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(i) (i) (i) (i)

The term JEW passed into the English language from the Greek Ioudaios and Latin Iudaeus, from which the Old French
Old French
giu was derived after dropping the letter "d", and later after a variety of forms found in early English (from about the year 1000) such as: Iudea, Gyu, Giu, Iuu, Iuw, Iew developed into the English word “Jew.” It thus ultimately originates in the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
word Yehudi meaning "from the Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
", "from the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
", or " Jew
Jew
". The Jewish ethnonym in Hebrew is יהודים‎, Yehudim (plural of יהודי‎, Yehudi).

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Yehudi in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
* 1.2 Development in European languages

* 2 Modern use

* 2.1 Antisemitism
Antisemitism

* 3 See also * 4 References

ETYMOLOGY

Further information: Ioudaios Hasmonean
Hasmonean
coin of John Hyrcanus (134 to 104 BCE) with the inscription "Hayehudim" (of the Jews
Jews
). OBV: Double cornucopia. REV: Five lines of ancient Hebrew script; reading "Yehochanan Kohen Gadol, Chever Hayehudim" (Yehochanan the High Priest , Council of the Jews
Jews
. Map of the region in the 9th century BCE

YEHUDI IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

According to the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
, Judah (יְהוּדָה‎, Yehudah) was the name of the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob
Jacob
. During the Exodus, the name was given to the Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
, descended from the patriarch Judah. After the conquest and settlement of the land of Canaan
Canaan
, Judah also referred to the territory allocated to the tribe. After the splitting of the united Kingdom of Israel
Israel
, the name was used for the southern kingdom of Judah . The kingdom now encompassed the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Simeon , along with some of the cities of the Levites . With the destruction of the northern kingdom of Israel
Israel
(Samaria) , the kingdom of Judah became the sole Jewish state and the term y'hudi (יהודי‎) was applied to all Israelites. When the word makes its first appearance in writing (in the book of Esther) its meaning has already expanded to include converts to the Jewish religion as well as descendants of Israelites.

The term Yehudi (יְהוּדִי‎) occurs 74 times in the Masoretic text
Masoretic text
of the Hebrew Bible. The plural, Yehudim (הַיְּהוּדִים‎) first appears in 2 Kings 16:6 where it refers to a defeat for the Yehudi army or nation, and in 2 Chronicles 32:18, where it refers to the language of the Yehudim (יְהוּדִית‎). Jeremiah 34:9 has the earliest singular usage of the word Yehudi. In Esther 2:5-6, the name "Yehudi" (יְהוּדִי‎) has a generic aspect, in this case referring to a man from the tribe of Benjamin : "There was a man a Yehudi (Jewish man) in Shushan
Shushan
the capital, whose name was Mordecai
Mordecai
the son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish , a Benjamite ; who had been exiled from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
with the exile that was exiled with Jeconiah
Jeconiah
, king of Judah , which Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
, king of Babylon
Babylon
, had exiled."

The name appears in the Bible as a verb in Esther 8:17 which states: "Many of the people of the land became Yehudim (in the generic sense) (מִתְיַהֲדִים‎, mityahadim) because the fear of the Yehudim fell on them."

In some places in the Talmud
Talmud
the word Israel(ite) refers to somebody who is Jewish but does not necessarily practice Judaism
Judaism
as a religion : "An Israel(ite) even though he has sinned is still an Israel(ite)" (Tractate Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
44a). More commonly the Talmud
Talmud
uses the term Bnei Yisrael, i.e. "Children of Israel", ("Israel" being the name of the third patriarch Jacob
Jacob
, father of the sons that would form the twelve tribes of Israel, which he was given and took after wrestling with an angel, see Genesis 32:28-29 ) to refer to Jews. According to the Talmud
Talmud
then, there is no distinction between "religious Jews" and "secular Jews."

In modern Hebrew , the same word is still used to mean both Jews
Jews
and Judeans ("of Judea"). In Arabic
Arabic
the terms are yahūdī (sg.), al-yahūd (pl.), and بَنُو اِسرَائِيل banū isrāʼīl. The Aramaic term is Y'hūdāi.

DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES

A page from Elia Levita
Elia Levita
's Yiddish
Yiddish
-Hebrew -Latin -German dictionary (16th century) contains a list of nations, including an entry for Jew: Hebrew : יְהוּדִי‎‎ Yiddish
Yiddish
: יוּד‎ German : Jud Latin : Iudaeus

The Septuagint
Septuagint
(reputedly a product of Hellenistic Jewish scholarship) and other Greek documents translated יְהוּדִי‎, Yehudi and the Aramaic Y'hūdāi using the Koine Greek
Koine Greek
term Ioudaios (Greek : Ἰουδαῖος; pl. Ἰουδαῖοι Ioudaioi), which had lost the 'h' sound. The Latin term, following the Greek version, is Iudaeus, and from these sources the term passed to other European languages. The Old French
Old French
giu, earlier juieu, had elided (dropped) the letter "d" from the Latin Iudaeus. The Middle English
Middle English
word Jew
Jew
derives from Old English where the word is attested as early as 1000 in various forms, such as Iudeas, Gyu, Giu, Iuu, Iuw, Iew. The Old English name is derived from Old French. The modern French the term is "juif".

Most European languages have retained the letter "d" in the word for Jew. Etymological equivalents are in use in other languages, e.g., "Jude" in German , "judeu" in Portuguese , "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian , "judío" in Spanish , "jood" in Dutch , etc. In some languages, derivations of the word "Hebrew" are also in use to describe a Jew, e.g., Ebreo in Italian , Ebri/Ebrani (Persian : عبری/عبرانی‎‎) in Persian and Еврей, Yevrey in Russian . (See Jewish ethnonyms for a full overview.)

The German word "Jude" is pronounced , the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" (Jewish), and is cognate with the Yiddish
Yiddish
word for "Jew", "Yid".

MODERN USE

Further information: Who is a Jew? Obverse of a Jewish silver Yehud coin from the Persian era, with falcon or eagle and Aramaic inscription "יהד" "Yehud" (Judaea )

In modern English , the term "Israelite" was used to refer to contemporary Jews
Jews
as well as to Jews
Jews
of antiquity until the mid-20th-century. Since the foundation of the State of Israel
State of Israel
, it has become less common to use "Israelite" of Jews
Jews
in general. Instead, citizens of the state of Israel, whether Jewish or not, are called "Israeli", while "Jew" is used as an ethno-religious designation.

ANTISEMITISM

Further information: Antisemitism
Antisemitism

The word Jew
Jew
has been used often enough in a disparaging manner by antisemites that in the late 19th and early 20th centuries it was frequently avoided altogether, and the term Hebrew was substituted instead (e.g. Young Men\'s Hebrew Association ). Even today some people are wary of its use, and prefer to use "Jewish". Indeed, when used as an adjective (e.g. " Jew
Jew
lawyer") or verb (e.g. "to jew someone"), the term Jew
Jew
is purely pejorative. According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language , Fourth Edition (2000):

It is widely recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew
Jew
lawyer or Jew
Jew
ethics, is both vulgar and highly offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility. Some people, however, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew
Jew
as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews
Jews
on the council, which is unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew
Jew
has a negative connotation when used as a noun.

In much the same manner, the Yiddish
Yiddish
term for Jew
Jew
(איד,ייִד) Yid , (singular), ייִדן Yidn (plural)) — originally a benign term — was once used as an ethnic slur , but now is often used by Jews
Jews
in praise, to describe an upstanding religiously observant Jew (e.g., "He's such a Yid, giving up his time like that") or to distinguish upstanding religiously observant Jews
Jews
from non-observant, with the implication that the latter would be better people if they were stricter in their observance (e.g., "Yidn wouldn't do such a thing").

SEE ALSO

* Jewish ethnonym in various languages * Ioudaioi , Greek

REFERENCES

* ^ http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=1&CHAPTER=32 * ^ Falk, Avner (1996). A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-8386-3660-8 . * ^ "Yiddish". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 2004. p. 1453. ISBN 0-87779-809-5 . * ^ "Notes". The Nation. New York: E. L. Godkin & Co. 14 (348): 137. February 29, 1872. ISSN 0027-8378 . Retrieved December 7, 2009. * ^ "Jew". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language . Archived from the original on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2012-04-02.

