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Jesus[e] (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Jesus
Jesus
Christ,[f] was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.[12] He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe him to be the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah
Messiah
(Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.[13][14] Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus
Jesus
existed historically,[g] although the quest for the historical Jesus
Jesus
has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the Jesus
Jesus
portrayed in the Bible
Bible
reflects the historical Jesus.[21][h][i] Jesus
Jesus
was a Galilean Jew[12] who was baptized by John the Baptist
John the Baptist
and subsequently began his own ministry, preaching his message orally[24] and often being referred to as "rabbi".[25] Jesus
Jesus
debated with fellow Jews
Jews
on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers.[26][27] He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities,[28] and turned over to the Roman government, and was subsequently crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect.[26] After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the Christian Church.[29] His birth is celebrated annually on December 25 (or various dates in January for some eastern churches) as a holiday known as Christmas, his crucifixion is honored on Good Friday, and his resurrection is celebrated on Easter. The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini ("in the year of the Lord"), and the alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birth date of Jesus.[30][j] Christian
Christian
doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus
Jesus
was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, from where he will return.[32] Most Christians believe Jesus
Jesus
enables people to be reconciled to God. The Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
asserts that Jesus
Jesus
will judge the living and the dead[33] either before or after their bodily resurrection,[34][35][36] an event tied to the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Jesus in Christian
Christian
eschatology.[37] The great majority of Christians worship Jesus
Jesus
as the incarnation of God
God
the Son, the second of three persons of a Divine Trinity. A minority of Christian
Christian
denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural. In Islam, Jesus
Jesus
(commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah.[38][39][40] Muslims believe Jesus
Jesus
was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin but was not the Son of God. The Quran
Quran
states that Jesus
Jesus
himself never claimed divinity.[41] To most Muslims, Jesus
Jesus
was not crucified but was physically raised into Heaven by God. Judaism, apart from Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
movements, rejects the belief that Jesus
Jesus
was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies. Jewish views on Jesus
Jesus
are that he was neither divine nor resurrected.[42]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Life and teachings in the New Testament

2.1 Canonical gospels 2.2 Genealogy and nativity 2.3 Early life, family, and profession 2.4 Baptism
Baptism
and temptation 2.5 Public ministry

2.5.1 Disciples and followers 2.5.2 Teachings and miracles 2.5.3 Proclamation as Christ and Transfiguration

2.6 Passion Week

2.6.1 Activities in Jerusalem 2.6.2 Last Supper 2.6.3 Agony in the Garden, betrayal, and arrest 2.6.4 Trials by the Sanhedrin, Herod, and Pilate 2.6.5 Crucifixion and entombment

2.7 Resurrection and Ascension

3 Historical views

3.1 Judea
Judea
and Galilee
Galilee
in the 1st century 3.2 Sources 3.3 Chronology 3.4 Historicity of events

3.4.1 Family 3.4.2 Baptism 3.4.3 Ministry in Galilee 3.4.4 Role 3.4.5 Passover
Passover
and crucifixion in Jerusalem 3.4.6 After crucifixion

3.5 Portraits of Jesus 3.6 Language, ethnicity, and appearance 3.7 Christ myth theory

4 Perspectives

4.1 Christian 4.2 Jewish 4.3 Islamic 4.4 Bahá'í 4.5 Other

5 Artistic depictions 6 Associated relics 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Bibliography

10 External links

Etymology Further information: Jesus
Jesus
(name), Holy Name of Jesus, Names and titles of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament, and Names of God
God
in Christianity

Counter-clockwise: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English transcriptions of the name Jesus

A typical Jew
Jew
in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes supplemented with the father's name or the individual's hometown.[43] Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus
Jesus
is commonly referred to as " Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth"[k] (e.g., Mark 10:47).[44] Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth
Nazareth
refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon" (Mark 6:3),[45] "the carpenter's son" (Matthew 13:55),[46] or "Joseph's son" (Luke 4:22).[47] In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as " Jesus
Jesus
son of Joseph from Nazareth" (John 1:45).[48] The name Jesus
Jesus
is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iesous).[49] The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע‎ (Yeshua), a variant of the earlier name יהושע‎ (Yehoshua), or in English, "Joshua".[50][51][52] The name Yeshua
Yeshua
appears to have been in use in Judea
Judea
at the time of the birth of Jesus.[53] The 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament,[54] refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus
Jesus
(i.e. Ἰησοῦς).[55] The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament
New Testament
is generally given as " Yahweh
Yahweh
is salvation".[56] Since early Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as " Jesus
Jesus
Christ".[57] The word Christ was a title or office ("the Christ"), not a given name.[58][59] It derives from the Greek Χριστός (Christos),[49][60] a translation of the Hebrew moschiach (משיח) meaning "anointed", and is usually transliterated into English as "Messiah".[61][62] In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture (see Leviticus
Leviticus
8:10-12 and Exodus 30:29). Christians of the time designated Jesus
Jesus
as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and Old Testament. In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of " Jesus
Jesus
Christ". The term "Christian" (meaning a follower of Christ) has been in use since the 1st century.[63] Life and teachings in the New Testament

Events in the

Life of Jesus according to the Gospels

Early life

Annunciation

Visitation

Nativity

Virgin birth Adoration of the Shepherds

Circumcision Presentation Adoration of the Magi Flight into Egypt

Massacre of the Innocents

Return to Nazareth Finding in the Temple

Ministry

Baptism Temptation Commissioning the Twelve Sermon on the Mount
Sermon on the Mount
/ Plain Miracles Parables Rejection Transfiguration

Passion

Triumphal entry into Jerusalem Temple cleansing Second coming prophecy Anointing Last Supper

Farewell Discourse Paraclete
Paraclete
promised

Agony in the Garden

Kiss of Judas Arrest

Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
trial Mocking Herod's court Pilate's court

Flagellation Crown of Thorns Via Dolorosa

Crucifixion

Descent from the Cross

Entombment Harrowing of Hell

Resurrection

Empty tomb Appearances

Noli me tangere Road to Emmaus Great Commission Ascension

In rest of the NT

Road to Damascus John's vision

Portals: Christianity
Christianity
Bible  Book:Life of Jesus

v t e

Main article: Life of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament See also: Gospel, Gospel
Gospel
harmony, Historical reliability of the Gospels, and Internal consistency of the New Testament See also: New Testament
New Testament
places associated with Jesus
Jesus
and Names and titles of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament

A 3rd-century Greek papyrus of the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke

Canonical gospels The four canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are the foremost sources for the life and message of Jesus.[43] However, other parts of the New Testament
New Testament
also include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper
Last Supper
in 1 Corinthians 11:23.[64][65][66] Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
(Acts 10:37–38 and Acts 19) refers to the early ministry of Jesus
Jesus
and its anticipation by John the Baptist.[67][68] Acts 1:1–11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus
Jesus
(also mentioned in 1 Timothy 3:16) than the canonical gospels do.[69] In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus
Jesus
are cited several times (1 Corinthians 7:10–11, 9:14, 11:23–25, 2 Corinthians 12:9).[l] Some early Christian
Christian
groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospels
Gospels
of Thomas, Peter, and Judas, the Apocryphon of James, and many other apocryphal writings. Most scholars conclude that these are written much later and are less reliable accounts than the canonical gospels.[71][72][73] The canonical gospels are four accounts, each written by a different author. The authors of the gospels are all anonymous, attributed by tradition to the four evangelists, each with close ties to Jesus:[74] Mark by John Mark, an associate of Peter;[75] Matthew by one of Jesus' disciples;[74] Luke by a companion of Paul mentioned in a few epistles;[74] and John by another of Jesus' disciples,[74] the "beloved disciple".[76] One important aspect of the study of the gospels is the literary genre under which they fall. Genre "is a key convention guiding both the composition and the interpretation of writings".[77] Whether the gospel authors set out to write novels, myths, histories, or biographies has a tremendous impact on how they ought to be interpreted. Some recent studies suggest that the genre of the gospels ought to be situated within the realm of ancient biography.[78][79][80] Although not without critics,[81] the position that the gospels are a type of ancient biography is the consensus among scholars today.[82][83] Not everything contained in the New Testament
New Testament
gospels is considered to be historically reliable.[84] Views range from their being inerrant descriptions of the life of Jesus[85] to their providing little historical information about his life beyond the basics.[86][87] According to a broad scholarly consensus, the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke), and not John, are the most reliable sources of information about Jesus.[88][89][43] According to the Marcan priority, the first to be written was the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark (written AD 60–75), followed by the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew (AD 65–85), the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke (AD 65–95), and the Gospel
Gospel
of John (AD 75–100).[90] Furthermore, most scholars agree that the authors of Matthew and Luke used Mark as a source when writing their gospels. Matthew and Luke also share some content not found in Mark. To explain this, many scholars believe that in addition to Mark, another source (commonly called the "Q source") was used by the two authors.[91] Matthew, Mark, and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, from the Greek σύν (syn "together") and ὄψις (opsis "view").[92][93][94] They are similar in content, narrative arrangement, language and paragraph structure.[92][93] Scholars generally agree that it is impossible to find any direct literary relationship between the Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
and the Gospel
Gospel
of John.[95] While the flow of some events (such as Jesus' baptism, transfiguration, crucifixion and interactions with the apostles) are shared among the Synoptic Gospels, incidents such as the transfiguration do not appear in John, which also differs on other matters, such as the Cleansing of the Temple.[96]

Jesus
Jesus
in the Synoptic Gospels Jesus
Jesus
in the Gospel
Gospel
of John

Begins with Jesus' baptism or birth to a virgin.[74] Begins with creation, with no birth story.[74]

Baptized by John the Baptist.[74] Baptism
Baptism
presupposed but not mentioned.[74]

Teaches in parables and aphorisms.[74] Teaches in long, involved discourses.[74]

Teaches primarily about the Kingdom of God, little about himself.[74] Teaches primarily and extensively about himself.[74]

Speaks up for the poor and oppressed.[74] Says little to nothing about the poor or oppressed.[74]

Exorcises demons.[97] Does not exorcise demons.[97]

Attends one Passover
Passover
festival.[98] Attends three or four Passover
Passover
festivals.[98]

Cleansing the Temple occurs late.[74] Cleansing the Temple is early.[74]

Jesus
Jesus
ushers in a new covenant with a last supper.[74] Jesus
Jesus
washes the disciples' feet.[74]

The Synoptics emphasize different aspects of Jesus. In Mark, Jesus
Jesus
is the Son of God
God
whose mighty works demonstrate the presence of God's Kingdom.[75] He is a tireless wonder worker, the servant of both God and man.[99] This short gospel records few of Jesus' words or teachings.[75] The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew emphasizes that Jesus
Jesus
is the fulfillment of God's will as revealed in the Old Testament, and he is the Lord of the Church.[100] He is the "Son of David", a "king", and the Messiah.[99][13][14] Luke presents Jesus
Jesus
as the divine-human savior who shows compassion to the needy.[101] He is the friend of sinners and outcasts, come to seek and save the lost.[99] This gospel includes Jesus' most beloved parables, such as the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son.[101] The prologue to the Gospel
Gospel
of John identifies Jesus
Jesus
as an incarnation of the divine Word (Logos).[102] As the Word, Jesus
Jesus
was eternally present with God, active in all creation, and the source of humanity's moral and spiritual nature.[102] Jesus
Jesus
is not only greater than any past human prophet but greater than any prophet could be. He not only speaks God's Word; he is God's Word.[103] In the Gospel
Gospel
of John, Jesus reveals his divine role publicly. Here he is the Bread of Life, the Light of the World, the True Vine and more.[99] In general, the authors of the New Testament
New Testament
showed little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus
Jesus
or in synchronizing the episodes of his life with the secular history of the age.[104] As stated in John 21:25, the gospels do not claim to provide an exhaustive list of the events in the life of Jesus.[105] The accounts were primarily written as theological documents in the context of early Christianity, with timelines as a secondary consideration.[106] In this respect, it is noteworthy that the Gospels
Gospels
devote about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus
Jesus
in Jerusalem, referred to as the Passion.[107] Although the gospels do not provide enough details to satisfy the demands of modern historians regarding exact dates, it is possible to draw from them a general picture of the life story of Jesus.[84][104][106] Genealogy and nativity Main articles: Genealogy of Jesus
Jesus
and Nativity of Jesus Jesus
Jesus
was Jewish,[12] born by Mary, wife of Joseph (Matthew 1, Luke 2). Matthew and Luke each offer a genealogy of Jesus. Matthew traces Jesus' ancestry to Abraham
Abraham
through David.[108] Luke traces Jesus' ancestry through Adam
Adam
to God.[109] The lists are identical between Abraham
Abraham
and David, but differ radically from that point.

