HOME
The Info List - Jesuit


--- Advertisement ---



The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(SJ – from Latin: Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits.[2] The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits
Jesuits
work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits
Jesuits
also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue. Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
and Peter Faber, gathered and professed vows of poverty, chastity, and later obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope
Pope
in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute". Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, and the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God[a] to strive especially for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine."[4] Jesuits
Jesuits
are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers",[5] "God's marines",[6] or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions.[7] The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council. The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General.[8][9] The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.[10] The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope
Pope
Francis.

Contents

1 Statistics 2 Formula of the Institute 3 History

3.1 Foundation 3.2 Early works 3.3 Expansion

3.3.1 Activity in China 3.3.2 Activity in Canada 3.3.3 Activity in the United States 3.3.4 Jesuits
Jesuits
in Mexico 3.3.5 Jesuits
Jesuits
in northern Spanish America 3.3.6 Jesuits
Jesuits
in Paraguay 3.3.7 Jesuits
Jesuits
in colonial Brazil

3.4 Suppression and restoration 3.5 Early 20th century 3.6 Post–Vatican II

4 Ignatian spirituality 5 Formation 6 Government of the society 7 Habit and dress 8 Controversies

8.1 Power-seeking 8.2 Political intrigue 8.3 Casuistic justification 8.4 Anti-Semitism 8.5 Theological debates

9 Child sexual abuse 10 Nazi persecution

10.1 Rescue efforts during the Holocaust

11 In science 12 Notable members 13 Institutions

13.1 Educational institutions 13.2 Social and development institutions

14 Publications 15 In popular culture 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References

18.1 Footnotes 18.2 Bibliography

19 Further reading

19.1 Surveys 19.2 Specialized studies 19.3 Primary sources 19.4 In German

20 External links

20.1 Catholic Church
Catholic Church
documents 20.2 Jesuit documents 20.3 Other links

Statistics[edit]

Jesuits
Jesuits
in the world — January 2013[11][12]

Region Jesuits Percentage

Africa 1,509 9%

South Latin
Latin
America 1,221 7%

North Latin
Latin
America 1,226 7%

South Asia 4,016 23%

Asia-Pacific 1,639 9%

Central and East Europe 1,641 10%

South Europe 2,027 12%

West Europe 1,541 9%

North America 2,467 14%

The Jesuits
Jesuits
today form the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church[13] (although they are surpassed by the Franciscan
Franciscan
family of orders of Friars Minor, Capuchins, and Conventuals). The Jesuits
Jesuits
have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades. As of 2016 the society had 16,378 members, 11,785 priests and 4,593 brothers and scholastics. This represents a 41.5% decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests.[1] This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with relatively modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa.[14][15] There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the free fall of vocations among the Jesuits.[16] The society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions.[11] On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India
India
and the US. Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, and 65.5 years for brothers.[17] The current Superior General of the Jesuits
Jesuits
is Arturo Sosa. The society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines
Philippines
and India. In the United States the Jesuits
Jesuits
have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools. The degree to which the Jesuits
Jesuits
are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of 2016, 12 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents.[18] According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was".[19] Worldwide it runs 322 secondary schools and 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will often contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth,[20] and training men and women for others.[21] Formula of the Institute[edit]

Ignatius of Loyola

Ignatius receiving papal bull

Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus",[22] which is "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform."[23] He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
in 1540 and by Pope
Pope
Julius III in 1550.[22] The formula expressed the nature, spirituality, community life, and apostolate of the new religious order. Its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background:

Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, and to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, should, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity, poverty and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive especially for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching, lectures and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, and further by means of retreats, the education of children and unlettered persons in Christianity, and the spiritual consolation of Christ's faithful through hearing confessions and administering the other sacraments. Moreover, he should show himself ready to reconcile the estranged, compassionately assist and serve those who are in prisons or hospitals, and indeed, to perform any other works of charity, according to what will seem expedient for the glory of God and the common good.[17]

A fresco depicting Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
receiving the papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae
Regimini militantis Ecclesiae
from Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
was created after 1743 by Johann Christoph Handke
Johann Christoph Handke
in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc. History[edit] Foundation[edit]

Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris

Francis Xavier

On 15 August 1534, Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
(born Íñigo López de Loyola), a Spaniard
Spaniard
from the Basque city of Loyola, and six others mostly of Castilian origin, all students at the University
University
of Paris,[24] met in Montmartre
Montmartre
outside Paris, in a crypt beneath the church of Saint Denis, now Saint Pierre de Montmartre, to pronounce the religious vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.[25] Ignatius' six companions were: Francisco Xavier from Navarre (modern Spain), Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, Nicolás Bobadilla from Castile (modern Spain), Peter Faber from Savoy, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal.[26] The meeting has been commemorated in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, Montmartre. They called themselves the Compañía de Jesús, and also Amigos en El Señor or "Friends in the Lord", because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name "company" had echoes of the military (reflecting perhaps Ignatius' background as Captain in the Spanish army) as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). The Spanish "company" would be translated into Latin
Latin
as societas like in socius, a partner or comrade. From this came "Society of Jesus" (SJ) by which they would be known more widely.[27] Religious orders established in the medieval era were named after particular men: Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
(Franciscans), Domingo de Guzmán, later canonized as St Dominic (Dominicans); and Augustine of Hippo (Augustinians). Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
and his followers appropriated the name of Jesus for their new order, provoking resentment by other religious who considered it presumptuous. The resentment was recorded by Jesuit José de Acosta
José de Acosta
of a conversation with the Archbishop of Santo Domingo.[28] In the words of one historian: "The use of the name Jesus gave great offense. Both on the Continent and in England, it was denounced as blasphemous; petitions were sent to kings and to civil and ecclesiastical tribunals to have it changed; and even Pope
Pope
Sixtus V had signed a Brief to do away with it." But nothing came of all the opposition; there were already congregations named after the Trinity and as "God's daughters".[29] In 1537, the seven travelled to Italy
Italy
to seek papal approval for their order. Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. These initial steps led to the official founding in 1540. They were ordained in Venice
Venice
by the bishop of Arbe (24 June). They devoted themselves to preaching and charitable work in Italy. The Italian War of 1535-1538
Italian War of 1535-1538
renewed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Venice, the Pope, and the Ottoman Empire, had rendered any journey to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
impossible. Again in 1540, they presented the project to Paul III. After months of dispute, a congregation of cardinals reported favourably upon the Constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae
Regimini militantis ecclesiae
("To the Government of the Church Militant"), on 27 September 1540. This is the founding document of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
as an official Catholic religious order. Ignatius was chosen as the first Superior General. Paul III's bull had limited the number of its members to sixty. This limitation was removed through the bull Exposcit debitum of Julius III in 1550.[30]

Jesuits
Jesuits
at Akbar's court in India, c. 1605

In fulfilling the mission of the "Formula of the Institute of the Society", the first Jesuits
Jesuits
concentrated on a few key activities. First, they founded schools throughout Europe. Jesuit teachers were trained in both classical studies and theology, and their schools reflected this. Second, they sent out missionaries across the globe to evangelize those peoples who had not yet heard the Gospel, founding missions in widely diverse regions such as modern-day Paraguay, Japan, Ontario, and Ethiopia. One of the original seven arrived in India already in 1541.[31] Finally, though not initially formed for the purpose, they aimed to stop Protestantism
Protestantism
from spreading and to preserve communion with Rome
Rome
and the successor of Saint Peter. The zeal of the Jesuits
Jesuits
overcame the movement toward Protestantism
Protestantism
in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
and southern Germany. Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1553, which created a centralised organization and stressed acceptance of any mission to which the Pope
Pope
might call them.[32][33][34] His main principle became the unofficial Jesuit motto: Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam ("For the greater glory of God"). This phrase is designed to reflect the idea that any work that is not evil can be meritorious for the spiritual life if it is performed with this intention, even things normally considered of little importance.[30] The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
is classified among institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms, or donations, for support. The term "Jesuit" (of 15th-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus) was first applied to the society in reproach (1544–52).[35] The term was never used by Ignatius of Loyola, but over time, members and friends of the society adopted the name with a positive meaning.[29] Early works[edit]