* v * t * e

Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism

* Outline of Judaism

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ancient * Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
* Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity

* Jerusalem
Jerusalem

* Significance * Timeline

* Hasmonean dynasty
Hasmonean dynasty
* Herod * Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
* Pharisees
Pharisees
* Sadducees
Sadducees
* Essenes
Essenes
* First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
* Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt
* Diaspora * Middle Ages * Muslim rule * Sabbateans
Sabbateans
* Haskalah
Haskalah
* Emancipation * The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* History of Zionism
Zionism
* History of Israel
History of Israel
* Proposals for a Jewish state
Proposals for a Jewish state
* Land of Israel
Land of Israel
* Aliyah
Aliyah
* Baal teshuva movement
Baal teshuva movement
* Arab–Israeli / Israeli–Palestinian conflicts * Judaism
Judaism
by country

JEWISH GROUPS

* Ashkenazi Jews
Jews

* German Jews
Jews
* Hungarian Jews
Jews
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Jews
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Jews
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Jews
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Jews

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Jews

* Spanish and Portuguese Jews
Jews
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Jews
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Jews

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Jews

* Yemenite Jews
Jews
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Jews
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Jews
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Jews
* Kurdish Jews
Jews
* Bukharan Jews
Jews

* African Jews
Jews

* Berber Jews
Jews
* Beta Israel
Beta Israel

* Greco-Roman Jews
Jews

* Romaniote Jews
Jews
* Italkim

* Jews
Jews
of the Caucasus

* Georgian Jews
Jews
* Mountain Jews
Jews
* Crimean Karaites
Crimean Karaites
* Krymchaks
Krymchaks
* Urfalim
Urfalim

* Indian Jews
Jews

* Baghdadi Jews
Jews
* Bene Ephraim * Bene Israel
Bene Israel
* Bnei Menashe
Bnei Menashe
* Cochin Jews
Jews

* East Asian Jews
Jews

* Kaifeng Jews
Jews

Religious movements

* Orthodox

* Haredi * Hasidic * Modern Orthodox * Religious Zionism
Zionism
* Chardal

* Musar movement
Musar movement

* Conservative

* Neolog

* Reform/Progressive * Reconstructionist * Jewish Renewal
Jewish Renewal
* Haymanot
Haymanot
* Humanistic * Rabbinic * Karaite * Samaritanism
Samaritanism
* Schisms * Shomer Masoret * Intra-Jewish relations * Atheism * Noahidism
Noahidism

PHILOSOPHY

* 613 commandments
613 commandments
* Halakha * Principles of faith * Chosen people

* Ethics

* Chesed
Chesed
* Tzedakah
Tzedakah
* Pikuach nefesh
Pikuach nefesh
* Kavod HaBriyot * Lashon hara
Lashon hara
* Tza\'ar ba\'alei chayim * Tikkun olam

* Teshuva * Kashrut
Kashrut
* Kabbalah
Kabbalah
* Names of God * Messiah * Eschatology * Seven Laws of Noah
Seven Laws of Noah
* Tzniut
Tzniut
* Yetzer hara

RELIGIOUS TEXTS

* Tanakh

* Torah
Torah
* Nevi\'im * Ketuvim
Ketuvim

* Mishnah
Mishnah
* Talmud
Talmud
* Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
* Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
* Tosefta
Tosefta
* Midrash
Midrash
Rabba * Sifra
Sifra
* Sifre
Sifre
* Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael * Pesikta de-Rav Kahana
Pesikta de-Rav Kahana
* Rabbinic literature * Mishneh Torah
Torah
* Arba\'ah Turim * Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
* Mishnah
Mishnah
Berurah * Chumash * Zohar
Zohar
* Haggadah
Haggadah
* Piyyut * Siddur
Siddur

PLACES

* Land of Israel
Land of Israel

* Four Holy Cities
Four Holy Cities

* Jerusalem
Jerusalem
* Tzfat * Hebron
Hebron
* Tiberias
Tiberias

* Beth din
Beth din
* Synagogue
Synagogue
* Temple * Tabernacle
Tabernacle
* Temple Mount
Temple Mount
* Western Wall
Western Wall