Adoration of the Shepherds
Adoration of the Shepherds
(1622) by Gerard van Honthorst

Matthew and Luke each describe Jesus' nativity (or birth), especially that Jesus
Jesus
was born by a virgin Mary in Bethlehem
Bethlehem
in fulfillment of prophecy. Luke's account emphasizes events before the birth of Jesus and centers on Mary, while Matthew's mostly covers those after the birth and centers on Joseph.[110][111][112] Both accounts state that Jesus
Jesus
was born to Joseph and Mary, his betrothed, in Bethlehem, and both support the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus, according to which Jesus
Jesus
was miraculously conceived by the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
in Mary's womb when she was still a virgin.[113][114][115] In Matthew, Joseph is troubled because Mary, his betrothed, is pregnant (Matthew 1:19–20), but in the first of Joseph's three dreams an angel assures him not to be afraid to take Mary as his wife, because her child was conceived by the Holy Spirit.[116] In Matthew 2:1–12, wise men or Magi
Magi
from the East bring gifts to the young Jesus
Jesus
as the King of the Jews. Herod the Great
Herod the Great
hears of Jesus' birth and, wanting him killed, orders the murders of male infants in Bethlehem. But an angel warns Joseph in his second dream, and the family flees to Egypt—later to return and settle in Nazareth.[116][117][118] In Luke 1:31–38, Mary learns from the angel Gabriel
Gabriel
that she will conceive and bear a child called Jesus
Jesus
through the action of the Holy Spirit.[111][113] When Mary is due to give birth, she and Joseph travel from Nazareth
Nazareth
to Joseph's ancestral home in Bethlehem
Bethlehem
to register in the census ordered by Caesar Augustus. While there Mary gives birth to Jesus, and as they have found no room in the inn, she places the newborn in a manger (Luke 2:1–7). An angel announces the birth to some shepherds, who go to Bethlehem
Bethlehem
to see Jesus, and subsequently spread the news abroad (Luke 2:8–20). After the presentation of Jesus
Jesus
at the Temple, Joseph, Mary and Jesus
Jesus
return to Nazareth.[111][113] Early life, family, and profession Main article: Christ Child See also: Return of the family of Jesus
Jesus
to Nazareth, Unknown years of Jesus, and Brothers of Jesus

12-year-old Jesus
Jesus
in the temple, depicted by Heinrich Hofmann, 1884

Jesus' childhood home is identified in the gospels of Luke and Matthew as the town of Nazareth
Nazareth
in Galilee, where he lived with his family. Although Joseph appears in descriptions of Jesus' childhood, no mention is made of him thereafter.[119] His other family members—his mother, Mary, his brothers James, Joses (or Joseph), Judas and Simon and his unnamed sisters—are mentioned in the gospels and other sources.[120][121] The Gospel
Gospel
of Mark reports that Jesus
Jesus
comes into conflict with his neighbors and family.[122] Jesus' mother and brothers come to get him (Mark 3:31–35) because people are saying that he is crazy (Mark 3:21). Jesus
Jesus
responds that his followers are his true family. In John, Mary follows Jesus
Jesus
to his crucifixion, and he expresses concern over her well-being (John 19:25–27). Jesus
Jesus
is called a τέκτων (tektōn) in Mark 6:3, traditionally understood as carpenter but could cover makers of objects in various materials, including builders.[123][124] The gospels indicate that Jesus
Jesus
could read, paraphrase, and debate scripture, but this does not necessarily mean that he received formal scribal training.[125] When Jesus
Jesus
is presented in the temple per Jewish Law, a man named Simeon says to Mary and Joseph that Jesus
Jesus
"shall stand as a sign of contradiction, while a sword will pierce your own soul. Then the secret thoughts of many will come to light" (Luke 2:28–35). When Jesus
Jesus
goes missing, they find him in the temple sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking questions, and the people are amazed at his understanding and answers; Mary scolds Jesus
Jesus
for going missing, to which Jesus
Jesus
replies that he must "be in his father's house" (Luke 2:41–52). Baptism
Baptism
and temptation Main articles: Baptism
Baptism
of Jesus
Jesus
and Temptation of Christ

The Baptism
Baptism
of Christ (1895) by Almeida Júnior

The Synoptic accounts of Jesus' baptism are all preceded by information about John the Baptist.[126][127][128] They show John preaching penance and repentance for the remission of sins and encouraging the giving of alms to the poor (Luke 3:11) as he baptizes people in the area of the Jordan River
Jordan River
around Perea
Perea
and foretells (Luke 3:16) the arrival of someone "more powerful" than he.[129][130] Later, Jesus
Jesus
identifies John as "the Elijah
Elijah
who was to come" (Matthew 11:14, Mark 9:13–14), the prophet who was expected to arrive before the "great and terrible day of the Lord" ( Malachi
Malachi
4:5). Likewise, Luke says that John had the spirit and power of Elijah
Elijah
(Luke 1:17). In Mark, John baptizes Jesus, and as he comes out of the water he sees the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descending to him like a dove and he hears a voice from heaven declaring him to be God's Son (Mark 1:9–11). This is one of two events described in the gospels where a voice from Heaven calls Jesus
Jesus
"Son", the other being the Transfiguration.[131][132] The spirit then drives him into the wilderness where he is tempted by Satan
Satan
(Mark 1:12–13). Jesus
Jesus
then begins his ministry after John's arrest (Mark 1:14). Jesus' baptism in Matthew is similar. Here, before Jesus' baptism, John protests, saying, "I need to be baptized by you" (Matthew 3:14). Jesus
Jesus
instructs him to carry on with the baptism "to fulfill all righteousness" (Matthew 3:15). Matthew also details the three temptations that Satan
Satan
offers Jesus
Jesus
in the wilderness (Matthew 4:3–11). In Luke, the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descends as a dove after everyone has been baptized and Jesus
Jesus
is praying (Luke 3:21–22). John implicitly recognizes Jesus
Jesus
from prison after sending his followers to ask about him (Luke 7:18–23). Jesus' baptism and temptation serve as preparation for his public ministry.[133] The Gospel
Gospel
of John leaves out Jesus' baptism and temptation.[134] Here, John the Baptist
John the Baptist
testifies that he saw the Spirit descend on Jesus
Jesus
(John 1:32).[130][135] John publicly proclaims Jesus
Jesus
as the sacrificial Lamb of God, and some of John's followers become disciples of Jesus.[89] In this Gospel, John denies that he is Elijah
Elijah
(John 1:21). Before John is imprisoned, Jesus
Jesus
leads his followers to baptize disciples as well (John 3:22–24), and they baptize more people than John (John 4:1). Public ministry Main article: Ministry of Jesus

A 19th-century painting depicting the Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount, by Carl Bloch

The Synoptics depict two distinct geographical settings in Jesus' ministry. The first takes place north of Judea, in Galilee, where Jesus
Jesus
conducts a successful ministry; and the second shows Jesus rejected and killed when he travels to Jerusalem.[25] Often referred to as "rabbi",[25] Jesus
Jesus
preaches his message orally.[24] Notably, Jesus
Jesus
forbids those who recognize him as the Messiah
Messiah
to speak of it, including people he heals and demons he exorcises (see Messianic Secret).[136] John depicts Jesus' ministry as largely taking place in and around Jerusalem, rather than in Galilee; and Jesus' divine identity is openly proclaimed and immediately recognized.[103] Scholars divide the ministry of Jesus
Jesus
into several stages. The Galilean ministry begins when Jesus
Jesus
returns to Galilee
Galilee
from the Judaean Desert
Judaean Desert
after rebuffing the temptation of Satan. Jesus
Jesus
preaches around Galilee, and in Matthew 4:18–20, his first disciples, who will eventually form the core of the early Church, encounter him and begin to travel with him.[128][137] This period includes the Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount, one of Jesus' major discourses,[137][138] as well as the calming of the storm, the feeding of the 5,000, walking on water and a number of other miracles and parables.[139] It ends with the Confession of Peter
Confession of Peter
and the Transfiguration.[140][141] As Jesus
Jesus
travels towards Jerusalem, in the Perean ministry, he returns to the area where he was baptized, about a third of the way down from the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
along the Jordan River
Jordan River
(John 10:40–42).[142][143] The final ministry in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into the city on Palm Sunday.[144] In the Synoptic Gospels, during that week Jesus
Jesus
drives the money changers from the Second Temple
Second Temple
and Judas bargains to betray him. This period culminates in the Last Supper and the Farewell Discourse.[126][144][145] Disciples and followers

Jesus
Jesus
talking to his 12 disciples, as depicted by James Tissot

Near the beginning of his ministry, Jesus
Jesus
appoints twelve apostles. In Matthew and Mark, despite Jesus
Jesus
only briefly requesting that they join him, Jesus' first four apostles, who were fishermen, are described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets and boats to do so (Matthew 4:18–22, Mark 1:16–20). In John, Jesus' first two apostles were disciples of John the Baptist. The Baptist sees Jesus and calls him the Lamb of God; the two hear this and follow Jesus.[146][147] In addition to the Twelve Apostles, the opening of the passage of the Sermon on the Plain
Sermon on the Plain
identifies a much larger group of people as disciples (Luke 6:17). Also, in Luke 10:1–16 Jesus sends seventy or seventy-two of his followers in pairs to prepare towns for his prospective visit. They are instructed to accept hospitality, heal the sick and spread the word that the Kingdom of God is coming.[148] In Mark, the disciples are notably obtuse. They fail to understand Jesus' miracles (Mark 4:35–41, Mark 6:52), his parables (Mark 4:13), or what "rising from the dead" would mean (Mark 9:9–10). When Jesus is later arrested, they desert him.[136] Teachings and miracles Main articles: Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount, Parables of Jesus, and Miracles of Jesus See also: Sermon
Sermon
on the Plain, Five Discourses of Matthew, Farewell Discourse, Olivet Discourse, and Bread of Life Discourse

Christ and the Rich Young Ruler by Heinrich Hofmann, 1889

In the Synoptics, Jesus
Jesus
teaches extensively, often in parables,[149] about the Kingdom of God
God
(or, in Matthew, the Kingdom of Heaven). The Kingdom is described as both imminent (Mark 1:15) and already present in the ministry of Jesus
Jesus
(Luke 17:21). Jesus
Jesus
promises inclusion in the Kingdom for those who accept his message (Mark 10:13–27). Jesus talks of the "Son of Man," an apocalyptic figure who would come to gather the chosen.[43] Jesus
Jesus
calls people to repent their sins and to devote themselves completely to God.[43] Jesus
Jesus
tells his followers to adhere to Jewish law, although he is perceived by some to have broken the law himself, for example regarding the Sabbath.[43] When asked what the greatest commandment is, Jesus
Jesus
replies: "You shall love the Lord your God
God
with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind ... And a second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself" (Matthew 22:37–39). Other ethical teachings of Jesus include loving your enemies, refraining from hatred and lust, turning the other cheek, and forgiving people who have sinned against you (Matthew 5–7).[150] John's Gospel
Gospel
presents the teachings of Jesus
Jesus
not merely as his own preaching, but as divine revelation. John the Baptist, for example, states in John 3:34: "He whom God
God
has sent speaks the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure." In John 7:16 Jesus
Jesus
says, "My teaching is not mine but his who sent me." He asserts the same thing in John 14:10: "Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own; but the Father who dwells in me does his works."[151][152]