Ratio Studiorum, 1598

The Jesuits
Jesuits
were founded just before the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ensuing Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
that would introduce reforms within the Catholic Church, and so counter the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
throughout Catholic Europe. Ignatius and the early Jesuits
Jesuits
did recognize, though, that the hierarchical church was in dire need of reform. Some of their greatest struggles were against corruption, venality, and spiritual lassitude within the Catholic Church. Ignatius insisted on a high level of academic preparation for the clergy in contrast to the relatively poor education of much of the clergy of his time. And the Jesuit vow against "ambitioning prelacies" can be seen as an effort to counteract another problem evidenced in the preceding century. Ignatius and the Jesuits
Jesuits
who followed him believed that the reform of the church had to begin with the conversion of an individual's heart. One of the main tools the Jesuits
Jesuits
have used to bring about this conversion is the Ignatian retreat, called the Spiritual Exercises. During a four-week period of silence, individuals undergo a series of directed meditations on the purpose of life and contemplations on the life of Christ. They meet regularly with a spiritual director who guides their choice of exercises and helps them to develop a more discerning love for Christ. The retreat follows a "Purgative-Illuminative-Unitive" pattern in the tradition of the spirituality of John Cassian
John Cassian
and the Desert Fathers. Ignatius' innovation was to make this style of contemplative mysticism available to all people in active life. Further, he used it as a means of rebuilding the spiritual life of the church. The Exercises became both the basis for the training of Jesuits
Jesuits
and one of the essential ministries of the order: giving the exercises to others in what became known as "retreats". The Jesuits' contributions to the late Renaissance
Renaissance
were significant in their roles both as a missionary order and as the first religious order to operate colleges and universities as a principal and distinct ministry. By the time of Ignatius' death in 1556, the Jesuits
Jesuits
were already operating a network of 74 colleges on three continents. A precursor to liberal education, the Jesuit plan of studies incorporated the Classical teachings of Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism into the Scholastic structure of Catholic thought. In addition to the teachings of faith, the Jesuit Ratio Studiorum (1599) would standardize the study of Latin, Greek, classical literature, poetry, and philosophy as well as non-European languages, sciences, and the arts. Furthermore, Jesuit schools encouraged the study of vernacular literature and rhetoric, and thereby became important centres for the training of lawyers and public officials. The Jesuit schools played an important part in winning back to Catholicism a number of European countries which had for a time been predominantly Protestant, notably Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. Today, Jesuit colleges and universities are located in over one hundred nations around the world. Under the notion that God can be encountered through created things and especially art, they encouraged the use of ceremony and decoration in Catholic ritual and devotion. Perhaps as a result of this appreciation for art, coupled with their spiritual practice of "finding God in all things", many early Jesuits
Jesuits
distinguished themselves in the visual and performing arts as well as in music. The theater was a form of expression especially prominent in Jesuit schools.[36] Jesuit priests often acted as confessors to kings during the Early Modern Period. They were an important force in the Counter-Reformation and in the Catholic missions, in part because their relatively loose structure (without the requirements of living and celebration of the Liturgy of Hours in common) allowed them to be flexible and meet diverse needs arising at the time.[37] Expansion[edit] See also: Jesuit Reductions

Jesuit missionary, painting from 1779

Bell made in Portugal
Portugal
for Nanbanji Church run by Jesuits
Jesuits
in Japan, 1576-1587

Early missions in Japan
Japan
resulted in the government granting the Jesuits
Jesuits
the feudal fiefdom of Nagasaki in 1580. However, this was removed in 1587 due to fears over their growing influence.[38] Francis Xavier, one of the original companions of Loyola, arrived in Goa, in Portuguese India, in 1541 to consider evangelical service in the Indies. In a 1545 letter to John III of Portugal, he requested an Inquisition to be installed in Goa
Goa
(see Goa
Goa
Inquisition). He died in China
China
after a decade of evangelism in Southern India. The Portuguese Jesuit, António de Andrade
António de Andrade
founded a mission in Western Tibet in 1624. Two Jesuit missionaries, Johann Grueber
Johann Grueber
and Albert Dorville, reached Lhasa in Tibet in 1661. The Italian Jesuit Ippolito Desideri established a new Jesuit mission in Lhasa and Central Tibet (1716–21) and gained an exceptional mastery of Tibetan language and culture, writing a long and very detailed account of the country and its religion as well as treatises in Tibetan that attempted to refute key Buddhist ideas and establish the truth of Roman Catholic Christianity. Jesuit missions in America became controversial in Europe, especially in Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
where they were seen as interfering with the proper colonial enterprises of the royal governments. The Jesuits
Jesuits
were often the only force standing between the Native Americans and slavery. Together throughout South America
South America
but especially in present-day Brazil
Brazil
and Paraguay, they formed Christian Native American city-states, called "reductions". These were societies set up according to an idealized theocratic model. The efforts of Jesuits like Antonio Ruiz de Montoya to protect the natives from enslavement by Spanish and Portuguese colonizers would contribute to the call for the society's suppression. Jesuit priests such as Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta
José de Anchieta
founded several towns in Brazil
Brazil
in the 16th century, including São Paulo
São Paulo
and Rio de Janeiro, and were very influential in the pacification, religious conversion, and education of Indian nations. Jesuit scholars working in foreign missions were very important in studying their languages and strove to produce Latinized grammars and dictionaries. This included: Japanese (see Nippo jisho also known as Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam, Vocabulary of the Japanese Language, a Japanese–Portuguese dictionary written 1603); Vietnamese (Portuguese missionaries created the Vietnamese alphabet,[39][40] which was later formalized by Avignon missionary Alexandre de Rhodes
Alexandre de Rhodes
with his 1651 trilingual dictionary); Tupi (the main language of Brazil); and the pioneering study of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in the West by Jean François Pons in the 1740s. Under Portuguese royal patronage, Jesuits
Jesuits
thrived in Goa
Goa
and until 1759 successfully expanded their activities to education and healthcare. In 1594 they founded the first Roman-style academic institution in the East, St. Paul Jesuit College in Macau, China. Founded by Alessandro Valignano, it had a great influence on the learning of Eastern languages (Chinese and Japanese) and culture by missionary Jesuits, becoming home to the first western sinologists such as Matteo Ricci. Jesuit efforts in Goa
Goa
were interrupted by the expulsion of the Jesuits
Jesuits
from Portuguese territories in 1759 by the powerful Marquis of Pombal, Secretary of State in Portugal.[41] Jesuit missionaries were active among indigenous peoples in New France in North America, many of them compiling dictionaries or glossaries of the First Nations
First Nations
and Native American languages they had learned. For instance, before his death in 1708, Jacques Gravier, vicar general of the Illinois
Illinois
Mission in the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
valley, compiled a Kaskaskia Illinois–French dictionary, considered the most extensive among works of the missionaries.[42] Extensive documentation was left in the form of The Jesuit Relations, published annually from 1632 until 1673. Activity in China[edit] Main article: Jesuit China
China
missions

Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
(left) and Xu Guangqi
Xu Guangqi
in the 1607 Chinese publication of Euclid's Elements

Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, or, Chinese Knowledge Explained in Latin, published by Philippe Couplet, Prospero Intorcetta, Christian Herdtrich, and François de Rougemont at Paris
Paris
in 1687

A map of the 200-odd Jesuit churches and missions established across China
China
c. 1687.

