HOME
The Info List - Jewish–Roman Wars


--- Advertisement ---



Decisive Roman Empire
Roman Empire
victory:

Destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple Widespread destruction in Judea
Judea
and diaspora of many survivors Schism between Judaism
Judaism
and early Christianity Consolidation of non-messianic Jewish sects into Rabbinic Judaism Consolidation of Jewish center in Galilee

Territorial changes Roman Judea
Roman Judea
(Iudaea) remained under Roman control, renamed and merged into the Province of Syria Palaestina

Belligerents

Roman Empire Judean Free Government Jewish Zealots;

Jewish rebels;

Israel (Judea) under Bar Kokhba

Commanders and leaders

Titus Vespasian Marcus Lupus

Marcius Turbo Lusius Quietus

Hadrian Sextus Julius Severus Hannan Eleazar ben Hanania Bar-Giora Eleazar John

Artemion Lukuas Julian and Pappus;

Simon bar Kokhba Eleazar of Modi'im

Strength

Great revolt: 30,000 (Beth Horon) – 60,000 (Siege of Jerusalem)

Kitos War: forces of the eastern legions

Bar Kokhba revolt: 6-7 full legions with cohorts and auxiliaries of 5-6 additional legions – about 120,000 total. Great revolt: 25,000+ Jewish militias 20,000 Edomeans

Kitos War: loosely organized tens of thousands

Bar-Kokhba revolt: 200,000 – 400,000b militia men

Casualties and losses

Great revolt: Legio XII Fulminata
Legio XII Fulminata
lost its aquila and Syrian contingent destroyed – about 20,000 casualties;

Kitos War: 240,000 civilians killed in Cyprusa,[1] 200,000 killed in Cyrenaicaa;

Bar-Kokhba revolt: Legio XXII Deiotariana
Legio XXII Deiotariana
destroyed, Legio IX Hispana
Legio IX Hispana
possibly disbanded,[2] Legio X Fretensis
Legio X Fretensis
– sustained heavy casualties Great revolt: 250,000[3][better source needed] – 1,338,400c Jews
Jews
and non-Jewish civilians (mostly trapped visitors) killed; enslavement of 97,000-99,000c;

Kitos War: annihilation of Jewish communities in Cyprus, Cyrenaica and Alexandria;

Bar Kokhba revolt: 400,000[3] – 580,000a civilians and militia massacred, 985 Judean villages razeda.

350,000[4] - 2,000,000+ fatalities

[a] - per Cassius Dio[5] [b] - according to Rabbinic sources [c] - per Josephus[6]

v t e

Jewish–Roman wars

Prelude

Judas uprising (6 CE) Alexandria (38 CE) Jacob and Simon uprising (46 CE)

Major conflicts

Great Revolt
Revolt
of Judea Kitos War Bar Kokhba revolt

The Jewish–Roman wars
Jewish–Roman wars
were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews
Jews
of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
between 66 and 136 CE. While the First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
(66–73 CE) and the Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt
(132–136 CE) were nationalist rebellions, striving to restore an independent Judean state, the Kitos War
Kitos War
was more of an ethno-religious conflict, mostly fought outside the Judea
Judea
Province. Hence, some sources use the term Jewish-Roman Wars to refer only to the First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
(66–73 CE) and the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135 CE), while others include the Kitos War
Kitos War
(115–117 CE) as one of the Jewish–Roman wars. The Jewish–Roman wars
Jewish–Roman wars
had a dramatic impact on the Jewish people, turning them from a major population in the Eastern Mediterranean into a scattered and persecuted minority. The Jewish-Roman Wars are often cited as a disaster to Jewish society.[7] The events also had a major impact on Judaism, after the central worship site of Second Temple Judaism, the Second Temple
Second Temple
in Jerusalem, was destroyed by Titus' troops. Although having a sort of autonomy in the Galilee
Galilee
until the 4th century and later a limited success in establishing the short-lived Sasanian Jewish autonomy in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 614–617 CE, Jewish dominance in parts of the Southern Levant
Southern Levant
was regained only in the mid-20th century, with the founding of the modern state of Israel in 1948 CE.