BIBLICAL FIGURES

* Abraham
Abraham
* Isaac
Isaac
* Jacob
Jacob
* Sarah
Sarah
* Rebecca
Rebecca
* Rachel
Rachel
* Leah
Leah
* Joseph * Judah * Moses
Moses
* Joshua
Joshua
* Deborah
Deborah
* Ruth * David
David
* Solomon
Solomon
* Elijah
Elijah
* Ezra
Ezra
* Nehemiah
Nehemiah

LEADERSHIP

* Hillel * Shammai
Shammai
* Yehudah haNasi * Saadia Gaon
Saadia Gaon
* Gershom ben Judah * Isaac
Isaac
Alfasi * Judah Halevi
Judah Halevi
* Abraham
Abraham
ibn Ezra
Ezra
* Tosafists * Yosef Karo * Maimonides
Maimonides
* Nahmanides * Gersonides * Isaac
Isaac
Abravanel * Maharal * Isaac
Isaac
Luria * Baal Shem Tov
Baal Shem Tov
* Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
* Moses
Moses
Sofer * Shneur Zalman of Liadi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi
* Moses
Moses
Mendelssohn * Samson Raphael Hirsch
Samson Raphael Hirsch
* Abraham
Abraham
Geiger * Avrohom Yeshaya Karelitz
Avrohom Yeshaya Karelitz
* Solomon
Solomon
Schechter * David
David
Ben-Gurion * Golda Meir
Golda Meir
* Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
* Mordecai
Mordecai
Kaplan * Aharon Kotler
Aharon Kotler
* Moshe Feinstein
Moshe Feinstein
* Yoel Teitelbaum * Menachem Schneerson * Abraham
Abraham
Joshua
Joshua
Heschel * Joseph B. Soloveitchik
Joseph B. Soloveitchik
* Elazar Shach
Elazar Shach

ROLES

* Kohen
Kohen
* Hazzan
Hazzan
* Gabbai
Gabbai
* Maggid * Mashgiach * Mohel * Posek
Posek
* Rabbi
Rabbi
* Rebbe
Rebbe
* Rosh yeshiva * Scribe
Scribe

CULTURE

* Minyan
Minyan
* Bar and Bat Mitzvah * Bereavement * Brit milah
Brit milah
* Mikveh
Mikveh
* Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
* Hebrew birthday * Etymology of the word Jew * Marriage * Wedding * Niddah
Niddah
* Pidyon haben
Pidyon haben
* Music * Cuisine * Hiloni * Shidduch * Zeved habat

ISSUES AND OTHERS

* Who is a Jew? * Abortion * Assimilation * Capital punishment * Conversion to Judaism
Judaism
* Crypto- Judaism
Judaism
* Environmentalism * Forbidden relationships * Gender * Heresy * Holocaust theology
Holocaust theology
* Jewish intelligence * Jewish studies
Jewish studies
* Marriage * Homosexuality * Same-sex marriage * Religious Terrorism * Schisms * Vegetarianism * Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
* Encyclopaedia Judaica

LANGUAGES

* Hebrew

* Biblical

* Juhuri (Judeo-Tat) * Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
* Judeo-Aramaic * Judæo-Iranian * Ladino * Yeshivish * Yiddish
Yiddish
* Yemenite Hebrew
Yemenite Hebrew

Religious articles and prayers

* Aleinu * Amidah * Four species
Four species
* Gartel
Gartel
* Hallel * Havdalah
Havdalah
* Kaddish * Kittel
Kittel
* Kol Nidre
Kol Nidre
* Ma Tovu

* Menorah

* Hanukiah

* Mezuzah
Mezuzah

* Sefer Torah
Torah

* Inauguration of a Torah
Torah
scroll

* Services

* Prayer

* Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
* Shofar
Shofar
* Siddur
Siddur
* Tallit
Tallit
* Tefillin
Tefillin
* Tzitzit
Tzitzit
* Yad
Yad
* Kippah/Yarmulke

Interactions with other religions

* Jewish views on religious pluralism * Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions

* Christianity

* Catholicism * Christian–Jewish reconciliation * Judeo-Christian * Messianic Judaism
Judaism

* Islam * Mormonism * Jewish Buddhist