The Jesuits
Jesuits
first entered China
China
through the Portuguese settlement on Macau, where they settled on Green Island and founded St. Paul's College. The Jesuit China missions
Jesuit China missions
of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. The scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits
Jesuits
coincided with a time when scientific innovation had declined in China:

[The Jesuits] made efforts to translate western mathematical and astronomical works into Chinese and aroused the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture.[43]

For over a century, Jesuits
Jesuits
like Michele Ruggieri, Matteo Ricci,[44] Philippe Couplet, Michal Boym, and François Noël refined translations and disseminated Chinese knowledge, culture, history, and philosophy to Europe. Their Latin
Latin
works popularized the name "Confucius" and had considerable influence on the Deists
Deists
and other Enlightenment thinkers, some of whom were intrigued by the Jesuits' attempts to reconcile Confucian morality with Catholicism.[45] Upon the arrival of the Franciscans
Franciscans
and other monastic orders, Jesuit accommodation of Chinese culture
Chinese culture
and rituals led to the long-running Chinese Rites controversy. Despite the personal testimony of the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and many Jesuit converts that Chinese veneration of ancestors and Confucius
Confucius
was a nonreligious token of respect, Pope Clement XI's papal decree Cum Deus Optimus... ruled that such behavior constituted impermissible forms of idolatry and superstition in 1704;[46] his legate Tournon and the Bishop of Fujian, tasked with presenting this finding to the Kangxi Emperor, displayed such extreme ignorance that the emperor mandated the expulsion of Christian missionaries unable to abide by the terms of Ricci's Chinese catechism.[47][48][49][50] Tournon's summary and automatic excommunication for any violators of Clement's decree[51]—upheld by the 1715 bull Ex Illa Die...—led to the swift collapse of all the missions in China;[48] the last Jesuits
Jesuits
were finally expelled after 1721.[52] Activity in Canada[edit] See also: Jesuit missions in North America

Bressani map of 1657 depicts the martyrdom of Saint Jean de Brébeuf

During the French colonisation of New France
France
in the 17th century, Jesuits
Jesuits
played an active role in North America. When Samuel de Champlain established the foundations of the French colony at Québec, he was aware of native tribes who possessed their own languages, customs, and traditions. These natives that inhabited modern day Ontario, Québec, and the areas around Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay were the Montagnais, the Algonquins, and the Huron.[53] Champlain believed that these had souls to be saved, so in 1614 he initially obtained the Recollects, a reform branch of the Franciscans
Franciscans
in France, to convert the native inhabitants.[54] In 1624 the French Recollects realized the magnitude of their task[55] and sent a delegate to France to invite the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
to help with this mission. The invitation was accepted, and Jesuits
Jesuits
Jean de Brébeuf, Ennemond Masse, and Charles Lalemant
Charles Lalemant
arrived in Quebec in 1625.[56] Lalemant is considered to have been the first author of one of the Jesuit Relations of New France, which chronicled their evangelization during the seventeenth century. The Jesuits
Jesuits
became involved in the Huron mission in 1626 and lived among the Huron peoples. Brébeuf learned the native language and created the first Huron language dictionary. Outside conflict forced the Jesuits
Jesuits
to leave New France
France
in 1629 when Quebec was captured by the Kirke brothers under the English flag. But in 1632 Quebec was returned to the French under the Treaty of Saint Germain-en-Laye
Saint Germain-en-Laye
and the Jesuits
Jesuits
returned to Huron territory, modern Huronia.[57] In 1639, Jesuit Jerome Lalemant
Jerome Lalemant
decided that the missionaries among the Hurons needed a local residence and established Sainte-Marie, which expanded into a living replica of European society.[58] It became the Jesuit headquarters and an important part of Canadian history. Throughout most of the 1640s the Jesuits
Jesuits
had great success, establishing five chapels in Huronia and baptising over one thousand Huron natives.[59] However, as the Jesuits
Jesuits
began to expand westward they encountered more Iroquois
Iroquois
natives, rivals of the Hurons. The Iroquois
Iroquois
grew jealous of the Hurons' wealth and fur trade system, began to attack Huron villages in 1648. They killed missionaries and burned villages, and the Hurons scattered. Both Jean de Brébeuf
Jean de Brébeuf
and Gabriel Lalemant were tortured and killed in the Iroquois
Iroquois
raids; they have been canonized as martyrs in the Catholic Church.[60] With the knowledge of the invading Iroquois, the Jesuit Paul Ragueneau
Paul Ragueneau
burned down Sainte-Marie instead of allowing the Iroquois
Iroquois
the satisfaction of destroying it. By late June 1649, the French and some Christian Hurons built Sainte-Marie II on Christian Island (Isle de Saint-Joseph). However, facing starvation, lack of supplies, and constant threats of Iroquois
Iroquois
attack, the small Sainte-Marie II was abandoned in June 1650; the remaining Hurons and Jesuits
Jesuits
departed for Quebec and Ottawa.[60] After a series of epidemics, beginning in 1634, some Huron began to mistrust the Jesuits
Jesuits
and accused them of being sorcerers casting spells from their books.[61] As a result of the Iroquois
Iroquois
raids and outbreak of disease, many missionaries, traders, and soldiers died.[62] Today, the Huron tribe, also known as the Wyandot, have a First Nations
First Nations
reserve in Quebec, Canada, and three major settlements in the United States.[63] After the collapse of the Huron nation, the Jesuits
Jesuits
were to undertake the task of converting the Iroquois, something they had attempted in 1642 with little success. In 1653 the Iroquois
Iroquois
nation had a fallout with the Dutch. They then signed a peace treaty with the French and a mission was established. The Iroquois
Iroquois
took the treaty lightly and soon turned on the French again. In 1658, the Jesuits
Jesuits
were having very little success and were under constant threat of being tortured or killed,[62] but continued their effort until 1687 when they abandoned their permanent posts in the Iroquois
Iroquois
homeland.[64] By 1700, Jesuits
Jesuits
turned to maintaining Quebec, Montreal, and Ottawa without establishing new posts.[65] During the Seven Years' War, Quebec fell to the English in 1759 and New France
France
was under British control. The English barred the immigration of more Jesuits
Jesuits
to New France. By 1763, there were only twenty-one Jesuits
Jesuits
stationed in New France. By 1773 only eleven Jesuits
Jesuits
remained. During the same year the English crown laid claim to New France
France
and declared that the Society of Jesus in New France
France
was dissolved.[66] The dissolution of the Order left in place substantial estates and investments, amounting to an income of approximately £5,000 a year, and the Council for the Affairs of the Province of Quebec, later succeeded by the Legislative Assembly of Quebec, assumed the task of allocating the funds to suitable recipients, chiefly schools.[67] The Jesuit mission in Quebec was re-established in 1842. There were a number of Jesuit colleges founded in the decades following; one of these colleges evolved into present-day Laval University.[68] Activity in the United States[edit]

Jacques Marquette, pioneer missionary to upper Mississippi

Etching from Peter De Smet drawing of a village in Kansas

In 1647 the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
passed a law prohibiting any Jesuit Roman Catholic priests from entering territory under Puritan jurisdiction.[69] Anti-Catholic sentiment had appeared in New England with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers.[70] Any suspected Jesuit who could not clear himself was to be banished from the colony; a second offence carried a death penalty.[71] There were about two dozen Jesuits
Jesuits
in 1760, and they kept a low profile.[71] Former Jesuit John Carroll (1735–1815) became the first Catholic archbishop in the young republic. He founded Georgetown University
University
in 1789, and it remains a pre-eminent Jesuit school.[72] The Jesuit Père Marquette and Louis Jolliet
Louis Jolliet
were the first Europeans to explore and chart the northern portion of the Mississippi River, as far as the Illinois
Illinois
River. Peter De Smet was a Jesuit active in missionary work among the Plains Indians in the mid-19th century. His extensive travels as a missionary were said to total 180,000 miles. He was known as the "Friend of Sitting Bull" because he persuaded the Sioux war chief to participate in negotiations with the United States government for the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. Jesuits
Jesuits
in Mexico[edit]

Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchoó in the 18th century, the first permanent Jesuit mission in Baja California, established by Juan María de Salvatierra in 1697

Main altar of the Jesuit colegio in Tepozotlan, now the Museo Nacional del Virreinato

Mexican-born Jesuit Francisco Clavijero (1731-1787) wrote an important history of Mexico.