Jesus
Jesus
cleansing a leper, medieval mosaic from the Monreale Cathedral

Approximately thirty parables form about one third of Jesus' recorded teachings.[151][153] The parables appear within longer sermons and at other places in the narrative.[154] They often contain symbolism, and usually relate the physical world to the spiritual.[155][156] Common themes in these tales include the kindness and generosity of God
God
and the perils of transgression.[157] Some of his parables, such as the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11–32), are relatively simple, while others, such as the Growing Seed (Mark 4:26–29), are sophisticated, profound and abstruse.[158] When asked by his disciples about why he speaks in parables to the people, Jesus
Jesus
replies that the chosen disciples have been given to "know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven", unlike the rest of their people, "For the one who has will be given more and he will have in abundance. But the one who does not have will be deprived even more.", going on to say that the majority of their generation have grown "dull hearts" and thus are unable to understand (Matthew 13:10–17). In the gospel accounts, Jesus
Jesus
devotes a large portion of his ministry performing miracles, especially healings.[159] The miracles can be classified into two main categories: healing miracles and nature miracles.[160] The healing miracles include cures for physical ailments, exorcisms,[97][161] and resurrections of the dead.[162] The nature miracles show Jesus' power over nature, and include turning water into wine, walking on water, and calming a storm, among others. Jesus
Jesus
states that his miracles are from a divine source. When Jesus' opponents suddenly accuse him of performing exorcisms by the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons, Jesus
Jesus
counters that he performs them by the "Spirit of God" (Matthew 12:28) or "finger of God", arguing that all logic suggests that Satan
Satan
would not let his demons assist the Children of God
God
because it would divide Satan's house and bring his kingdom to desolation; furthermore, he asks his opponents that if he exorcises by Beel'zebub, "by whom do your sons cast them out?"(Luke 11:20).[163][164] In Matthew 12:31–32, he goes on to say that while all manner of sin, "even insults against God" or "insults against the son of man", shall be forgiven, whoever insults goodness (or "The Holy Spirit") shall never be forgiven; he/she carries the guilt of his/her sin forever. In John, Jesus' miracles are described as "signs", performed to prove his mission and divinity.[165][166] However, in the Synoptics, when asked by some teachers of the Law and some Pharisees
Pharisees
to give miraculous signs to prove his authority, Jesus
Jesus
refuses,[165] saying that no sign shall come to corrupt and evil people except the sign of the prophet Jonah. Also, in the Synoptic Gospels, the crowds regularly respond to Jesus' miracles with awe and press on him to heal their sick. In John's Gospel, Jesus
Jesus
is presented as unpressured by the crowds, who often respond to his miracles with trust and faith.[167] One characteristic shared among all miracles of Jesus
Jesus
in the gospel accounts is that he performed them freely and never requested or accepted any form of payment.[168] The gospel
The gospel
episodes that include descriptions of the miracles of Jesus
Jesus
also often include teachings, and the miracles themselves involve an element of teaching.[169][170] Many of the miracles teach the importance of faith. In the cleansing of ten lepers and the raising of Jairus' daughter, for instance, the beneficiaries are told that their healing was due to their faith.[171][172] Proclamation as Christ and Transfiguration Main articles: Confession of Peter
Confession of Peter
and Transfiguration of Jesus

The Transfiguration of Jesus, depicted by Carl Bloch, 19th century

At about the middle of each of the three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
are two significant events: the Confession of Peter
Confession of Peter
and the Transfiguration of Jesus.[141][173][131][132] These two events are not mentioned in the Gospel
Gospel
of John.[174] In his Confession, Peter tells Jesus, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God."[175][176][177] Jesus
Jesus
affirms that Peter's confession is divinely revealed truth.[178][179] After the confession, Jesus tells his disciples about his upcoming death and resurrection (Matthew 16:21, Mark 8:31, Luke 9:22) In the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1–9, Mark 9:2–8, and Luke 9:28–36),[131][132][141] Jesus
Jesus
takes Peter and two other apostles up an unnamed mountain, where "he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes became dazzling white."[180] A bright cloud appears around them, and a voice from the cloud says, "This is my Son, the Beloved; with him I am well pleased; listen to him" (Matthew 17:1–9).[131] Passion Week Main article: Passion Week The description of the last week of the life of Jesus
Jesus
(often called Passion Week) occupies about one third of the narrative in the canonical gospels,[107] starting with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and ending with his Crucifixion.[126][144] Activities in Jerusalem

A painting of Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1897

Main articles: Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, Cleansing of the Temple, and Bargain of Judas In the Synoptics, the last week in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the conclusion of the journey through Perea
Perea
and Judea
Judea
that Jesus
Jesus
began in Galilee.[144] Jesus
Jesus
rides a young donkey into Jerusalem, reflecting the tale of the Messiah's Donkey, an oracle from the Book
Book
of Zechariah in which the Jews' humble king enters Jerusalem
Jerusalem
this way (Zechariah 9:9).[75] People along the way lay cloaks and small branches of trees (known as palm fronds) in front of him and sing part of Psalms 118:25–26.[181][182][183] Jesus
Jesus
next expels the money changers from the Second Temple, accusing them of turning it into a den of thieves through their commercial activities. Jesus
Jesus
then prophesies about the coming destruction, including false prophets, wars, earthquakes, celestial disorders, persecution of the faithful, the appearance of an "abomination of desolation," and unendurable tribulations (Mark 13:1–23). The mysterious "Son of Man," he says, will dispatch angels to gather the faithful from all parts of the earth (Mark 13:24–27). Jesus
Jesus
warns that these wonders will occur in the lifetimes of the hearers (Mark 13:28-32).[136] In John, the Cleansing of the Temple
Cleansing of the Temple
occurs at the beginning of Jesus' ministry instead of at the end (John 2:13–16).[103] Jesus
Jesus
comes into conflict with the Jewish elders, such as when they question his authority and when he criticizes them and calls them hypocrites.[181][183] Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve apostles, secretly strikes a bargain with the Jewish elders, agreeing to betray Jesus
Jesus
to them for 30 silver coins.[184][185] The Gospel
Gospel
of John recounts of two other feasts in which Jesus
Jesus
taught in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
before the Passion Week (John 7:1–10:42).[122] In Bethany, a village near Jerusalem, Jesus
Jesus
raises Lazarus from the dead. This potent sign[103] increases the tension with authorities,[144] who conspire to kill him (John 11).[122] Mary of Bethany
Mary of Bethany
anoints Jesus' feet, foreshadowing his entombment.[186] Jesus
Jesus
then makes his Messianic entry into Jerusalem.[122] The cheering crowds greeting Jesus
Jesus
as he enters Jerusalem
Jerusalem
add to the animosity between him and the establishment.[144] In John, Jesus
Jesus
has already cleansed the Second Temple during an earlier Passover
Passover
visit to Jerusalem. John next recounts Jesus' Last Supper
Last Supper
with his disciples.[122] Last Supper Main article: Last Supper See also: Jesus
Jesus
predicts his betrayal, Denial of Peter, and Last Supper in Christian
Christian
art

The Last Supper, depicted by Juan de Juanes, c. 1562

The Last Supper
Last Supper
is the final meal that Jesus
Jesus
shares with his 12 apostles in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
before his crucifixion. The Last Supper
Last Supper
is mentioned in all four canonical gospels; Paul's First Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians (11:23–26) also refers to it.[65][66][187] During the meal, Jesus
Jesus
predicts that one of his apostles will betray him.[188] Despite each Apostle's assertion that he would not betray him, Jesus reiterates that the betrayer would be one of those present. Matthew 26:23–25 and John 13:26–27 specifically identify Judas as the traitor.[65][66][188] In the Synoptics, Jesus
Jesus
takes bread, breaks it, and gives it to the disciples, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you". He then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood" (Luke 22:19–20).[65][189] The Christian
Christian
sacrament or ordinance of the Eucharist
Eucharist
is based on these events.[190] Although the Gospel
Gospel
of John does not include a description of the bread-and-wine ritual during the Last Supper, most scholars agree that John 6:22–59 (the Bread of Life Discourse) has a eucharistic character and resonates with the institution narratives in the Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
and in the Pauline writings on the Last Supper.[191] In all four gospels, Jesus
Jesus
predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him three times before the rooster crows the next morning.[192][193] In Luke and John, the prediction is made during the Supper (Luke 22:34, John 22:34). In Matthew and Mark, the prediction is made after the Supper; Jesus
Jesus
also predicts that all his disciples will desert him (Matthew 26:31–34, Mark 14:27–30).[194] The Gospel
Gospel
of John provides the only account of Jesus
Jesus
washing his disciples' feet after the meal.[117] John also includes a long sermon by Jesus, preparing his disciples (now without Judas) for his departure. Chapters 14–17 of the Gospel
Gospel
of John are known as the Farewell Discourse
Farewell Discourse
and are a significant source of Christological content.[195][196] Agony in the Garden, betrayal, and arrest Main articles: Agony in the Garden, Kiss of Judas, Arrest of Jesus, and Malchus

A depiction of the kiss of Judas and arrest of Jesus, by Caravaggio, c. 1602

In the Synoptics, Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples go to the garden Gethsemane, where Jesus
Jesus
prays to be spared his coming ordeal. Then Judas comes with an armed mob, sent by the chief priests, scribes and elders. He kisses Jesus
Jesus
to identify him to the crowd, which then arrests Jesus. In an attempt to stop them, an unnamed disciple of Jesus
Jesus
uses a sword to cut off the ear of a man in the crowd. After Jesus' arrest, his disciples go into hiding, and Peter, when questioned, thrice denies knowing Jesus. After the third denial, Peter hears the rooster crow and recalls Jesus' prediction about his denial. Peter then weeps bitterly.[194][136][192] In John (18:1–11), Jesus
Jesus
does not pray to be spared his crucifixion, as the gospel portrays him as scarcely touched by such human weakness.[197] The people who arrest him are Roman soldiers and Temple guards.[198] Instead of being betrayed by a kiss, Jesus
Jesus
proclaims his identity, and when he does, the soldiers and officers fall to the ground. The gospel
The gospel
identifies Peter as the disciple who used the sword, and Jesus
Jesus
rebukes him for it. Trials by the Sanhedrin, Herod, and Pilate Main articles: Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
trial of Jesus, Pilate's Court, Jesus
Jesus
at Herod's Court, and Crown of Thorns See also: Jesus, King of the Jews; John 18:38; and Ecce homo After his arrest, Jesus
Jesus
is taken to the Sanhedrin, a Jewish judicial body.[199] The gospel
The gospel
accounts differ on the details of the trials.[200] In Matthew 26:57, Mark 14:53 and Luke 22:54, Jesus
Jesus
is taken to the house of the high priest, Caiaphas, where he is mocked and beaten that night. Early the next morning, the chief priests and scribes lead Jesus
Jesus
away into their council.[201][202][203] John 18:12–14 states that Jesus
Jesus
is first taken to Annas, Caiaphas' father-in-law, and then to the high priest.[201][202][203]

Ecce homo! Antonio Ciseri's 1871 depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting Jesus
Jesus
to the public