Contents

1 Background 2 Sequence 3 History

3.1 First Jewish–Roman War 3.2 Kitos War 3.3 Bar Kokhba Revolt

4 Aftermath 5 See also 6 References

Background[edit] Main articles: Jacob and Simon uprising and Alexandria pogroms Following increasing Roman domination of the Eastern Mediterranean, the client kingdom of the Herodian dynasty
Herodian dynasty
had been officially merged into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the year 6 CE with the creation of Roman Judea. The transition of the Tetrarchy of Judea
Judea
into a Roman province immediately brought a great deal of tensions and a Jewish uprising by Judas of Galilee erupted right away as a response to the Census of Quirinius. Though initially pacified (the years between 7 and 26 CE being relatively quiet), the province continued to be a source of trouble under Emperor Caligula
Caligula
(after 37 CE). The cause of tensions in the east of the Empire was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman Law, and the rights of Jews
Jews
in the Empire. Caligula
Caligula
did not trust the prefect of Roman Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists.[8][better source needed] In 38 CE, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus.[9][better source needed] According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population, who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews.[10][11] Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula
Caligula
by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues.[12][13] As a result, extensive religious riots broke out in the city.[14] Caligula
Caligula
responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him.[15] In 39 CE, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee
Galilee
and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas
Herod Antipas
confessed and Caligula
Caligula
exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories.[16] Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 CE between Jews
Jews
and Greeks.[17] Jews
Jews
were accused of not honoring the emperor.[17] Disputes occurred also in the city of Jamnia.[18] Jews
Jews
were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it.[18] In response, Caligula
Caligula
ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Temple of Jerusalem,[19] a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism.[20] In this context, Philo
Philo
wrote that Caligula
Caligula
"regarded the Jews
Jews
with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his".[20] The governor of Roman Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year.[21] Agrippa finally convinced Caligula
Caligula
to reverse the order.[17] However, only Caligula's death at the hands of Roman conspirators in 41 CE prevented a full-scale war in Judaea, that might have well spread to the entire Eastern Roman Empire.[22] Caligula's death did not stop the tensions completely and in 46 CE an insurrection led by two brothers, the Jacob and Simon uprising, broke out in Judea
Judea
province. The revolt, mainly in the Galilee, began as sporadic insurgency; when it climaxed in 48 CE it was quickly put down by Roman authorities. Both Simon and Jacob were executed.[23] Sequence[edit] The Jewish–Roman wars
Jewish–Roman wars
include the following:

First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
(66–73 CE) — also called the First Jewish Revolt
Revolt
or the Great Jewish Revolt, spanning from the 66 CE insurrection, through the 67 CE fall of the Galilee, the destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Second Temple
Second Temple
and institution of the Fiscus Judaicus in 70 CE, and finally the fall of Masada in 73 CE. Kitos War
Kitos War
(115–117 CE) — known as the "Rebellion of the Exile" and sometimes called the Second Jewish–Roman War. Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt
(132–136 CE) — also called the Second Jewish–Roman War (when Kitos War
Kitos War
is not counted), or the Third (when the Kitos War
Kitos War
is counted).