The Jesuits
Jesuits
in New Spain
Spain
distinguished themselves in several ways. They had high standards for acceptance to the order and many years of training. They attracted the patronage of elite families whose sons they educated in rigorous newly founded Jesuit colegios ("colleges"), including Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo, Colegio de San Ildefonso, and the Colegio de San Francisco Javier, Tepozotlan. Those same elite families hoped that a son with a vocation to the priesthood would be accepted as a Jesuit. Jesuits
Jesuits
were also zealous in evangelization of the indigenous, particularly on the northern frontiers. To support their colegios and members of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits
Jesuits
acquired landed estates that were run with the best-practices for generating income in that era. A number of these haciendas were donated by wealthy elites. The donation of a hacienda to the Jesuits was the spark igniting a conflict between seventeenth-century bishop of Puebla Don Juan de Palafox
Juan de Palafox
and the Jesuit colegio in that city. Since the Jesuits
Jesuits
resisted paying the tithe on their estates, this donation effectively took revenue out of the church hierarchy's pockets by removing it from the tithe rolls.[73] Many of Jesuit haciendas were huge, with Palafox asserting that just two colleges owned 300,000 head of sheep, whose wool was transformed locally in Puebla to cloth; six sugar plantations worth a million pesos and generating an income of 100,000 pesos.[73] The immense Jesuit hacienda of Santa Lucía produced pulque, the fermented juice of the agave cactus whose main consumers were the lower classes and Indians in Spanish cities. Although most haciendas had a free work force of permanent or seasonal labourers, the Jesuit haciendas in Mexico had a significant number of black slaves.[74] The Jesuits
Jesuits
operated their properties as an integrated unit with the larger Jesuit order; thus revenues from haciendas funded their colegios. Jesuits
Jesuits
did significantly expand missions to the indigenous in the northern frontier area and a number were martyred, but the crown supported those missions.[73] Mendicant
Mendicant
orders that had real estate were less economically integrated, so that some individual houses were wealthy while others struggled economically. The Franciscans, who were founded as an order embracing poverty, did not accumulate real estate, unlike the Augustinians
Augustinians
and Dominicans in Mexico. The Jesuits
Jesuits
engaged in conflict with the episcopal hierarchy over the question of payment of tithes, the ten percent tax on agriculture levied on landed estates for support of the church hierarchy from bishops and cathedral chapters to parish priests. Since the Jesuits were the largest religious order holding real estate, surpassing the Dominicans and Augustinians
Augustinians
who had accumulated significant property, this was no small matter.[73] They argued that they were exempt, due to special pontifical privileges.[75] In the mid-seventeenth century, bishop of Puebla, Don Juan de Palafox
Juan de Palafox
took on the Jesuits
Jesuits
over this matter and was so soundly defeated that he was recalled to Spain, where he became the bishop of the minor diocese of Osma. As elsewhere in the Spanish empire, the Jesuits
Jesuits
were expelled from Mexico in 1767. Their haciendas were sold off and their colegios and missions in Baja California were taken over by other orders.[76] Exiled Mexican-born Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero
Francisco Javier Clavijero
wrote an important history of Mexico while in Italy, a basis for creole patriotism. Andrés Cavo also wrote an important text on Mexican history that Carlos María de Bustamante
Carlos María de Bustamante
published in the early nineteenth-century.[77] An earlier Jesuit who wrote about the history of Mexico was Diego Luis de Motezuma (1619–99), a descendant of the Aztec monarchs of Tenochtitlan. Motezuma's Corona mexicana, o Historia de los nueve Motezumas was completed in 1696. He "aimed to show that Mexican emperors were a legitimate dynasty in the 17th-century in the European sense."[78][79] The Jesuits
Jesuits
were allowed to return to Mexico in 1840 when General Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
was once more president of Mexico. Their re-introduction to Mexico was "to assist in the education of the poorer classes and much of their property was restored to them."[80] Jesuits
Jesuits
in northern Spanish America[edit]

Acosta's Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) text on the Americas

Peter Claver
Peter Claver
ministering to African slaves at Cartagena

Jesuit church, Cuzco, Peru

The Jesuits
Jesuits
arrived in the Viceroyalty of Peru
Viceroyalty of Peru
by 1571; it was a key area of Spanish empire, with not only dense indigenous populations but also huge deposits of silver at Potosí. A major figure in the first wave of Jesuits
Jesuits
was José de Acosta
José de Acosta
(1540–1600), whose book Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) introduced Europeans to Spain's American empire via fluid prose and keen observation and explanation, based on fifteen years in Peru
Peru
and a bit of time in New Spain (Mexico). Viceroy of Peru
Viceroy of Peru
Don Francisco de Toledo
Francisco de Toledo
urged the Jesuits
Jesuits
to evangelize the indigenous peoples of Peru, wanting to put them in charge of parishes, but Acosta adhered to the Jesuit position that they were not subject to the jurisdiction of bishops and to catechize in Indian parishes would bring them into conflict with the bishops. For that reason, the Jesuits
Jesuits
in Peru
Peru
focused on education of elite men rather than the indigenous populations.[81] To minister to newly arrived African slaves, Alonso de Sandoval (fr) (1576–1651) worked at the port of Cartagena de Indias. Sandoval wrote about this ministry in De instauranda Aethiopum salute (1627),[82] describing how he and his assistant Pedro Claver, later canonized, met slave transport ships in the harbour, went below decks where 300-600 slaves were chained, and gave physical aid with water, while introducing the Africans to Christianity. In his treatise, he did not condemn slavery or the ill-treatment of slaves, but sought to instruct fellow Jesuits
Jesuits
to this ministry and describe how he catechized the slaves.[83] Rafael Ferrer was the first Jesuit of Quito
Quito
to explore and found missions in the upper Amazon regions of South America
South America
from 1602 to 1610, which belonged to the Audiencia (high court) of Quito
Quito
that was a part of the Viceroyalty of Peru
Viceroyalty of Peru
until it was transferred to the newly created Viceroyalty of New Granada
Viceroyalty of New Granada
in 1717. In 1602, Ferrer began to explore the Aguarico, Napo, and Marañon rivers (Sucumbios region, in what is today Ecuador and Peru), and between 1604 and 1605 set up missions among the Cofane natives. He was martyred by an apostate native in 1610. In 1639, the Audiencia of Quito
Quito
organized an expedition to renew its exploration of the Amazon river and the Quito
Quito
Jesuit (Jesuita Quiteño) Cristóbal de Acuña was a part of this expedition. The expedition disembarked from the Napo river 16 February 1639 and arrived in what is today Pará
Pará
Brazil
Brazil
on the banks of the Amazon river on 12 December 1639. In 1641, Acuña published in Madrid
Madrid
a memoir of his expedition to the Amazon river entitled Nuevo Descubrimiento del gran rio de las Amazonas, which for academics became a fundamental reference on the Amazon region.