During the trials Jesus
Jesus
speaks very little, mounts no defense, and gives very infrequent and indirect answers to the priests' questions, prompting an officer to slap him. In Matthew 26:62 Jesus' unresponsiveness leads Caiaphas
Caiaphas
to ask him, "Have you no answer?"[201][202][203] In Mark 14:61 the high priest then asks Jesus, "Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?" Jesus
Jesus
replies, "I am", and then predicts the coming of the Son of Man.[43] This provokes Caiaphas
Caiaphas
to tear his own robe in anger and to accuse Jesus
Jesus
of blasphemy. In Matthew and Luke, Jesus' answer is more ambiguous:[43][204] in Matthew 26:64 he responds, "You have said so", and in Luke 22:70 he says, "You say that I am".[205][206] The Jewish elders take Jesus
Jesus
to Pilate's Court
Pilate's Court
and ask the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, to judge and condemn Jesus, accusing him of claiming to be the King of the Jews.[203] The use of the word "king" is central to the discussion between Jesus
Jesus
and Pilate. In John 18:36 Jesus
Jesus
states, "My kingdom is not from this world", but he does not unequivocally deny being the King of the Jews.[207][208] In Luke 23:7–15 Pilate realizes that Jesus
Jesus
is a Galilean, and thus comes under the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas, the Tetrarch of Galilee
Galilee
and Perea.[209][210] Pilate sends Jesus
Jesus
to Herod to be tried,[211] but Jesus
Jesus
says almost nothing in response to Herod's questions. Herod and his soldiers mock Jesus, put an expensive robe on him to make him look like a king, and return him to Pilate,[209] who then calls together the Jewish elders and announces that he has "not found this man guilty".[212] Observing a Passover
Passover
custom of the time, Pilate allows one prisoner chosen by the crowd to be released. He gives the people a choice between Jesus
Jesus
and a murderer called Barabbas
Barabbas
(בר-אבא or Bar-abbâ, "son of the father", from the common given name Abba: 'father').[213] Persuaded by the elders (Matthew 27:20), the mob chooses to release Barabbas
Barabbas
and crucify Jesus.[214] Pilate writes a sign in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek that reads " Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, the King of the Jews" (abbreviated as INRI
INRI
in depictions) to be affixed to Jesus' cross (John 19:19–20),[215] then scourges Jesus
Jesus
and sends him to be crucified. The soldiers place a Crown of Thorns
Crown of Thorns
on Jesus' head and ridicule him as the King of the Jews. They beat and taunt him before taking him to Calvary,[216] also called Golgotha, for crucifixion.[201][203][217] Crucifixion and entombment

Pietro Perugino's depiction of the Crucifixion as Stabat Mater, 1482

Main articles: Crucifixion of Jesus
Crucifixion of Jesus
and Burial of Jesus See also: Sayings of Jesus
Jesus
on the cross and Crucifixion eclipse Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four canonical gospels. After the trials, Jesus
Jesus
is led to Calvary
Calvary
carrying his cross; the route traditionally thought to have been taken is known as the Via Dolorosa. The three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
indicate that Simon of Cyrene
Simon of Cyrene
assists him, having been compelled by the Romans to do so.[218][219] In Luke 23:27–28 Jesus
Jesus
tells the women in the multitude of people following him not to weep for him but for themselves and their children.[218] At Calvary, Jesus
Jesus
is offered a concoction usually offered as a painkiller. According to Matthew and Mark, he refuses it.[218][219] The soldiers then crucify Jesus
Jesus
and cast lots for his clothes. Above Jesus' head on the cross is Pilate's inscription, " Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, the King of the Jews." Soldiers and passersby mock him about it. Two convicted thieves are crucified along with Jesus. In Matthew and Mark, both thieves mock Jesus. In Luke, one of them rebukes Jesus, while the other defends him.[218][220][221] Jesus
Jesus
tells the latter: "today you will be with me in Paradise" (Luke 23:43). In John, Mary, the mother of Jesus, and the beloved disciple were at the crucifixion. Jesus tells the beloved disciple to take of his mother (John 19:26–27). The Roman soldiers break the two thieves' legs (a procedure designed to hasten death in a crucifixion), but they do not break those of Jesus, as he is already dead (John 19:33). In John 19:34, one soldier pierces Jesus' side with a lance, and blood and water flow out.[222] In the Synoptics, when Jesus
Jesus
dies, the heavy curtain at the Temple is torn. In Matthew 27:51–54, an earthquake breaks open tombs. In Matthew and Mark, terrified by the events, a Roman centurion states that Jesus
Jesus
was the Son of God.[218][223] On the same day, Joseph of Arimathea, with Pilate's permission and with Nicodemus' help, removes Jesus' body from the cross, wraps him in a clean cloth, and buries him in his new rock-hewn tomb.[218] In Matthew 27:62–66, on the following day the chief Jewish priests ask Pilate for the tomb to be secured, and with Pilate's permission the priests place seals on the large stone covering the entrance.[218][224] Resurrection and Ascension

Appearance of Jesus
Jesus
Christ to Maria Magdalena (1835) by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov

Main articles: Resurrection of Jesus, Post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, and Ascension of Jesus See also: Empty tomb, Great Commission, Second Coming, Resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
in Christian
Christian
art, and Ascension of Jesus
Jesus
in Christian
Christian
art Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
(alone in John, but accompanied by other women in the Synoptics) goes to Jesus' tomb on Sunday morning and is surprised to find it empty. Despite Jesus' teaching, the disciples had not understood that Jesus
Jesus
would rise again.[225]

In Matthew, there are guards at the tomb. An angel descends from heaven, and opens the tomb. The guards faint from fear. Jesus
Jesus
appears to Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and "the other Mary" after they visited the tomb. Jesus
Jesus
then appears to the eleven remaining disciples in Galilee
Galilee
and commissions them to baptize all nations in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.[117] In Mark, Salome
Salome
and Mary, mother of James
Mary, mother of James
are with Mary Magdalene (Mark 16:1). In the tomb, a young man in a white robe (an angel) tells them that Jesus
Jesus
will meet his disciples in Galilee, as he had told them (referring to Mark 14:28).[75] In Luke, Mary and various other women meet two angels at the tomb, but the eleven disciples do not believe their story (Luke 25:1–12). Jesus
Jesus
appears to two of his followers in Emmaus. He also makes an appearance to Peter. Jesus
Jesus
then appears that same day to his disciples in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Luke 24:13–43). Although he appears and vanishes mysteriously, he also eats and lets them touch him to prove that he is not a spirit. He repeats his command to bring his teaching to all nations (Luke 24:51).[226] In John, Mary is alone at first, but Peter and the beloved disciple come and see the tomb as well. Jesus
Jesus
then appears to Mary at the tomb. He later appears to the disciples, breathes on them, and gives them the power to forgive and retain sins. In a second visit to disciples, he proves to a doubting disciple ("Doubting Thomas") that he is flesh and blood.[103] The disciples return to Galilee, where Jesus
Jesus
makes another appearance. He performs a miracle known as the catch of 153 fish at the Sea of Galilee, after which Jesus
Jesus
encourages Peter to serve his followers.[69][227]

Jesus' Ascension into Heaven is described in Luke 24:50–53, Acts 1:1–11 and mentioned in 1 Timothy 3:16. In the Acts of the Apostles, forty days after the Resurrection, as the disciples look on, "he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight". 1 Peter 3:22 states that Jesus
Jesus
has "gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God".[69] The Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
describes several appearances of Jesus
Jesus
after his Ascension. In Acts 7:55, Stephen gazes into heaven and sees "Jesus standing at the right hand of God" just before his death.[228] On the road to Damascus, the Apostle Paul is converted to Christianity
Christianity
after seeing a blinding light and hearing a voice saying, "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting" (Acts 9:5). In Acts 9:10–18, Jesus
Jesus
instructs Ananias of Damascus
Damascus
in a vision to heal Paul.[229] The Book
Book
of Revelation
Revelation
includes a revelation from Jesus
Jesus
concerning the last days.[230]

Historical views Main articles: Historical Jesus
Jesus
and Quest for the historical Jesus See also: Biblical criticism Prior to the Enlightenment, the gospels were usually regarded as accurate historical accounts, but since then scholars have emerged who question the reliability of the gospels and draw a distinction between the Jesus
Jesus
described in the gospels and the Jesus
Jesus
of history.[231] Since the 18th century, three separate scholarly quests for the historical Jesus
Jesus
have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were often developed during the quest that applied them.[97][232] While there is widespread scholarly agreement on the existence of Jesus,[g] and a basic consensus on the general outline of his life,[m] the portraits of Jesus
Jesus
constructed by various scholars often differ from each other, and from the image portrayed in the gospel accounts.[234][235] Approaches to the historical reconstruction of the life of Jesus
Jesus
have varied from the "maximalist" approaches of the 19th century, in which the gospel accounts were accepted as reliable evidence wherever it is possible, to the "minimalist" approaches of the early 20th century, where hardly anything about Jesus
Jesus
was accepted as historical.[236] In the 1950s, as the second quest for the historical Jesus
Jesus
gathered pace, the minimalist approaches faded away, and in the 21st century, minimalists such as Price are a very small minority.[237][238] Although a belief in the inerrancy of the gospels cannot be supported historically, many scholars since the 1980s have held that, beyond the few facts considered to be historically certain, certain other elements of Jesus' life are "historically probable".[237][239][240] Modern scholarly research on the historical Jesus
Jesus
thus focuses on identifying the most probable elements.[241][242] Judea
Judea
and Galilee
Galilee
in the 1st century

Judea, Galilee
Galilee
and neighboring areas at the time of Jesus

In AD 6, Judea, Idumea, and Samaria
Samaria
were transformed from a client kingdom of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
into an imperial province, also called Judea. A Roman prefect, rather than a client king, ruled the land. The prefect ruled from Caesarea Maritima, leaving Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to be run by the High Priest of Israel. As an exception, the prefect came to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during religious festivals, when religious and patriotic enthusiasm sometimes inspired unrest or uprisings. Gentile lands surrounded the Jewish territories of Judea
Judea
and Galilee, but Roman law and practice allowed Jews
Jews
to remain separate legally and culturally. Galilee
Galilee
was evidently prosperous, and poverty was limited enough that it did not threaten the social order.[43] Jews
Jews
based their faith and religious practice on the Torah, five books said to have been given by God
God
to Moses. The three prominent religious parties were the Pharisees, the Essenes, and the Sadducees. Together these parties represented only a small fraction of the population. Most Jews
Jews
looked forward to a time that God
God
would deliver them from their pagan rulers, possibly through war against the Romans.[43] Sources Main article: Sources for the historicity of Jesus See also: Josephus
Josephus
on Jesus
Jesus
and Tacitus
Tacitus
on Christ

A 1640 edition of the works of Josephus, a 1st-century Roman-Jewish historian who referred to Jesus[243]