History[edit] First Jewish–Roman War[edit] Main article: First Jewish–Roman War The First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
began in the year 66 CE, originating in the Greek and Jewish religious tensions, and later escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens.[24] In response to the Roman plunder of the Second Jewish Temple
Second Jewish Temple
and the execution of up to 6,000 Jews
Jews
in Jerusalem, a full-scale rebellion erupted. The Roman military garrison of Judaea was quickly overrun by rebels, while the pro-Roman king Agrippa II
Agrippa II
together with Roman officials fled Jerusalem. As it became clear the rebellion was getting out of control, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata and reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. Despite initial advances, the Syrian Legion was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon with 6,000 Romans massacred and the Legio aquila lost – a result that shocked the Roman leadership. The experienced and unassuming general Vespasian
Vespasian
was then tasked with crushing the rebellion in Judaea province. His son Titus
Titus
was appointed second-in-command. Vespasian
Vespasian
was given four legions and assisted by forces of King Agrippa II. In 67 CE he invaded Galilee. While avoiding a direct attack on the reinforced city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
which was packed with the main rebel force, Titus' forces launched a persistent campaign to eradicate rebel strongholds and punish the population. Within several months Vespasian
Vespasian
and Titus
Titus
took over the major Jewish strongholds of Galilee
Galilee
and finally overran Jotapata under command of Yosef ben Matitiyahu, following a 47-day siege. Meantime in Jerusalem, an attempt by Sicarii leader Menahem to take control of the city failed, resulting in his execution. A peasant leader Simon Bar-Giora was ousted from the city by the new moderate Judean government and Ananus ben Ananus
Ananus ben Ananus
began reinforcing the city.[citation needed] Driven from Galilee, Zealot
Zealot
rebels and thousands of refugees arrived in Judea, creating political turmoil in Jerusalem. Zealots
Zealots
were at first sealed in the Temple compound. However, confrontation between the mainly Sadducee
Sadducee
Jerusalemites and the mainly Zealot
Zealot
factions of the Northern Revolt
Revolt
under the command of John of Giscala and Eleazar ben Simon became evident. With Edomites
Edomites
entering the city and fighting on the side of the Zealots, Ananus ben Ananus
Ananus ben Ananus
was killed and his forces suffered severe casualties. Simon Bar Giora, commanding 15,000 troops, was then invited into Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by the Sadducee
Sadducee
leaders to stand against the Zealots, and quickly took control over much of the city. Bitter infighting between factions of Bar Giora, John and Elazar followed through the year 69 CE.[citation needed] After a lull in the military operations, owing to civil war and political turmoil in Rome, Vespasian
Vespasian
returned to Rome and was accepted as the new Emperor in 69 CE. With Vespasian's departure, Titus besieged the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in early 70 CE. While the first two walls of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were breached within three weeks, a stubborn stand prevented the Roman Army from breaking the third and thickest wall. Following a brutal seven-month siege, in which Zealot
Zealot
infighting resulted in the burning of the entire food supply of the city to enhance "fighting to the end", the Romans finally succeeded in breaching the weakened Jewish forces in the summer of 70 CE. Following the fall of Jerusalem, Titus
Titus
left for Rome, while Legion X Fretensis defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds later on, finalizing the Roman campaign in Masada in 73/74 CE. Kitos War[edit] Main article: Kitos War The Kitos War
Kitos War
(115–117 CE) also known as mered ha'galuyot or mered ha'tfutzot (Rebellion of the exile) is the name given to the second of the Jewish–Roman wars. The Kitos War
Kitos War
consisted of major revolts by diasporic Jews
Jews
in Cyrene (Cyrenaica), Cyprus, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Aegyptus, which spiraled out of control, resulting in a widespread slaughter of Roman citizens and others (200,000 in Cyrene, 240,000 in Cyprus according to Cassius Dio) by the Jewish rebels. The rebellions were finally crushed by Roman legionary forces, chiefly by the Roman general Lusius Quietus, whose nomen later gave the conflict its title, as "Kitos" is a later corruption of Quietus. Bar Kokhba Revolt[edit] Main article: Bar Kokhba revolt The Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt
(132–136 CE),[25] (Hebrew: מרד בר כוכבא‎ or mered bar kokhba), was the third major rebellion by the Jews
Jews
of Judaea Province
Judaea Province
and Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the last of the Jewish–Roman Wars. Simon bar Kokhba, the commander of the revolt, was acclaimed as a Messiah, a heroic figure who could restore Israel. The revolt established an independent state of Israel over parts of Judea
Judea
for more than two years, but a Roman army made up of six full legions with auxiliaries and elements from up to six additional legions finally crushed it.[26] The Romans then barred Jews
Jews
from Jerusalem, except to attend Tisha B'Av. Although Jewish Christians hailed Jesus as the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba,[27] they were barred from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
along with the rest of the Jews.[citation needed] The war and its aftermath helped differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism (see also Split of early Christianity and Judaism).[28] The rebellion is also known as The Third Jewish–Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt, though some historians relate it as Second Jewish Revolt, not counting the Kitos War, 115–117 CE.[citation needed] Aftermath[edit] Due to the First Jewish-Roman War, the destruction of the Second Temple ushered in a major time of dramatic reformation in religious leadership, causing the face of Judaism
Judaism
to change. The Second Temple served as the centralized location from which the ruling groups Sadduccees
Sadduccees
and the Pharisees
Pharisees
maintained Judaism, with rivaling Essenes and Zealots
Zealots
being largely in opposition. With the destruction of the temple, the major ruling group lost their power - the Sadducees, who were the priests, directly lost their localized power source and were rendered obsolete. Due to this, only one group was left with all the power - the Pharisees, who were the rabbinic group. The rabbinic groups’ power did not derive from the temple or from military prowess, which enabled their power to spread among synagogues to different communities. This changed the way Judaism
Judaism
was practiced on a daily basis, which included changing from sacrificing animals to praying in order to worship God.[29] Rabbinic Judaism became a religion centered around synagogues, and the Jews
Jews
themselves dispersed throughout the Roman world and beyond.[30] With the destruction of Jerusalem, important centers of Jewish culture developed in the area of Galilee
Galilee
and in Babylonia and work on the Talmud
Talmud
continued in these locations. Before Vespasian's departure, the Pharisaic sage and Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai
Yohanan ben Zakkai
obtained his permission to establish a Judaic school at Yavne. Zakkai was smuggled away from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in a coffin by his students. This school later became a major center of Talmudic study (see Mishnah). Hadrian
Hadrian
(emperor 117-138 CE) attempted to completely root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions. He prohibited the Torah
Torah
and the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
and executed Judaic scholars. The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. At the former Temple sanctuary he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea
Judea
or Ancient Israel, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina, supplanting earlier terms, such as Judaea. Similarly, he re-established Jerusalem, this time as the Roman polis of Aelia Capitolina, and Jews
Jews
were barred from entering the city, except on the fast day of Tisha B'Av.[31] The Jewish–Roman wars
Jewish–Roman wars
had a dramatic impact on the Jews, turning them from a major population in the Eastern Mediterranean into a scattered and persecuted minority. The Jewish-Roman Wars are often cited as a disaster to Jewish society.[7] The defeat of the Jewish revolts altered the Jewish population and enhanced the importance of Jewish diaspora, essentially moving the demographic center of Jews from Judea
Judea
to Galilee
Galilee
and Babylon, with minor communities across the Mediterranean. Although having a sort of autonomy in the Galilee
Galilee
until the 4th century and later a limited success in establishing the short-lived Sasanian Jewish autonomy in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 614–617 CE, Jewish dominance in parts of the Southern Levant
Southern Levant
was regained only in the mid-20th century, with the founding of the modern state of Israel in 1948 CE. See also[edit]