Samuel Fritz's 1707 map showing the Amazon and the Orinoco

In 1637, the Jesuits
Jesuits
Gaspar Cugia and Lucas de la Cueva from Quito began establishing missions in Maynas territories, on the banks of the Marañón River, around the Pongo de Manseriche
Pongo de Manseriche
region, close to the Spanish settlement of Borja. Between 1637 and 1652 there were 14 missions established along the Marañón River
Marañón River
and its southern tributaries, the Huallaga and the Ucayali rivers. Jesuit Lucas de la Cueva and Raimundo de Santacruz opened up two new routes of communication with Quito, through the Pastaza and Napo rivers. Between 1637 and 1715, Samuel Fritz
Samuel Fritz
founded 38 missions along the length of the Amazon river, between the Napo and Negro rivers, that were called the Omagua Missions. These missions were continually attacked by the Brazilian Bandeirantes
Bandeirantes
beginning in the year 1705. In 1768, the only Omagua mission that was left was San Joaquin de Omaguas, since it had been moved to a new location on the Napo river away from the Bandeirantes. In the immense territory of Maynas, the Jesuits
Jesuits
of Quito
Quito
made contact with a number of indigenous tribes which spoke 40 different languages, and founded a total of 173 Jesuit missions encompassing 150,000 inhabitants. Because of the constant epidemics (smallpox and measles) and warfare with other tribes and the Bandeirantes, the total number of Jesuit Missions were reduced to 40 by 1744. At the time when the Jesuits
Jesuits
were expelled from Spanish America in 1767, the Jesuits
Jesuits
of Quito
Quito
registered 36 missions run by 25 Jesuits
Jesuits
of Quito
Quito
in the Audiencia of Quito
Quito
– 6 in the Napo and Aguarico Missions and 19 in the Pastaza and Iquitos Missions, with the population at 20,000 inhabitants. Jesuits
Jesuits
in Paraguay[edit]

This section contains close paraphrasing of a non-free copyrighted source, Paraguay: A Country Study. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Ideas in this article should be expressed in an original manner. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana
La Santisima Trinidad de Parana
mission in Paraguay, founded by Jesuits
Jesuits
in 1706

The first Jesuits
Jesuits
arrived in 1588, and in 1610 Philip III proclaimed that only the "sword of the word" should be used to subdue Paraguayan Indians, mostly Guarani. The church granted Jesuits
Jesuits
extensive powers to phase out the encomienda system of forced labor, angering settlers dependent on a continuing supply of Indian labor and concubines. The first Jesuit mission in the Paraguay
Paraguay
area (which encompassed the border regions of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil) was founded in 1609. By 1732, the Jesuits
Jesuits
had gathered into 30 missions or reductions a total of 141,382 Guarani. Due to disease, European politics, and internal discord, the population in the missions declined afterwards.[84] At their apogee, the Jesuits
Jesuits
dreamed of a Jesuit empire that would stretch from the Paraguay-Paraná confluence to the coast and back to the Paraná headwaters.[85] In the early years the new Jesuit reductions were threatened by the slave-raiding bandeirantes. The bandeirantes captured Indians and sold them as slaves to planters in Brazil. Having depleted the Indian population near Sâo Paulo, they discovered the richly populated reductions. The Spanish authorities chose not to defend the settlements, and the Jesuits
Jesuits
and their thousands of neophytes thus had little means to protect themselves. Thousands of Guarani were captured by the bandeirantes before, organized and armed by the Jesuits, a Guarani army defeated the slave raiders at the battle of Mbororé. Subsequently, the viceroy of Peru
Peru
conceded the right of bearing arms to the Guarani. Thereafter, well-trained and highly motivated Indian units were able to defend themselves from slavers and other threats.[86] The victory at Mbororé set the stage for the golden age of the Jesuits
Jesuits
in Paraguay. Life in the reductions offered the Guaraní higher living standards, protection from settlers, and physical security. These reductions, which became quite wealthy, exported goods, and supplied Indian armies to the Spanish on many occasion.[85] The reductions, where the Jesuits
Jesuits
created orchestras, musical ensembles, and actors' troupes, and in which virtually all the profits derived from Indian labor were distributed to the labourers, earned praise from some of the leaders of the French enlightenment, who were not predisposed to favour Jesuits. "By means of religion," d'Alembert wrote, "the Jesuits
Jesuits
established a monarchical authority in Paraguay, founded solely on their powers of persuasion and on their lenient methods of government. Masters of the country, they rendered happy the people under their sway; they succeeded in subduing them without ever having recourse to force." And Jesuit-educated Voltaire
Voltaire
called the Jesuit government "a triumph of humanity."[87] Because of their success, the Paraguayan Jesuits
Jesuits
gained many enemies, and the Reductions
Reductions
fell prey to changing times. During the 1720s and 1730s, Paraguayan settlers rebelled against Jesuit privileges in the Revolt of the Comuneros and against the government that protected them. Although this revolt failed, it was one of the earliest and most serious risings against Spanish authority in the New World and caused the crown to question its continued support for the Jesuits. The Jesuit-inspired War of the Seven Reductions
Reductions
(1750–61) increased sentiment in Madrid
Madrid
for suppressing this "empire within an empire." The Spanish king Charles III (1759–88) expelled the Jesuits
Jesuits
in 1767 from Spain
Spain
and its territories. Within a few decades of the expulsion, most of what the Jesuits
Jesuits
had accomplished was lost. The missions were mismanaged and abandoned by the Guaraní. Today, these ruins of a 160-year experiment have become a tourist attraction.[85][88] Jesuits
Jesuits
in colonial Brazil[edit]

Manuel da Nóbrega on a commemorative Portuguese stamp of the 400th anniversary of the foundation of São Paulo, Brazil

Jesuit in 18th century, Brazil

Tomé de Sousa, first Governor General of Brazil, brought the first group of Jesuits
Jesuits
to the colony. The Jesuits
Jesuits
were officially supported by the King, who instructed Tomé de Sousa to give them all the support needed to Christianize the indigenous peoples. The first Jesuits, guided by Manuel da Nóbrega, Juan de Azpilcueta Navarro, Leonardo Nunes, and later José de Anchieta, established the first Jesuit missions in Salvador and in São Paulo
São Paulo
dos Campos de Piratininga, the settlement that gave rise to the city of São Paulo. Nóbrega and Anchieta were instrumental in the defeat of the French colonists of France
France
Antarctique by managing to pacify the Tamoio natives, who had previously fought the Portuguese. The Jesuits
Jesuits
took part in the foundation of the city of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
in 1565. The success of the Jesuits
Jesuits
in converting the indigenous peoples is linked to their efforts to understand the native cultures, especially their languages. The first grammar of the Tupi language
Tupi language
was compiled by José de Anchieta
José de Anchieta
and printed in Coimbra
Coimbra
in 1595. The Jesuits
Jesuits
often gathered the aborigines in communities (the Jesuit Reductions) where the natives worked for the community and were evangelised. The Jesuits
Jesuits
had frequent disputes with other colonists who wanted to enslave the natives. The action of the Jesuits
Jesuits
saved many natives from being enslaved by Europeans, but also disturbed their ancestral way of life and inadvertently helped spread infectious diseases against which the aborigines had no natural defenses. Slave labor and trade were essential for the economy of Brazil
Brazil
and other American colonies, and the Jesuits
Jesuits
usually did not object to the enslavement of African peoples, but rather critiqued the conditions of slavery.[89] Suppression and restoration[edit] Main article: Suppression of the Jesuits The Suppression of the Jesuits
Jesuits
in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma, and the Spanish Empire
Empire
by 1767 was troubling to the society's defender, Pope
Pope
Clement XIII. On 21 July 1773 Pope
Pope
Clement XIV
Clement XIV
issued the papal brief Dominus ac Redemptor,[90] decreeing:

Having further considered that the said Company of Jesus can no longer produce those abundant fruits, ... in the present case, we are determining upon the fate of a society classed among the mendicant orders, both by its institute and by its privileges; after a mature deliberation, we do, out of our certain knowledge, and the fulness of our apostolical power, suppress and abolish the said company: we deprive it of all activity whatever. ...And to this end a member of the regular clergy, recommendable for his prudence and sound morals, shall be chosen to preside over and govern the said houses; so that the name of the Company shall be, and is, for ever extinguished and suppressed.