New Testament
New Testament
scholars face a formidable challenge when they analyze the canonical Gospels.[244] The Gospels
Gospels
are not biographies in the modern sense, and the authors explain Jesus' theological significance and recount his public ministry while omitting many details of his life.[244] The reports of supernatural events associated with Jesus' death and resurrection make the challenge even more difficult.[244] Scholars regard the gospels as compromised sources of information because the writers were trying to glorify Jesus.[84] Even so, the sources for Jesus' life are better than sources scholars have for the life of Alexander the Great.[84] Scholars use a number of criteria, such as the criterion of independent attestation, the criterion of coherence, and the criterion of discontinuity to judge the historicity of events.[245] The historicity of an event also depends on the reliability of the source; indeed, the gospels are not independent nor consistent records of Jesus' life. Mark, which is most likely the earliest written gospel, has been considered for many decades the most historically accurate.[246] John, the latest written gospel, differs considerably from the Synoptic Gospels, and thus is generally considered less reliable, although more and more scholars now also recognize that it may contain a core of older material as historically valuable as the Synoptic tradition or even more so.[247] The non-canonical Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas might be an independent witness to many of Jesus' parables and aphorisms. For example, Thomas confirms that Jesus
Jesus
blessed the poor and that this saying circulated independently before being combined with similar sayings in the Q source.[248] Other select non-canonical Christian
Christian
texts may also have value for historical Jesus
Jesus
research.[89] Early non- Christian
Christian
sources that attest to the historical existence of Jesus
Jesus
include the works of the historians Josephus
Josephus
and Tacitus.[n][243][250] Josephus
Josephus
scholar Louis Feldman
Louis Feldman
has stated that "few have doubted the genuineness" of Josephus' reference to Jesus
Jesus
in book 20 of the Antiquities of the Jews, and it is disputed only by a small number of scholars.[251][252] Tacitus
Tacitus
referred to Christ and his execution by Pilate in book 15 of his work Annals. Scholars generally consider Tacitus's reference to the execution of Jesus
Jesus
to be both authentic and of historical value as an independent Roman source.[253] Non- Christian
Christian
sources are valuable in two ways. First, they show that even neutral or hostile parties never evince any doubt that Jesus actually existed. Second, they present a rough picture of Jesus
Jesus
that is compatible with that found in the Christian
Christian
sources: that Jesus
Jesus
was a teacher, had a reputation as a miracle worker, had a brother James, and died a violent death.[11] Archeology helps scholars better understand Jesus' social world.[254] Recent archeological work, for example, indicates that Capernaum, a city important in Jesus' ministry, was poor and small, without even a forum or an agora.[255][256] This archaeological discovery resonates well with the scholarly view that Jesus
Jesus
advocated reciprocal sharing among the destitute in that area of Galilee.[255] Chronology Main article: Chronology of Jesus See also: Anno Domini Jesus
Jesus
was a Galilean Jew,[12] born around the beginning of the 1st century, who died in 30 or 33 AD in Judea.[6] The general scholarly consensus is that Jesus
Jesus
was a contemporary of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
and was crucified by the Roman governor
Roman governor
Pontius Pilate, who held office from 26 to 36 AD.[26] The gospels offer several clues concerning the year of Jesus' birth. Matthew 2:1 associates the birth of Jesus
Jesus
with the reign of Herod the Great, who died around 4 BC, and Luke 1:5 mentions that Herod was on the throne shortly before the birth of Jesus,[257][258] although this gospel also associates the birth with the Census of Quirinius
Census of Quirinius
which took place ten years later.[259][260] Luke 3:23 states that Jesus
Jesus
was "about thirty years old" at the start of his ministry, which according to Acts 10:37–38 was preceded by John the Baptist's ministry, itself recorded in Luke 3:1–2 to have begun in the 15th year of Tiberius' reign (28 or 29 AD).[258][261] By collating the gospel accounts with historical data and using various other methods, most scholars arrive at a date of birth between 6 and 4 BC for Jesus,[261][262] but some propose estimates that lie in a wider range.[o] The years of Jesus' ministry have been estimated using several different approaches.[263][264] One of these applies the reference in Luke 3:1–2, Acts 10:37–38 and the dates of Tiberius' reign, which are well known, to give a date of around 28–29 AD for the start of Jesus' ministry.[265] Another approach uses the statement about the temple in John 2:13–20, which asserts that the temple in Jerusalem was in its 46th year of construction at the start of Jesus' ministry, together with Josephus' statement that the temple's reconstruction was started by Herod the Great
Herod the Great
in the 18th year of his reign, to estimate a date around 27–29 AD.[263][266] A further method uses the date of the death of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
and the marriage of Herod Antipas
Herod Antipas
to Herodias, based on the writings of Josephus, and correlates it with Matthew 14:4 and Mark 6:18.[267][268] Given that most scholars date the marriage of Herod and Herodias
Herodias
as AD 28–35, this yields a date about 28–29 AD.[264] A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the crucifixion of Jesus. Most scholars agree that he died in 30 or 33 AD.[6][269] The gospels state that the event occurred during the prefecture of Pilate, the Roman governor
Roman governor
of Judea
Judea
from 26 to 36 AD.[270][271][272] The date for the conversion of Paul (estimated to be 33–36 AD) acts as an upper bound for the date of Crucifixion. The dates for Paul's conversion and ministry can be determined by analyzing the Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
and the Acts of the Apostles.[273][274] Astronomers have tried to estimate the precise date of the Crucifixion by analyzing lunar motion and calculating historic dates of Passover, a festival based on the lunisolar Hebrew calendar. The most widely accepted dates derived from this method are April 7, 30 AD, and April 3, 33 AD (both Julian).[275] Historicity of events Main article: Historicity of Jesus See also: Cultural and historical background of Jesus, History of the Jews
Jews
in the Roman Empire, Historical criticism, Textual criticism, and Historical reliability of the Gospels

Roman senator and historian Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote of the crucifixion of Christ (Jesus) in the Annals, a history of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the 1st century.

Scholars have reached a limited consensus on the basics of Jesus' life.[276] Family See also: Brothers of Jesus Many scholars agree that Joseph, Jesus' father, died by the time Jesus began his ministry. Joseph is not mentioned at all in the gospels during Jesus' ministry. Joseph's death would explain why in Mark 6:3, Jesus' neighbors refer to Jesus
Jesus
as the "son of Mary" (sons were usually identified by their fathers).[277] According to Theissen and Merz, it is common for extraordinary charismatic leaders, such as Jesus, to come into conflict with their ordinary families.[278] In Mark, Jesus' family comes to get him, fearing that he is mad (Mark 3:20–34), and this account is likely historical because early Christians would not have invented it.[279] After Jesus' death, many members of his family joined the Christian movement.[278] Jesus' brother James became a leader of the Jerusalem Church.[280] Géza Vermes
Géza Vermes
says that the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus
Jesus
arose from theological development rather than from historical events.[281] Despite the widely held view that the authors of the Synoptic Gospels drew upon each other (the so-called synoptic problem), other scholars take it as significant that the virgin birth is attested by two separate gospels, Matthew and Luke.[282][283][284][285][286][287] According to E. P. Sanders, the birth narratives in Matthew and Luke are the clearest case of invention in the Gospel
Gospel
narratives of Jesus' life. Both accounts have Jesus
Jesus
born in Bethlehem, in accordance with Jewish salvation history, and both have him growing up in Nazareth. But Sanders points that the two Gospels
Gospels
report completely different and irreconcilable explanations for how that happened. Luke's account of a census in which everyone returned to their ancestral cities is not plausible. Matthew's account is more plausible, but the story reads as though it was invented to identify Jesus
Jesus
as like a new Moses, and the historian Josephus
Josephus
reports Herod the Great's brutality without ever mentioning that he massacred little boys.[288] Sanders says that the genealogies of Jesus
Jesus
are based not on historical information but on the authors' desire to show that Jesus
Jesus
was the universal Jewish savior.[108] In any event, once the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus
Jesus
became established, that tradition superseded the earlier tradition that he was descended from David
David
through Joseph.[289] Luke reports that Jesus
Jesus
was a blood relation of John the Baptist, but scholars generally consider this connection to be invented.[108][290] Baptism Most modern scholars consider Jesus' baptism to be a definite historical fact, along with his crucifixion.[7] Theologian James D.G. Dunn states that they "command almost universal assent" and "rank so high on the 'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are often the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus.[7] Scholars adduce the criterion of embarrassment, saying that early Christians would not have invented a baptism that might imply that Jesus
Jesus
committed sins and wanted to repent.[291][292] According to Theissen and Merz, Jesus
Jesus
was inspired by John the Baptist and took over from him many elements of his teaching.[293] Ministry in Galilee Most scholars hold that Jesus
Jesus
lived in Galilee
Galilee
and Judea
Judea
and did not preach or study elsewhere.[294] They agree that Jesus
Jesus
debated with Jewish authorities on the subject of God, performed some healings, taught in parables and gathered followers.[26] Jesus' Jewish critics considered his ministry to be scandalous because he feasted with sinners, fraternized with women, and allowed his followers to pluck grain on the Sabbath.[74] According to Sanders, it is not plausible that disagreements over how to interpret the Law of Moses
Moses
and the Sabbath
Sabbath
would have led Jewish authorities to want Jesus
Jesus
killed.[295] According to Ehrman, Jesus
Jesus
taught that a coming kingdom was everyone's proper focus, not anything in this life.[296] He taught about the Jewish Law, seeking its true meaning, sometimes in opposition to other traditions.[297] Jesus
Jesus
put love at the center of the Law, and following that Law was an apocalyptic necessity.[297] His ethical teachings called for forgiveness, not judging others, loving enemies, and caring for the poor.[298] Funk and Hoover note that typical of Jesus
Jesus
were paradoxical or surprising turns of phrase, such as advising one, when struck on the cheek, to offer the other cheek to be struck as well (Luke 6:29).[299] The Gospels
Gospels
portray Jesus
Jesus
teaching in well-defined sessions, such as Matthew's Sermon on the Mount
Sermon on the Mount
or Luke's parallel Sermon
Sermon
on the Plain. According to Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz, these teaching sessions include authentic teachings of Jesus, but the scenes were invented by the respective evangelists to frame these teachings, which had originally been recorded without context.[89] While Jesus' miracles fit within the social context of antiquity, he defined them differently. First, he attributed them to the faith of those healed. Second, he connected them to end times prophecy.[300] Jesus
Jesus
chose twelve disciples [301] (the "Twelve"), evidently as an apocalyptic message.[302] All three Synoptics mention the Twelve, although the names on Luke's list vary from those in Mark and Matthew, suggesting that Christians were not certain who all the disciples were.[302] The 12 disciples might have represented the twelve original tribes of Israel, which would be restored once God's rule was instituted.[302] The disciples were reportedly meant to be the rulers of the tribes in the coming Kingdom (Matthew 19:28, Luke 22:30).[302] According to Bart Ehrman, Jesus' promise that the Twelve would rule is historical, because the Twelve included Judas Iscariot. In Ehrman's view, no Christians would have invented a line from Jesus, promising rulership to the disciple who betrayed him.[302] In Mark, the disciples play hardly any role other than a negative one. While others sometimes respond to Jesus
Jesus
with complete faith, his disciples are puzzled and doubtful.[303] They serve as a foil to Jesus
Jesus
and to other characters.[303] The failings of the disciples are probably exaggerated in Mark, and the disciples make a better showing in Matthew and Luke.[303] Sanders says that Jesus' mission was not about repentance, although he acknowledges that this opinion is unpopular. He argues that repentance appears as a strong theme only in Luke, that repentance was John the Baptist's message, and that Jesus' ministry would not have been scandalous if the sinners he ate with had been repentant.[304] According to Theissen and Merz, Jesus
Jesus
taught that God
God
was generously giving people an opportunity to repent.[305] Role Jesus
Jesus
taught that an apocalyptic figure, the "Son of Man", would soon come on clouds of glory to gather the elect, or chosen ones (Mark 13:24–27, Matthew 24:29–31, Luke 21:25–28). He referred to himself as a "son of man" in the colloquial sense of "a person", but scholars do not know whether he also meant himself when he referred to the heavenly "Son of Man". Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
and other early Christians interpreted the "Son of Man" as the risen Jesus.[43] The title Christ, or Messiah, indicates that Jesus' followers believed him to be the anointed heir of King David, whom some Jews
Jews
expected to save Israel. The Gospels
Gospels
refer to him not only as a Messiah
Messiah
but in the absolute form as "the Messiah" or, equivalently, "the Christ". In early Judaism, this absolute form of the title is not found, but only phrases such as "his Messiah". The tradition is ambiguous enough to leave room for debate as to whether Jesus
Jesus
defined his eschatological role as that of the Messiah.[306] The Jewish messianic tradition included many different forms, some of them focused on a Messiah figure and others not.[307] Based on the Christian
Christian
tradition, Gerd Theissen advances the hypothesis that Jesus
Jesus
saw himself in messianic terms but did not claim the title "Messiah".[307] Bart Ehrman
Bart Ehrman
argues that Jesus
Jesus
did consider himself to be the Messiah, albeit in the sense that he would be the king of the new political order that God
God
would usher in,[308] not in the sense that most people today think of the term.[309] Passover
Passover
and crucifixion in Jerusalem Around AD 30, Jesus
Jesus
and his followers traveled from Galilee
Galilee
to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to observe Passover.[301] Jesus
Jesus
caused a disturbance in the Second Temple,[28] which was the center of Jewish religious and civil authority. Sanders associates it with Jesus' prophecy that the Temple would be totally demolished.[310] Jesus
Jesus
had a last meal with his disciples, which is the origin of the Christian
Christian
sacrament of bread and wine. Jesus' words are recorded in the Synoptics and in Paul's First Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians. The differences in the accounts cannot be completely reconciled, and it is impossible to know what Jesus intended, but in general the meal seems to point forward to the coming Kingdom. Jesus
Jesus
probably expected to be killed, and he may have hoped that God
God
would intervene.[311] The Gospels
Gospels
say that Jesus
Jesus
was betrayed to the authorities by a disciple, and many scholars consider this report to be highly reliable.[134] He was executed on the orders of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Judaea.[28] Pilate most likely saw Jesus' reference to the Kingdom of God
God
as a threat to Roman authority and worked with the Temple elites to have Jesus
Jesus
executed.[312] The Sadducean high-priestly leaders of the Temple more plausibly had Jesus
Jesus
executed for political reasons than for his teaching.[134] They may have regarded him as a threat to stability, especially after he caused a disturbance at the Second Temple.[134][42] Other factors, such as Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, may have contributed to this decision.[313] Most scholars consider Jesus' crucifixion to be factual, because early Christians would not have invented the painful death of their leader.[7][314] After crucifixion

