swim" in the course of Talmudic studies, with the help of some informal pointers showing similarities and differences with Hebrew.

SEE ALSO

* Jewish Palestinian Aramaic

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). " Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (ca. 200–1200 CE)". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Sokoloff 2003 * ^ Morag 1988 * ^ Morgenstern 2011 * ^ Elitzur Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (2013) * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 78 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 79 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 79 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 101 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 99 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 82 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 100 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 65, 66. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 91. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 66. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 92. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90. * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 67. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 92. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 95. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 95. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 95. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 90, 104 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 95. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 73. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 73. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 72. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 80 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 191 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 192 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 91. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 192 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 192 * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 194 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 84, 92. * ^ Elitzur A. Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Ugarit, Münster 2013, p. 194 * ^ Samuel David Luzzatto/Marcus Salomon Krüger:Grammatik der biblisch-chaldäischen Sprache und des Idioms des Thalmud Babli: ein Grundriss, Schletter, Breslau 1873, p. 92. * ^ Yitzhak Frank : Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 18:A survey of the aramaic binyanim. * ^ Yitzhak Frank : Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic: , Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 23: Talmud
Talmud
Bavli Aramaic. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 22:Past tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 123:Past tense: came. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 32. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 33. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 124:active participle with suffix * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 36:Future tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 25:Past tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 39:Future tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 23:Past tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 37:Future tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 26:Past tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 40:Future tense: banyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 24:Past tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p.123 f. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 124:active participle with suffix * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 38:Future tense: binyan. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 125:Future tense: will bring. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 , p. 94:Past tense:was refuted/were refuted. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231-232. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 232. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 232. * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 178:From where is the maxim that people say? * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231-232. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 233: ...in the plural of masculine nouns ... construct forms such as מַלְכֵי are often used not only in the construct state but even in the absolute and emphatic states. Thus, in Babylonian Aramaic, the form מַלְכֵי may mean either the kings of or kings or the kings. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 233. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1 ,p. 231. * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 178:From where do we derive these things? * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 105f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 108f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 59f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 50f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 56f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 123f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 116f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 93. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 68f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 70f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 74. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 82f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 88f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, (Nr. 2 - Index). * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 64. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 74f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 111. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 114f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 126f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 132f. * ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, (Nr. 26 - Index). * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 230. * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 230: "This participle is often used with a word that has a prepositional prefix - אֵי, to mean basing oneself upon or referring to." * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 229. * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 229: " A contraction of the participle קָאֵים (from the root קום ) is often placed before another participle...it has an emphatic effect that is difficult to translate into english ." * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 153. * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 153: "What new point is he teaching us? This question points out a difficulty: Since the amora's halakha was already known to us from a mishna, a baraita, or the amora's own statement on another occasion - why did the amora present it again?" * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 152. * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 152: "What does he mean? This question seeks a clarification of the meaning of a mishna, a baraitha, an amoraic statement, or a pasuk." * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 260. * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 260: "the hakhamim taught. This expression usually introduces a baraitha that begins with an anonymous statement." * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, p. 178. * ^ Yitzhak Frank:The Practical Talmud
Talmud
Dictionary, Jerusalem 2001, s. p.178: "From where do we derive these things? What is the source? This question seeks a source for a statement in a mishna, in a baraitha, or by an amora." * ^ Jay Bushinsky, "The passion of Aramaic-Kurdish Jews brought Aramaic to Israel"

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bar-Asher Siegal, Elitzur A., Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2013 ISBN 978-3-86835-084-5 * J. N. Epstein, Diqduq Aramit Bavlit ("Grammar of Babylonian Aramaic"), 1960 (Hebrew) * Frank, Yitzhak , Grammar for Gemara: An Introduction to Babylonian Aramaic: Jerusalem, Ariel Institute, 2000 ISBN 0-87306-612-X * Jastrow, Marcus , A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud
Talmud
Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (reprinted many times) ISBN 1-56563-860-3 * Kara, Yehiel, Babylonian Aramaic in the Yemenite Manuscripts of the Talmud: Orthography, Phonology and Morphology of the Verb: Jerusalem 1983 * Klein, Hyman, An Introduction to the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud: London 1943 * Kutscher, Eduard Yechezkel, Hebrew and Aramaic Studies, ed. Z. Ben-Hayyim, A. Dotan, and G. Sarfatti: Jerusalem, The Magnes Press / The Hebrew University, 1977 * Levias, Caspar, A grammar of the Aramaic id