Arch of Titus History of the Jews
Jews
in the Roman Empire Jewish revolt against Gallus (351 CE) — the Jewish revolt originating in Sepphoris
Sepphoris
in the Galilee Jewish revolt against Heraclius
Jewish revolt against Heraclius
(613 CE) — the Jewish revolt originating in Tiberias
Tiberias
in the Galilee. List of conflicts in the Near East Samaritan Revolts
Samaritan Revolts
(484–572) — Samaritan incited revolts, originating largely in Neapolis. Siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(63 BC) Siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(37 BC) Siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(70) Siege of Masada

References[edit]

^ "Cyprus". JewishEncyclopedia.com.  ^ "Legio VIIII Hispana". Livius.  ^ a b Rivka Shpak Lissak. "The Roman Policy: Elimination the Jewish National-Cultural Entity and the Jewish Majority in the Land of Israel". Retrieved 15 January 2011.  ^ Matthew White, The Great Big Book of Horrible Things (Norton, 2012) p.52,[1] ^ Cassius Dio, Translation by Earnest Cary. Roman History, book 69, 12.1-14.3. Loeb Classical Library, 9 volumes, Greek texts and facing English translation: Harvard University Press, 1914 thru 1927. Online in LacusCurtius:[2] and livius.org:[3]. Book scan in Internet Archive:[4]. ^ Calmet et.al. Calmet's Great Dictionary of the Holy Bible. p438. ^ a b Hitti, P. K.[dead link] ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus III.8, IV.21. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus V.26–28. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus V.29. ^ Merrill F. Unger (1 June 2009). The New Unger's Bible Dictionary. Moody Publishers. pp. 1710–. ISBN 978-1-57567-500-8.  ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus VI.43. ^ Joseph Modrzejewski (16 November 1997). The Jews
Jews
of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian. Princeton University Press. pp. 169–. ISBN 0-691-01575-9.  ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus VII.45. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus XXI.185. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews
Jews
XVIII.7.2. ^ a b c Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews
Jews
XVIII.8.1. ^ a b Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXX.201. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXX.203. ^ a b Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XVI.115. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXXI.213. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula
Caligula
(37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews
Jews
and the Julio-Claudian
Julio-Claudian
empire. Until then — if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment — there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews
Jews
and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula
Caligula
ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East." ^ Reuven Firestone (2 July 2012). Holy War in Judaism: The Fall and Rise of a Controversial Idea. Oxford University Press. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-0-19-997715-4.  ^ Josephus, War of the Jews
Jews
II.8.11, II.13.7, II.14.4, II.14.5 ^ for the year 136, see: W. Eck, The Bar Kokhba Revolt: The Roman Point of View, pp. 87–88. ^ "Israel Tour Daily Newsletter". 27 July 2010. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.  ^ Justin, "Apologia", ii.71, compare "Dial." cx; Eusebius "Hist. Eccl." iv.6,§2; Orosius "Hist." vii.13 ^ M. Avi-Yonah, The Jews
Jews
under Roman and Byzantine Rule, Jerusalem 1984 p. 143 ^ Schiffman, Lawrence (1991). From Text To Tradition. KTAV Publishing House. ISBN 0881253723.  ^ Rabbi
Rabbi
Nosson Dovid Rabinowich (ed.), The Iggeres of Rav Sherira Gaon, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1988, p. 6. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, page 334: "Jews were forbidden to live in the city and were allowed to visit it only once a year, on the Ninth of Ab, to mourn on the ruins of their holy Temple."

v t e

Jewish history

Antiquity

Origins Ancient Israel
Ancient Israel
and Judah Hasmoneans Sanhedrin Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism Ancient Greece

Hellenistic Judaism

Roman Empire Rabbinic Judaism Diaspora Carthage Ancient Libya Ancient Egypt Ancient Persia Babylon/Mesopotamia

Babylonian captivity

Middle Ages

Under Muslim rule Byzantium Crusades Golden Age Ottoman Empire Medieval antisemitism

Modern

Jewish question Disabilities Emancipation Enlightenment Reform Judaism Zionism Soviet Union United States World War II

The Holocaust Resistance

Israeli history

New Yishuv

See also Jewish history
Jewish history
in Israel/Palestine Population history Genetic history Languages Refugees Schisms

Political movements

Timeline WP:Jewish history

v t e

Ancient Roman wars

Wars of the Roman Republic

Roman–Etruscan Wars Roman-Aequian wars Roman–Latin wars Roman–Hernician wars Roman-Volscian wars Samnite Wars Pyrrhic War Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) Illyrian Wars (First, Second, Third) Macedonian Wars (First, Second, Third, Fourth) Roman–Seleucid War Aetolian War Galatian War Roman conquest of Hispania (First Celtiberian War, Lusitanian War, Numantine War, Sertorian War, Cantabrian Wars) Achaean War Jugurthine War Cimbrian War Servile Wars (First, Second, Third) Social War Sulla's civil wars (First, Second) Mithridatic Wars (First, Second, Third) Gallic Wars Caesar's invasions of Britain Caesar's Civil War End of the Republic (Post-Caesarian, Liberators', Sicilian, Perusine, Final)

Wars of the Roman Empire

Germanic Wars (Teutoburg, Marcomannic, Alemannic, Gothic, Visigothic) Wars in Britain Wars of Boudica Armenian War Civil War of 69 Jewish–Roman wars Domitian's Dacian War Trajan's Dacian Wars Parthian Wars Persian Wars Civil Wars of the Third Century Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire

Military histo

.