The Resurrection of Christ from a 16th-century copy of La Passion de Nostre Seigneur

After Jesus' death, his followers said he rose from the dead, although exact details of their experiences are unclear. Some of those who claimed to have witnessed Jesus' resurrection later died for their belief, which indicates that their beliefs were likely genuine.[315] According to Sanders, the Gospel
Gospel
reports contradict each other, which, according to him, suggests competition among those claiming to have seen him first rather than deliberate fraud.[316] On the other hand, L. Michael White suggests that inconsistencies in the Gospels
Gospels
reflect differences in the agendas of their unknown authors.[276] The followers of Jesus
Jesus
formed a community to wait for his return and the founding of his kingdom.[28] Portraits of Jesus Main article: Historical Jesus Modern research on the historical Jesus
Jesus
has not led to a unified picture of the historical figure, partly because of the variety of academic traditions represented by the scholars.[317] Given the scarcity of historical sources, it is generally difficult for any scholar to construct a portrait of Jesus
Jesus
that can be considered historically valid beyond the basic elements of his life.[86][87] The portraits of Jesus
Jesus
constructed in these quests often differ from each other, and from the image portrayed in the gospels.[318][319] Jesus
Jesus
is seen as the founder of, in the words of Sanders, a '"renewal movement within Judaism." One of the criteria used to discern historical details in the "third quest" is the criterion of plausibility, relative to Jesus' Jewish context and to his influence on Christianity. A disagreement in contemporary research is whether Jesus
Jesus
was apocalyptic. Most scholars conclude that he was an apocalyptic preacher, like John the Baptist
John the Baptist
and Paul the Apostle. In contrast, certain prominent North American scholars, such as Burton Mack and John Dominic Crossan, advocate for a non-eschatological Jesus, one who is more of a Cynic sage than an apocalyptic preacher.[320] In addition to portraying Jesus
Jesus
as an apocalyptic prophet, a charismatic healer or a cynic philosopher, some scholars portray him as the true Messiah
Messiah
or an egalitarian prophet of social change.[321][322] However, the attributes described in the portraits sometimes overlap, and scholars who differ on some attributes sometimes agree on others.[323] Since the 18th century, scholars have occasionally put forth that Jesus
Jesus
was a political national messiah, but the evidence for this portrait is negligible. Likewise, the proposal that Jesus
Jesus
was a Zealot does not fit with the earliest strata of the Synoptic tradition.[134] Language, ethnicity, and appearance Further information: Language of Jesus
Jesus
and Race and appearance of Jesus

The representation of the ethnicity of Jesus
Jesus
has been influenced by cultural settings.[324][325]

Jesus
Jesus
grew up in Galilee
Galilee
and much of his ministry took place there.[326] The languages spoken in Galilee
Galilee
and Judea
Judea
during the 1st century AD include Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek, with Aramaic being predominant.[327][328] There is substantial consensus that Jesus
Jesus
gave most of his teachings in Aramaic.[329] Modern scholars agree that Jesus
Jesus
was a Jew
Jew
of 1st-century Palestine.[330][331] Ioudaios in New Testament
New Testament
Greek[p] is a term which in the contemporary context may refer to religion (Second Temple Judaism), ethnicity (of Judea), or both.[333][334][335] In a review of the state of modern scholarship, Amy-Jill Levine writes that the entire question of ethnicity is "fraught with difficulty", and that "beyond recognizing that ' Jesus
Jesus
was Jewish', rarely does the scholarship address what being 'Jewish' means".[336] The New Testament
New Testament
gives no description of the physical appearance of Jesus
Jesus
before his death—it is generally indifferent to racial appearances and does not refer to the features of the people it mentions.[337][338][339] Jesus
Jesus
probably looked like a typical Jew
Jew
of his time and according to some scholars was likely to have had a sinewy appearance due to his ascetic and itinerant lifestyle.[340] Christ myth theory Main article: Christ myth theory The Christ myth theory
Christ myth theory
is the hypothesis that Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
never existed; or if he did, that he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity
Christianity
and the accounts in the gospels.[q] Stories of Jesus' birth, along with other key events, have so many mythic elements that some scholars have suggested that Jesus
Jesus
himself was a myth.[342] Bruno Bauer
Bruno Bauer
(1809–1882) taught that the first Gospel
Gospel
was a work of literature that produced history rather than described it.[343] According to Albert Kalthoff (1850–1906) a social movement produced Jesus
Jesus
when it encountered Jewish messianic expectations.[343] Arthur Drews
Arthur Drews
(1865–1935) saw Jesus
Jesus
as the concrete form of a myth that predated Christianity.[343] Despite arguments put forward by authors who have questioned the existence of a historical Jesus, there remains a strong consensus in historical-critical biblical scholarship that a historical Jesus
Jesus
did live in that area and in that time period.[344][345][346][347][348][349][350] Perspectives Main article: Religious perspectives on Jesus Apart from his own disciples and followers, the Jews
Jews
of Jesus' day generally rejected him as the Messiah, as do the great majority of Jews
Jews
today. Christian
Christian
theologians, ecumenical councils, reformers and others have written extensively about Jesus
Jesus
over the centuries. Christian
Christian
sects and schisms have often been defined or characterized by their descriptions of Jesus. Meanwhile, Manichaeans, Gnostics, Muslims, Baha'is, and others have found prominent places for Jesus
Jesus
in their religions.[351][352][353] Jesus
Jesus
has also had detractors, both past and present. Christian Main articles: Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity, Christ (title), and Christology

The Trinity
Trinity
is the belief in Christianity
Christianity
that God
God
is one God
God
in three persons: God
God
the Father, God the Son
God the Son
(Jesus), and God
God
the Holy Spirit.

Jesus
Jesus
is depicted with the Alpha and Omega
Alpha and Omega
letters in the catacombs of Rome from the 4th century.

Jesus
Jesus
is the central figure of Christianity.[13] Although Christian views of Jesus
Jesus
vary, it is possible to summarize the key beliefs shared among major denominations, as stated in their catechetical or confessional texts.[354][355][356] Christian
Christian
views of Jesus
Jesus
are derived from various sources, including the canonical gospels and New Testament letters such as the Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
and the Johannine writings. These documents outline the key beliefs held by Christians about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life, and that he is the Christ and the Son of God.[357] Despite their many shared beliefs, not all Christian
Christian
denominations agree on all doctrines, and both major and minor differences on teachings and beliefs have persisted throughout Christianity
Christianity
for centuries.[358] The New Testament
New Testament
states that the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
is the foundation of the Christian
Christian
faith (1 Corinthians 15:12–20).[359] Christians believe that through his sacrificial death and resurrection, humans can be reconciled with God
God
and are thereby offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.[34] Recalling the words of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
on the day after Jesus' baptism, these doctrines sometimes refer to Jesus
Jesus
as the Lamb of God, who was crucified to fulfill his role as the servant of God.[360][361] Jesus is thus seen as the new and last Adam, whose obedience contrasts with Adam's disobedience.[362] Christians view Jesus
Jesus
as a role model, whose God-focused life believers are encouraged to imitate.[13] Most Christians believe that Jesus
Jesus
was both human and the Son of God.[14] While there has been theological debate over his nature,[vague][r] some early beliefs viewed Jesus
Jesus
as subordinate to the Father (Subordinationism), and others considered him an aspect of the Father rather than a separate person (Sabellianism), both were condemned as heresies by the Catholic Church.[43][363] The Church resolved the issues in ancient councils, which established the Holy Trinity, with Jesus
Jesus
both fully human and fully God.[43] Trinitarian Christians generally believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Logos, God's incarnation and God
God
the Son, both fully divine and fully human. However, the doctrine of the Trinity
Trinity
is not universally accepted among Christians.[364][365] With the Protestant Reformation, Christians such as Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus
and the Socinians started questioning the ancient creeds that had established Jesus' two natures.[43] Nontrinitarian Christian
Christian
groups include The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints,[366] Unitarians and Jehovah's Witnesses.[363] Christians revere not only Jesus
Jesus
himself, but also his name. Devotions to the Holy Name of Jesus
Jesus
go back to the earliest days of Christianity.[367][368] These devotions and feasts exist in both Eastern and Western Christianity.[368] Jewish Main article: Judaism's view of Jesus See also: Jesus
Jesus
in the Talmud Judaism
Judaism
rejects the idea of Jesus
Jesus
being God,[42] or a mediator to God, or part of a Trinity.[369] It holds that Jesus
Jesus
is not the Messiah, arguing that he neither fulfilled the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh
Tanakh
nor embodied the personal qualifications of the Messiah.[370] Jews
Jews
argue that Jesus
Jesus
did not fulfill prophesies to build the Third Temple ( Ezekiel
Ezekiel
37:26–28), gather Jews
Jews
back to Israel (Isaiah 43:5–6), bring world peace (Isaiah 2:4), and unite humanity under the God
God
of Israel (Zechariah 14:9).[371] Furthermore, according to Jewish tradition, there were no prophets after Malachi,[372] who delivered his prophesies in the 5th century BC.[373] Judaic criticism of Jesus
Jesus
is long-standing. The Talmud, written and compiled from the 3rd to the 5th century AD,[374] includes stories that since medieval times have been considered to be defamatory accounts of Jesus.[375] In one such story, Yeshu HaNozri (" Jesus
Jesus
the Christian"), a lewd apostate, is executed by the Jewish high court for spreading idolatry and practicing magic.[376] The majority of contemporary scholars consider that this material provides no information on the historical Jesus.[377] The Mishneh Torah, a late 12th-century work of Jewish law written by Moses
Moses
Maimonides, states that Jesus
Jesus
is a "stumbling block" who makes "the majority of the world to err and serve a god other than the Lord".[378] Medieval Hebrew literature contains the anecdotal "Episode of Jesus" (known also as Toledot Yeshu), in which Jesus
Jesus
is described as being the son of Joseph, the son of Pandera (see: Episode of Jesus). The account portrays Jesus
Jesus
as an impostor.[379] Islamic Main article: Jesus
Jesus
in Islam

The name Jesus
Jesus
son of Mary written in Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
followed by Peace be upon him