The suppression was carried out in all countries except Prussia
Prussia
and Russia, where Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
had forbidden its promulgation. Because millions of Catholics (including many Jesuits) lived in the Polish provinces recently annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, the society was able to maintain its existence and carry on its work all through the period of suppression. Subsequently, Pope Pius VI
Pope Pius VI
would grant formal permission for the continuation of the society in Russia and Poland, with Stanislaus Czerniewicz elected superior of the society in 1782. Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius VII
had resolved during his captivity in France
France
to restore the Jesuits
Jesuits
universally, and after his return to Rome
Rome
he did so with little delay. On 7 August 1814, by the bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, he reversed the suppression of the society, and therewith another Polish Jesuit, Thaddeus Brzozowski, who had been elected to Superior in Russia in 1805, acquired universal jurisdiction. The period following the Restoration of the Jesuits
Jesuits
in 1814 was marked by tremendous growth, as evidenced by the large number of Jesuit colleges and universities established in the 19th century. In the United States, 22 of the society's 28 universities were founded or taken over by the Jesuits
Jesuits
during this time. It has been suggested that the experience of suppression served to heighten orthodoxy among the Jesuits
Jesuits
upon restoration. While this claim is debatable, Jesuits
Jesuits
were generally supportive of papal authority within the church, and some members were associated with the Ultramontanist movement and the declaration of Papal Infallibility
Papal Infallibility
in 1870. In Switzerland, following the defeat of the Sonderbund
Sonderbund
Catholic defense alliance, the constitution was modified and Jesuits
Jesuits
were banished in 1848. The ban was lifted on 20 May 1973, when 54.9% of voters accepted a referendum modifying the Constitution.[91] Early 20th century[edit] In the Constitution of Norway
Constitution of Norway
from 1814, a relic from the earlier anti-Catholic laws of Denmark-Norway, Paragraph 2 originally read: "The Evangelical-Lutheran religion remains the public religion of the State. Those inhabitants, who confess thereto, are bound to raise their children to the same. Jesuits
Jesuits
and monastic orders are not permitted. Jews are still prohibited from entry to the Realm." Jews were first allowed into the Realm in 1851 after the famous Norwegian poet Henrik Wergeland
Henrik Wergeland
had campaigned for it. Monastic orders were permitted in 1897, but the ban on Jesuits
Jesuits
was only lifted in 1956.[citation needed] Republican Spain
Spain
in the 1930s passed laws banning the Jesuits
Jesuits
on grounds that they were obedient to a power different from the state. Pope
Pope
Pius XI wrote about this: "It was an expression of a soul deeply hostile to God and the Catholic religion, to have disbanded the Religious Orders that had taken a vow of obedience to an authority different from the legitimate authority of the State. In this way it was sought to do away with the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
– which can well glory in being one of the soundest auxiliaries of the Chair of Saint Peter – with the hope, perhaps, of then being able with less difficulty to overthrow in the near future, the Christian faith and morale in the heart of the Spanish nation, which gave to the Church of God the grand and glorious figure of Ignatius Loyola."[92] Post–Vatican II[edit] The 20th century witnessed both growth and decline. Following a trend within the Catholic priesthood at large, Jesuit numbers peaked in the 1950s and have declined steadily since. Meanwhile, the number of Jesuit institutions has grown considerably, due in large part to a post–Vatican II focus on the establishment of Jesuit secondary schools in inner-city areas and an increase in voluntary lay groups inspired in part by the Spiritual Exercises. Among the notable Jesuits of the 20th century, John Courtney Murray
John Courtney Murray
was called one of the "architects of the Second Vatican Council" and drafted what eventually became the Council's endorsement of religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae Personae. In Latin
Latin
America, the Jesuits
Jesuits
had significant influence in the development of liberation theology, a movement that was controversial in the Catholic community after the negative assessment of it by Pope John Paul II in 1984.[93] Under Superior General Pedro Arrupe, social justice and the preferential option for the poor emerged as dominant themes of the work of the Jesuits. When Arrupe was paralyzed by a stroke in 1981, Pope
Pope
John Paul II, not entirely pleased with the progressive turn of the Jesuits, took the unusual step of appointing the venerable and aged Paolo Dezza for an interim to oversee "the authentic renewal of the Church",[94] instead of the progressive American priest Vincent O'Keefe whom Arrupe had preferred.[95] In 1983 John Paul gave leave for the Jesuits
Jesuits
to appoint a successor to Arrupe. On 16 November 1989, six Jesuit priests (Ignacio Ellacuría, Segundo Montes, Ignacio Martín-Baró, Joaquin López y López, Juan Ramon Moreno, and Amado López), Elba Ramos their housekeeper, and Celia Marisela Ramos her daughter, were murdered by the Salvadoran military on the campus of the University
University
of Central America in San Salvador, El Salvador, because they had been labeled as subversives by the government.[96] The assassinations galvanized the society's peace and justice movements, including annual protests at the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation at Fort Benning, Georgia, United States, where several of the assassins had been trained under US government sponsorship.[97] On 21 February 2001, the Jesus priest Avery Dulles, an internationally known author, lecturer, and theologian, was created a Cardinal of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by Pope
Pope
John Paul II. The son of former Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Avery Dulles
Avery Dulles
was long known for his carefully reasoned argumentation and fidelity to the teaching office of the church. An author of 22 books and over 700 theological articles, Dulles died on 12 December 2008 at Fordham University, where he had taught for twenty years as the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society. He was, at his passing, one of ten Jesuit cardinals in the Catholic Church. In 2002, Boston College
Boston College
president and Jesuit priest William P. Leahy initiated the Church in the 21st Century program as a means of moving the church "from crisis to renewal". The initiative has provided the society with a platform for examining issues brought about by the worldwide Catholic sex abuse cases, including the priesthood, celibacy, sexuality, women's roles, and the role of the laity.[98]

Visit of Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
to the Jesuit-run Pontifical Gregorian University