A major figure in Islam,[38][40] Jesus
Jesus
(commonly transliterated as ʾĪsā) is considered to be a messenger of God
God
(Allah) and the Messiah
Messiah
(al-Masih) who was sent to guide the Children of Israel (Bani Isra'il) with a new scripture, the Gospel
Gospel
(referred to in Islam
Islam
as Injil).[39][380] Muslims regard the gospels of the New Testament
New Testament
as inauthentic, and believe that Jesus' original message was lost or altered and that Muhammad
Muhammad
came later to restore it.[381] Belief in Jesus
Jesus
(and all other messengers of God) is a requirement for being a Muslim.[382] The Quran
Quran
mentions Jesus
Jesus
by name 25 times—more often than Muhammad[383][384]—and emphasizes that Jesus
Jesus
was a mortal human who, like all other prophets, had been divinely chosen to spread God's message.[385] While the Qur'an affirms the Virgin birth of Jesus, he is considered to be neither the incarnation nor the son of God. Islamic texts emphasize a strict notion of monotheism (tawhid) and forbid the association of partners with God, which would be idolatry.[386] Like all prophets in Islam, Jesus
Jesus
is considered a Muslim.[387] The Quran
Quran
describes the annunciation to Mary (Maryam) by an angel that she is to give birth to Jesus
Jesus
while remaining a virgin. It calls the virgin birth a miracle that occurred by the will of God.[388][389] The Quran
Quran
(21:91 and 66:12) states that God
God
breathed his spirit into Mary while she was chaste.[388][389] Jesus
Jesus
is called the "Spirit of God" because he was born through the action of the Spirit,[388] but that belief does not imply his pre-existence.[390] To aid in his ministry to the Jewish people, Jesus
Jesus
was given the ability to perform miracles, by permission of God
God
rather than by his own power.[41] Through his ministry, Jesus
Jesus
is seen as a precursor to Muhammad.[385] According to the Quran, Jesus
Jesus
was not crucified but was merely made to appear that way to unbelievers by Allah,[391] who physically raised Jesus
Jesus
into the heavens.[392] To Muslims, it is the ascension rather than the crucifixion that constitutes a major event in the life of Jesus.[393] Most Muslims believe that Jesus
Jesus
will return to earth at the end of time and defeat the Antichrist
Antichrist
(ad-Dajjal) by killing him in Lud.[39] The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community has several distinct teachings about Jesus. Ahmadis believe that he was a mortal man who survived his crucifixion and died a natural death at the age of 120 in Kashmir, India
India
and is buried at Roza Bal.[394] Bahá'í Bahá'í teachings consider Jesus
Jesus
to be a manifestation of God, a Bahá'í concept for prophets[395]—intermediaries between God
God
and humanity, serving as messengers and reflecting God's qualities and attributes.[396] The Bahá'í concept emphasizes the simultaneous qualities of humanity and divinity;[396] thus, it is similar to the Christian
Christian
concept of incarnation.[395] Bahá'í thought accepts Jesus as the Son of God.[397] In Bahá'í thought, Jesus
Jesus
was a perfect incarnation of God's attributes, but Bahá'í teachings reject the idea that "ineffable essence" of the Divinity was contained within a single human body because of their beliefs regarding "omnipresence and transcendence of the essence of God".[395] Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, wrote that since each manifestation of God
God
has the same divine attributes, they can be seen as the spiritual "return" of all previous manifestations of God, and the appearance of each new manifestation of God
God
inaugurates a religion that supersedes the former ones, a concept known as progressive revelation.[396] Bahá'ís believe that God's plan unfolds gradually through this process as mankind matures, and that some of the manifestations arrive in specific fulfillment of the missions of previous ones. Thus, Bahá'ís believe that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
is the promised return of Christ.[398] Bahá'í teachings confirm many, but not all, aspects of Jesus
Jesus
as portrayed in the gospels. Bahá'ís believe in the virgin birth and in the Crucifixion,[399][400] but see the Resurrection and the miracles of Jesus
Jesus
as symbolic.[397][400] Other See also: Criticism of Jesus In Christian
Christian
Gnosticism
Gnosticism
(now a largely extinct religious movement),[401] Jesus
Jesus
was sent from the divine realm and provided the secret knowledge (gnosis) necessary for salvation. Most Gnostics believed that Jesus
Jesus
was a human who became possessed by the spirit of "the Christ" at his baptism. This spirit left Jesus' body during the crucifixion, but was rejoined to him when he was raised from the dead. Some Gnostics, however, were docetics, believed that Jesus
Jesus
did not have a physical body, but only appeared to possess one.[402] Manichaeism, a Gnostic sect, accepted Jesus
Jesus
as a prophet, in addition to revering Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
and Zoroaster.[403][404] Barnabas, one of twelve apostles of Christ, testified in his gospel that Jesus
Jesus
is a mortal prophet to children of Israel, but not a Messiah, and accused Paul who was deceived by Satan
Satan
in his doctrine. In this gospel Jesus
Jesus
rebuked Peter when saying he is the son of God,[405] and he also cursed everyone who inserted into his sayings that he is the son of God.[406] Had men not called him God, Jesus should have been carried to paradise.[407][408] Some Hindus consider Jesus
Jesus
to be an avatar or a sadhu.[409] Paramahansa Yogananda, an Indian guru, taught that Jesus
Jesus
was the reincarnation of Elisha
Elisha
and a student of John the Baptist, the reincarnation of Elijah.[410] Some Buddhists, including Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, regard Jesus
Jesus
as a bodhisattva who dedicated his life to the welfare of people.[411] The New Age
New Age
movement entertains a wide variety of views on Jesus.[412] Theosophists, from whom many New Age teachings originated,[413] refer to Jesus
Jesus
as the Master Jesus
Jesus
and believe that Christ, after various incarnations, occupied the body of Jesus.[414] Scientologists recognize Jesus
Jesus
(along with other religious figures such as Zoroaster, Muhammad, and Buddha) as part of their "religious heritage".[412][415] Atheists reject Jesus' divinity, but have differing views on Jesus' moral teachings. For example, Richard Dawkins has called him "a great moral teacher",[416][417] while Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens
deemed his teachings on forgiveness "positively immoral".[418] Artistic depictions Main article: Depiction of Jesus

Jesus
Jesus
healing a paralytic in one of the first known images of Jesus from Dura Europos in the 2nd century[419]

Some of the earliest depictions of Jesus
Jesus
at the Dura-Europos church are firmly dated to before 256.[420] Thereafter, despite the lack of biblical references or historical records, a wide range of depictions of Jesus
Jesus
appeared during the last two millennia, often influenced by cultural settings, political circumstances and theological contexts.[324][325][338] As in other Early Christian
Christian
art, the earliest depictions date to the late 2nd or early 3rd century, and surviving images are found especially in the Catacombs of Rome.[421] The depiction of Christ in pictorial form was highly controversial in the early church.[422][s][423] From the 5th century onward, flat painted icons became popular in the Eastern Church.[424] The Byzantine Iconoclasm acted as a barrier to developments in the East, but by the ninth century, art was permitted again.[324] The Protestant Reformation
Reformation
brought renewed resistance to imagery, but total prohibition was atypical, and Protestant objections to images have tended to reduce since the 16th century. Although large images are generally avoided, few Protestants now object to book illustrations depicting Jesus.[425][426] The use of depictions of Jesus
Jesus
is advocated by the leaders of denominations such as Anglicans
Anglicans
and Catholics[427][428][429] and is a key element of the Eastern Orthodox tradition.[430][431] The Transfiguration was a major theme in Eastern Christian
Christian
art, and every Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
monk who had trained in icon painting had to prove his craft by painting an icon depicting it.[432] Icons receive the external marks of veneration, such as kisses and prostration, and they are thought to be powerful channels of divine grace.[424] The Renaissance
Renaissance
brought forth a number of artists who focused on depictions of Jesus; Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
and others followed Giotto
Giotto
in the systematic development of uncluttered images.[324] Before the Protestant Reformation, the crucifix was common in Western Christianity. It is a model of the cross with Jesus
Jesus
crucified on it. The crucifix became the central ornament of the altar in the 13th century, a use that has been nearly universal in Roman Catholic churches until recent times.[433] Jesus
Jesus
appears as an infant in a manger (feed trough) in Christmas creches, which depict the Nativity scene.[434] He is typically joined by Mary, Joseph, animals, shepherds, angels, and the Magi.[434] Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
(1181/82–1226) is credited with popularizing the creche, although he probably did not initiate it.[434] The creche reached its height of popularity in the 17th and 18th centuries in southern Europe.[434] Associated relics Main article: Relics associated with Jesus The total destruction that ensued with the siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by the Romans in AD 70 made the survival of items from 1st-century Judea
Judea
very rare and almost no direct records survive about the history of Judaism from the last part of the 1st century through the 2nd century.[435][436][t] Margaret M. Mitchell writes that although Eusebius
Eusebius
reports (Ecclesiastical History III 5.3) that the early Christians left Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for Pella just before Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was subjected to the final lock down, we must accept that no first hand Christian
Christian
items from the early Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Church have reached us.[438] Joe Nickell
Joe Nickell
writes, "as investigation after investigation has shown, not a single, reliably authenticated relic of Jesus
Jesus
exists."[439][u] However, throughout the history of Christianity
Christianity
a number of relics attributed to Jesus
Jesus
have been claimed, although doubt has been cast on them. The 16th-century Catholic theologian Erasmus
Erasmus
wrote sarcastically about the proliferation of relics and the number of buildings that could have been constructed from the wood claimed to be from the cross used in the Crucifixion.[442] Similarly, while experts debate whether Jesus
Jesus
was crucified with three nails or with four, at least thirty holy nails continue to be venerated as relics across Europe.[443] Some relics, such as purported remnants of the Crown of Thorns, receive only a modest number of pilgrims, while the Shroud of Turin (which is associated with an approved Catholic devotion
Catholic devotion
to the Holy Face of Jesus), has received millions,[444] including popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI.[445][446] See also

Book: Jesus

Jesuism List of founders of religious traditions List of people who have been considered deities List of books about Jesus List of people claimed to be Jesus Comparison of the founders of religious traditions

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Notes

^ Meier writes that Jesus' birth year is c. 7 or 6 BC.[1] Rahner states that the consensus among scholars is c. 4 BC.[2] Sanders also favors c. 4 BC and refers to the general consensus.[3] Finegan uses the study of early Christian
Christian
traditions to support c. 3 or 2 BC.[4] ^ Most scholars estimate AD 30 or 33 as the year of Jesus' crucifixion.[6] ^ James Dunn writes that the baptism and crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
"command almost universal assent" and "rank so high on the 'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are often the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus.[7] Bart Ehrman states that the crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
on the orders of Pontius Pilate is the most certain element about him.[8] John Dominic Crossan
John Dominic Crossan
and Richard G. Watts state that the crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
is as certain as any historical fact can be.[9] Paul R. Eddy and Gregory A. Boyd say that non- Christian
Christian
confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
is now "firmly established".[10] ^ Traditionally, Christians believe that Mary conceived her son miraculously by the agency of the Holy Spirit. Muslims believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the command of God. Joseph was from these perspectives the acting adoptive father. ^ Greek: Ἰησοῦς, translit. Iesous; Hebrew: ישוע‎, translit. Yēšū́aʿ ^ The New Testament
New Testament
records a variety of names and titles accorded to Jesus. ^ a b In a 2011 review of the state of modern scholarship, Bart Ehrman wrote, "He certainly existed, as virtually every competent scholar of antiquity, Christian
Christian
or non-Christian, agrees".[15] Richard A. Burridge states: "There are those who argue that Jesus
Jesus
is a figment of the Church's imagination, that there never was a Jesus
Jesus
at all. I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more".[16] Robert M. Price
Robert M. Price
does not believe that Jesus existed, but agrees that this perspective runs against the views of the majority of scholars.[17] James D.G. Dunn calls the theories of Jesus' non-existence "a thoroughly dead thesis".[18] Michael Grant (a classicist) wrote in 1977, "In recent years, 'no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus' or at any rate very few, and they have not succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary".[19] Robert E. Van Voorst states that biblical scholars and classical historians regard theories of non-existence of Jesus
Jesus
as effectively refuted.[20] ^ Ehrman writes: "The notion that the Gospel
Gospel
accounts are not completely accurate but still important for the religious truths they try to convey is widely shared in the scholarly world, even though it's not so widely known or believed outside of it."[22] ^ Sanders writes: "The earliest Christians did not write a narrative of Jesus' life, but rather made use of, and thus preserved, individual units—short passages about his words and deeds. These units were later moved and arranged by authors and editors. ... Some material has been revised and some created by early Christians."[23] ^ The BBC describes this as follows: "Year 1: CE – What is nowadays called the 'Current Era' traditionally begins with the birth of a Jewish teacher called Jesus. His followers came to believe he was the promised Messiah
Messiah
and later split away from Judaism
Judaism
to found Christianity."[31] ^ This article uses quotes from the New Revised Standard Version
New Revised Standard Version
of the Bible. ^ Powell writes: "[Paul] does cite words or instructions of Jesus
Jesus
in a few places (1 Cor. 7:10–11; 9:14; 11:23–25; 2 Cor. 12:9; cf. Acts 20:35), but for the most part he displays little interest in the details of Jesus' earthly life and ministry."[70] ^ Amy-Jill Levine writes: "There is a consensus of sorts on a basic outline of Jesus' life. Most scholars agree that Jesus
Jesus
was baptized by John, debated with fellow Jews
Jews
on how best to live according to God's will, engaged in healings and exorcisms, taught in parables, gathered male and female followers in Galilee, went to Jerusalem, and was crucified by Roman soldiers during the governorship of Pontius Pilate"[233] ^ Tuckett writes: "All this does at least render highly implausible any far-fetched theories that even Jesus' very existence was a Christian
Christian
invention. The fact that Jesus
Jesus
existed, that he was crucified under Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
(for whatever reason) and that he had a band of followers who continued to support his cause, seems to be part of the bedrock of historical tradition. If nothing else, the non- Christian
Christian
evidence can provide us with certainty on that score."[249] ^ For example, John P. Meier states that Jesus' birth year is c. 7/6 BC,[1] while Finegan favors c. 3/2 BC.[4] ^ In the New Testament, Jesus
Jesus
is described as Jewish / Judean ( Ioudaios as written in Koine Greek) on three occasions: by the Magi in Matthew 2, who referred to Jesus
Jesus
as "King of the Jews" (basileus ton ioudaion); by both the Samaritan woman at the well
Samaritan woman at the well
and by Jesus himself in John 4; and (in all four gospels) during the Passion, by the Romans, who also used the phrase "King of the Jews".[332] ^ Ehrman writes: ""In simpler terms, the historical Jesus
Jesus
did not exist . Or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity." further quoting as authoritative the fuller definition provided by Earl Doherty in Jesus: Neither God
God
Nor Man. Age of Reason, 2009, pp. vii–viii: it is "the theory that no historical Jesus
Jesus
worthy of the name existed, that Christianity
Christianity
began with a belief in a spiritual, mythical figure, that the Gospels
Gospels
are essentially allegory and fiction, and that no single identifiable person lay at the root of the Galilean preaching tradition."[341] ^ Following the Apostolic Age, there was fierce and often politicized debate in the early church on many interrelated issues. Christology was a major focus of these debates, and was addressed at every one of the first seven ecumenical councils. ^ Philip Schaff commenting on Irenaeus, wrote, 'This censure of images as a Gnostic peculiarity, and as a heathenish corruption, should be noted'. Footnote 300 on Contr. Her. .I.XXV.6. ANF ^ Flavius Josephus
Josephus
writing (about 5 years later, c. AD 75) in The Jewish War ( Book
Book
VII 1.1) stated that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had been flattened to the point that "there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it had ever been inhabited."[437] And once what was left of the ruins of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had been turned into the Roman settlement of Aelia Capitolina, no Jews
Jews
were allowed to set foot in it.[436] ^ Polarized conclusions regarding the Shroud of Turin
Shroud of Turin
remain.[440] According to former Nature editor Philip Ball, "it's fair to say that, despite the seemingly definitive tests in 1988, the status of the Shroud of Turin
Shroud of Turin
is murkier than ever. Not least, the nature of the image and how it was fixed on the cloth remain deeply puzzling".[441]

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VII, section 1.1" ^ Margaret M. Mitchell "The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine" Cambridge University Press 2006 p. 298 ^ Nickell, Joe (2007). Relics of the Christ. University Press of Kentucky. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-8131-3731-5.  ^ Habermas, Gary R. "Shroud of Turin." The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization (2011). doi:10.1002/9780470670606.wbecc1257 ^ Ball, P. (2008). "Material witness: Shrouded in mystery". Nature Materials. 7 (5): 349. Bibcode:2008NatMa...7..349B. doi:10.1038/nmat2170. PMID 18432204.  ^ Dillenberger 1999, p. 5. ^  Thurston, Herbert (1913). "Holy Nails". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Delaney, Sarah (May 24, 2010). "Shroud exposition closes with more than 2 million visits". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on June 8, 2010.  ^ Wojtyła, Karol J. (May 24, 1998). " Pope
Pope
John Paul II's address in Turin Cathedral". Vatican Publishing House.  ^ Squires, Nick (May 3, 2010). " Pope
Pope
Benedict says Shroud of Turin authentic burial robe of Jesus". Christian
Christian
Science Monitor. 

Bibliography

Blomberg, Craig L. (2009). Jesus
Jesus
and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8054-4482-7.  Boring, M. Eugene; Craddock, Fred B. (2004). The people's New Testament commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22754-8.  Brown, Raymond E. (1988). The Gospel
Gospel
and Epistles of John: A Concise Commentary. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-1283-5.  Brown, Raymond E. (1978). Mary in the New Testament. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-2168-7.  Brown, Raymond E. (1988). The Gospel
Gospel
and Epistles of John: A Concise Commentary. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-1283-5.  Brown, Raymond E. (1997). An Introduction to the New Testament. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-24767-2.  Carter, Warren (2003). Pontius Pilate: portraits of a Roman governor. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5113-1.  Chilton, Bruce; Evans, Craig A. (1998). Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11142-4.  Cox, Steven L.; Easley, Kendell H (2007). Harmony of the Gospels. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8054-9444-0.  Cross, Frank L.; Livingstone, E. A., eds. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of the Christian
Christian
Church. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192802903.  Crossan, John D.; Watts, Richard G. (1999). Who Is Jesus?: Answers to Your Questions About the Historical Jesus. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25842-9.  Dickson, John (2008). Jesus: A Short Life. Kregel Publications. ISBN 978-0-8254-7802-4.  Dillenberger, John (1999). Images and Relics : Theological Perceptions and Visual Images in Sixteenth-Century Europe: Theological Perceptions and Visual Images in Sixteenth-Century Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976146-3.  Donahue, John R.; Harrington, Daniel J. (2002). The Gospel
Gospel
of Mark. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5804-8.  Doninger, Wendy (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0.  Dunn, James D.G. (2003). Jesus
Jesus
Remembered. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-3931-2.  Eddy, Paul R.; Boyd, Gregory A. (2007). The Jesus
Jesus
legend: a case for the historical reliability of the synoptic Jesus
Jesus
tradition. Baker Academic. ISBN 978-0-8010-3114-4.  Ehrman, Bart (1999). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-983943-8.  Evans, Craig A. (2003). The Bible
Bible
Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke. David
David
C. Cook. ISBN 978-0-7814-3868-1.  Evans, Craig A. (2005). The Bible
Bible
Knowledge Background Commentary: John's Gospel, Hebrews-Revelation. David
David
C. Cook. ISBN 978-0-7814-4228-2.  Evans, Craig A. (2012). Jesus
Jesus
and His World: The Archaeological Evidence. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-23413-3.  France, R. T. (2007). The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2501-8.  Freedman, David
David
N. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4.  Funk, Robert W.; Hoover, Roy W. (1993). The Five Gospels. Harper.  Green, Joel B.; McKnight, Scot; Marshall, I. Howard (1992). Dictionary of Jesus
Jesus
and the Gospels. InterVarsity Press. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1.  Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-28670-7.  Harris, Stephen L. (1985). Understanding the Bible. Mayfield.  Houlden, J. Leslie (2006). Jesus: the complete guide. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-8011-8.  Köstenberger, Andreas J.; Kellum, L. Scott; Quarles, Charles L (2009). The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3.  Lee, Dorothy A. (2004). Transfiguration. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-7595-4.  Levine, Amy-Jill (2006). "Introduction". In Levine, Amy-Jill; Allison, Dale C.; Crossan, John D. The Historical Jesus
Jesus
in Context. Princeton Univ Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00992-6.  Licona, Michael R. (2010). The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-2719-0.  Maier, Paul L. (1989). "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus". In Finegan, Jack; Vardaman, Jerry; Yamauchi, Edwin M. Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-50-8.  Majerník, Ján; Ponessa, Joseph; Manhardt, Laurie W. (2005). The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke. Emmaus Road Publishing. ISBN 978-1-931018-31-9.  McGrath, Alister E. (2006). Christianity: An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-1-4051-0899-7.  Meier, John P. (2006). "How do we decide what comes from Jesus". In Dunn, James D.G.; McKnight, Scot. The Historical Jesus
Jesus
in Recent Research. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-100-9.  Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger A. (1998). Mercer dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7.  Morris, Leon (1992). The Gospel
Gospel
according to Matthew. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85111-338-8.  Niswonger, Richard L. (1992). New Testament
New Testament
History. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-31201-7.  Pannenberg, Wolfhart (1968). Jesus
Jesus
God
God
and Man. S.C.M. Press. ISBN 978-0-334-00783-8.  Powell, Mark A. (1998). Jesus
Jesus
as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25703-3.  Rahner, Karl (2004). Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-86012-006-3.  Rausch, Thomas P. (2003). Who is Jesus?: an introduction to Christology. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5078-3.  Redford, Douglas (2007). The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels. Standard Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7847-1900-8.  Reed, Jonathan L. (2002). Archaeology and the Galilean Jesus: a re-examination of the evidence. Continuum. ISBN 978-1-56338-394-6.  Sanders, Ed P. (1993). The Historical Figure of Jesus. Allen Lane Penguin Press. ISBN 9780141928227.  Stanton, Graham (2002). The Gospels
Gospels
and Jesus. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00802-0.  Theissen, Gerd; Merz, Annette (1998). The Historical Jesus : a Comprehensive Guide. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-1-4514-0863-8.  Theissen, Gerd; Winter, Dagmar (2002). The Quest for the Plausible Jesus: The Question of Criteria. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22537-7.  Twelftree, Graham H. (1999). Jesus
Jesus
the miracle worker: a historical & theological study. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-1596-8.  Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus
Jesus
Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5.  Vine, William E. (1940). Expository Dictionary of New Testament
New Testament
Words. Fleming H. Revell Company. ISBN 978-0-916441-31-9.  Vermes, Geza (1981). Jesus
Jesus
the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels. Philadelphia: First Fortress. ISBN 0-8006-1443-7.  Vermes, Geza (2003). The Authentic Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus. London: Penguin. ISBN 014100360X.  Walvoord, John F.; Zuck, Roy B. (1983). The Bible
Bible
Knowledge Commentary: New Testament. David
David
C. Cook. ISBN 978-0-88207-812-0.  Wilson, Barrie A (2007). How Jesus
Jesus
Became Christian. New York: St.Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-679-31493-6.  Witherington, Ben (1997). The Jesus
Jesus
Quest: The Third Search for the Jew
Jew
of Nazareth. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-1544-9. 

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Note: Italics denote that the status as a prophet is not universally accepted.

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Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah (?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

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Ezekiel
(?)

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سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

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and society

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Conversion

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Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

Index Outline Timeline Abrahamic prophets Deification Deities Founders Mass gatherings New religious movements Organizations Religions and spiritual traditions Scholars

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 38323081 LCCN: n79084784 ISNI: 0000 0001 2037 0699 GND: 118557513 SELIBR: 222130 SUDOC: 027325636 MusicBrainz: bde40933-e89b-4f10-8e52-faa040c4cae4 NDL: 00565948 RLS: 000008166 BNE: XX1724

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