In April 2005, Thomas J. Reese, editor of the American Jesuit weekly magazine America, resigned at the request of the society. The move was widely published in the media as the result of pressure from the Vatican, following years of criticism by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Faith
on articles touching subjects such as HIV/AIDS, religious pluralism, homosexuality, and the right of life for the unborn. Following his resignation, Reese spent a year-long sabbatical at Santa Clara University
University
before being named a fellow at the Woodstock Theological Center in Washington, D.C., and later Senior Analyst for the National Catholic Reporter. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
appointed him to the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom
United States Commission on International Religious Freedom
in 2014 and again in 2016.[99] On 2 February 2006, Peter Hans Kolvenbach
Peter Hans Kolvenbach
informed members of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
that, with the consent of Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI, he intended to step down as Superior General in 2008, the year he would turn 80. On 22 April 2006, Feast of Our Lady, Mother of the Society of Jesus, Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
greeted thousands of Jesuits
Jesuits
on pilgrimage to Rome, and took the opportunity to thank God "for having granted to your Company the gift of men of extraordinary sanctity and of exceptional apostolic zeal such as St Ignatius of Loyola, St Francis Xavier, and Bl Peter Faber." He said "St Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
was above all a man of God, who gave the first place of his life to God, to his greater glory and his greater service. He was a man of profound prayer, which found its center and its culmination in the daily Eucharistic Celebration."[100] In May 2006, Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
also wrote a letter to Superior General Peter Hans Kolvenbach
Peter Hans Kolvenbach
on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Pope Pius XII's encyclical Haurietis aquas, on devotion to the Sacred Heart, because the Jesuits
Jesuits
have always been "extremely active in the promotion of this essential devotion."[101] In his 3 November 2006 visit to the Pontifical Gregorian University, Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
cited the university as "one of the greatest services that the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church".[102] The 35th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
convened on 5 January 2008, and elected Adolfo Nicolás
Adolfo Nicolás
as the new Superior General on 19 January 2008. In a letter to the Fathers of the Congregation, Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
wrote:[103]

As my Predecessors have said to you on various occasions, the Church needs you, relies on you and continues to turn to you with trust, particularly to reach those physical and spiritual places which others do not reach or have difficulty in reaching. Paul VI's words remain engraved on your hearts: "Wherever in the Church, even in the most difficult and extreme fields, at the crossroads of ideologies, in the social trenches, there has been and there is confrontation between the burning exigencies of man and the perennial message of the Gospel, here also there have been, and there are, Jesuits" (Address to the 32nd General Congregation of the Jesuits, 3 December 1974; ORE, 12 December, n. 2, p. 4.)

Pope
Pope
Francis, the first Jesuit pope

In 2013, Jesuit Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio became Pope
Pope
Francis. Before he became Pope, he was appointed bishop when he was in "virtual estrangement from the Jesuits" since he was "seen as an enemy of liberation theology...and viewed by others as still far too orthodox", trying to protect Jesuits
Jesuits
but not approving of their participation in violent groups.[104][105][106] Once elected, there was an immediate reconciliation, and Pope Francis
Pope Francis
has been bringing the Jesuit simplicity, love for the poor, and service of the flock into the papacy.[104] On 2 October 2016, General Congregation 36 convened in Rome, convoked by Superior General Adolfo Nicolás, who had announced his intention to resign at age 80.[107][108][109] On October 14, the 36th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
elected Arturo Sosa, a Venezuelan, as its thirty-first Superior General.[110] Ignatian spirituality[edit] Main article: Ignatian spirituality The spirituality practiced by the Jesuits, called Ignatian spirituality, ultimately based on the Catholic faith and the gospels, is drawn from the Constitutions, The Letters, and Autobiography, and most specially from Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises, whose purpose is "to conquer oneself and to regulate one's life in such a way that no decision is made under the influence of any inordinate attachment." The Exercises culminate in a contemplation whereby one develops a facility to "find God in all things." Formation[edit] Main article: Jesuit formation The formation (training) of Jesuits
Jesuits
seeks to prepare men spiritually, academically, and practically for the ministries they will be called to offer the church and world. Saint Ignatius was strongly influenced by the Renaissance, and he wanted Jesuits
Jesuits
to be able to offer whatever ministries were most needed at any given moment and, especially, to be ready to respond to missions (assignments) from the pope. Formation for priesthood normally takes between eight and fourteen years, depending on the man's background and previous education, and final vows are taken several years after that, making Jesuit formation
Jesuit formation
among the longest of any of the religious orders. Government of the society[edit] The society is headed by a Superior General with the formal title Praepositus Generalis, Latin
Latin
for "provost-general", more commonly called Father General or General. He is elected by the General Congregation for life or until he resigns; he is confirmed by the Pope and has absolute authority in running the society. The current Superior General of the Jesuits
Jesuits
is the Venezuelan Arturo Sosa
Arturo Sosa
who was elected on 14 October 2016.[111] The Father General is assisted by "assistants", four of whom are "assistants for provident care" and serve as general advisors and a sort of inner council, and several other regional assistants, each of whom heads an "assistancy", which is either a geographic area (for instance the North American Assistancy) or an area of ministry (for instance higher education). The assistants normally reside with Father General in Rome
Rome
and along with others form an advisory council to the General. A vicar general and secretary of the society run day-to-day administration. The General is also required to have an admonitor, a confidential advisor whose task is to warn the General honestly and confidentially when he might be acting imprudently or contrary to the church's magisterium. The central staff of the General is known as the Curia.[111] The society is divided into geographic provinces, each of which is headed by a Provincial Superior, generally called Father Provincial, chosen by the General. He has authority over all Jesuits
Jesuits
and ministries in his area, and is assisted by a socius who acts as a sort of secretary and chief of staff. With the approval of the General, the provincial appoints a novice master and a master of tertians to oversee formation, and rectors of local communities of Jesuits.[112] For better cooperation and apostolic efficacy in each continent, the Jesuit provinces are grouped into six Jesuit Conferences worldwide. Each Jesuit community within a province is normally headed by a rector who is assisted by a "minister", from the Latin
Latin
for "servant", a priest who helps oversee the community's day-to-day needs. The General Congregation is a meeting of all of the assistants, provincials, and additional representatives who are elected by the professed Jesuits
Jesuits
of each province. It meets irregularly and rarely, normally to elect a new superior general and/or to take up some major policy issues for the Order. The General meets more regularly with smaller councils composed of just the provincials. Habit and dress[edit] Jesuits
Jesuits
do not have an official habit. The society's Constitutions gives the following instructions: "The clothing too should have three characteristics: first, it should be proper; second, conformed to the usage of the country of residence; and third, not contradictory to the poverty we profess." (Const. 577) Historically, a "Jesuit-style cassock" became "standard issue": it was wrapped around the body and was tied with a cincture, rather than the customary buttoned front. A tuftless biretta (only diocesan clergy wore tufts) and a ferraiolo (cape) completed the look. As such, though it was the common priestly dress of Ignatius' day, Jesuit garb appeared distinctive, and became identifiable over time. During the missionary periods of North America, the various native peoples referred to Jesuits
Jesuits
as "Blackrobes" because of their black cassocks. Today, most Jesuits
Jesuits
in the United States wear the clerical collar and black clothing of ordinary priests, although some still wear the black cassock.[113] Jesuits
Jesuits
in tropical countries may use a white cassock when ministering outdoors. Controversies[edit] Power-seeking[edit] The Monita Secreta (Secret Instructions of the Jesuits), published in 1612 and in 1614 in Kraków, is alleged to have been written by Claudio Acquaviva, the fifth general of the society, but was probably written by former Jesuit Jerome Zahorowski. It purports to describe the methods to be adopted by Jesuits
Jesuits
for the acquisition of greater power and influence for the society and for the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
states the book is a forgery, fabricated to ascribe a sinister reputation to the Society of Jesus.[114] Political intrigue[edit] The Jesuits
Jesuits
were temporarily banished from France
France
in 1594 after a man named Jean Châtel tried to assassinate the king of France, Henri IV. Under questioning, Châtel revealed that he had been educated by the Jesuits
Jesuits
of the Collège de Clermont. The Jesuits
Jesuits
were accused of inspiring Châtel's attack. Two of his former teachers were exiled and a third was hanged.[115] The Collège de Clermont was closed, and the building was confiscated. The Jesuits
Jesuits
were banned from France, although this ban was quickly lifted. In England, Henry Garnet, one of the leading English Jesuits, was hanged for misprision of treason because of his knowledge of the Gunpowder Plot
Gunpowder Plot
(1605). The Plot was the attempted assassination of King James I of England
James I of England
and VI of Scotland, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack, by exploding the Houses of Parliament. Another Jesuit, Oswald Tesimond, managed to escape arrest for his involvement in this plot.[116] Casuistic justification[edit] Jesuits
Jesuits
have been accused of using casuistry to obtain justifications for unjustifiable actions (cf. formulary controversy and Lettres Provinciales, by Blaise Pascal).[117] Hence, the Concise Oxford Dictionary
Dictionary
of the English language lists "equivocating" as a secondary denotation of the word "Jesuit". Modern critics of the Society of Jesus include Avro Manhattan, Alberto Rivera, and Malachi Martin, the latter being the author of The Jesuits: The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
and the Betrayal of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(1987).[118] Anti-Semitism[edit] Although in the first 30 years of the existence of the Society of Jesus there were many Jesuits
Jesuits
who were conversos (Catholic-convert Jews), an anti-converso faction led to the Decree de genere (1593) which proclaimed that either Jewish or Muslim ancestry, no matter how distant, was an insurmountable impediment for admission to the Society of Jesus.[119] This new rule was contrary to the original wishes of Ignatius who "said that he would take it as a special grace from our Lord to come from Jewish lineage."[120] The 16th-century Decree de genere remained in exclusive force until it was repealed in 1946.[b] Theological debates[edit] Within the Roman Catholic Church, there has existed a sometimes tense relationship between Jesuits
Jesuits
and the Holy See
Holy See
due to questioning of official church teaching and papal directives, such as those on abortion,[123][124] birth control,[125][126][127][128] women deacons,[129] homosexuality, and liberation theology.[130][131] Usually, this theological free thinking is academically oriented, being prevalent at the university level. From this standpoint, the function of this debate is less to challenge the magisterium than to publicize the results of historical research or to illustrate the church's ability to compromise in a pluralist society based on shared values that do not always align with religious teachings.[132] This has not prevented Popes from appointing Jesuits
Jesuits
to powerful positions in the church. John Paul II and Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
together appointed ten Jesuit Cardinals to notable jobs. Under Benedict, Archbishop Luis Ladaria Ferrer was Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Faith
and Federico Lombardi
Federico Lombardi
was Vatican Press Secretary.[133] Child sexual abuse[edit] Members of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
has been implicated in the Catholic Church sexual abuse cases; please see Sexual abuse scandal in the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
for more information. Nazi persecution[edit] Main article: Jesuits
Jesuits
and Nazi Germany The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
faced persecution in Nazi Germany. Hitler was anticlerical and had particular disdain for the Jesuits. According to John Pollard, the Jesuit's "ethos represented the most intransigent opposition to the philosophy of Nazism",[134] and so the Nazis considered them as one of their most dangerous enemies. A Jesuit college in the city of Innsbruck
Innsbruck
served as a center for anti-Nazi resistance and was closed down by the Nazis in 1938.[135] Jesuits
Jesuits
were a target for Gestapo
Gestapo
persecution, and many Jesuit priests were deported to concentration camps.[136] Jesuits
Jesuits
made up the largest contingent of clergy imprisoned in the Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp.[137] Lapomarda lists some 30 Jesuits
Jesuits
as having died at Dachau.[138] Of the total of 152 Jesuits
Jesuits
murdered by the Nazis across Europe, 43 died in the concentration camps and an additional 27 died from captivity or its results.[139] The Superior General of Jesuits
Jesuits
at the outbreak of war was Wlodzimierz Ledochowski, a Pole. The Nazi persecution of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Poland
Poland
was particularly severe. Vincent Lapomarda wrote that Ledochowski helped "stiffen the general attitude of the Jesuits against the Nazis" and that he permitted Vatican Radio
Vatican Radio
to carry on its campaign against the Nazis in Poland. Vatican Radio
Vatican Radio
was run by the Jesuit Filippo Soccorsi and spoke out against Nazi oppression, particularly with regard to Poland
Poland
and to Vichy-French anti-Semitism.[140]

Jesuit Alfred Delp, member of the Kreisau Circle
Kreisau Circle
that operated within Nazi Germany; he was executed in February 1945.[141][verification needed]

Several Jesuits
Jesuits
were prominent in the small German Resistance.[142] Among the central membership of the Kreisau Circle
Kreisau Circle
of the Resistance were the Jesuit priests Augustin Rösch, Alfred Delp, and Lothar König.[143] The Bavarian Jesuit Provincial, Augustin Rosch, ended the war on death row for his role in the July Plot
July Plot
to overthrow Hitler. Another non-military German Resistance
German Resistance
group, dubbed the "Frau Solf Tea Party" by the Gestapo, included the Jesuit priest Friedrich Erxleben.[144] The German Jesuit Robert Leiber
Robert Leiber
acted as intermediary between Pius XII and the German Resistance.[145][146] Among the Jesuit victims of the Nazis, Germany's Rupert Mayer
Rupert Mayer
has been beatified. Mayer was a Bavarian Jesuit who clashed with the Nazis as early as 1923. Continuing his critique following Hitler's rise to power, Mayer was imprisoned in 1939 and sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. As his health declined, the Nazis feared the creation of a martyr and sent him to the Abbey of Ettal in 1940. There he continued to give sermons and lectures against the evils of the Nazi régime, until his death in 1945.[147][148] Rescue efforts during the Holocaust[edit] Further information: Rescue of Jews by Catholics during the Holocaust In his history of the heroes of the Holocaust, the Jewish historian Martin Gilbert
Martin Gilbert
notes that in every country under German occupation, priests played a major part in rescuing Jews, and that the Jesuits were one of the Catholic Orders that hid Jewish children in monasteries and schools to protect them from the Nazis.[149][150] Fourteen Jesuit priests have been formally recognized by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust
Holocaust
Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust
Holocaust
of World War II: Roger Braun (1910–1981) of France;[151] Pierre Chaillet (1900–1972) of France;[152] Jean-Baptist De Coster (1896–1968) of Belgium;[153] Jean Fleury (1905–1982) of France;[154] Emile Gessler (1891–1958) of Belgium; Jean-Baptiste Janssens
Jean-Baptiste Janssens
(1889–1964) of Belgium; Alphonse Lambrette (1884–1970) of Belgium; Emile Planckaert (1906–2006) of France; Jacob Raile (1894–1949) of Hungary; Henri Revol (1904–1992) of France; Adam Sztark (1907–1942) of Poland; Henri Van Oostayen (1906–1945) of Belgium; Ioannes Marangas (1901–1989) of Greece; and Raffaele de Chantuz Cubbe (1904–1983) of Italy. For more information on them see 100 Heroic Jesuits
Jesuits
of the Second World War (2015) by Vincent A. Lapomarda. Several other Jesuits
Jesuits
are known to have rescued or given refuge to Jews during that period.[155] A plaque commemorating the 152 Jesuit priests who gave of their lives during the Holocaust
Holocaust
was installed in April 2007 at the Jesuits' Rockhurst University
University
in Kansas
Kansas
City, Missouri, United States. In science[edit] Main article: List of Jesuit scientists

Jesuit scholars in China. Top: Matteo Ricci, Adam Schall and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–88); Bottom: Paul Siu (Xu Guangqi), Colao or Prime Minister of State, and his granddaughter Candide Hiu.

Between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, the teaching of science in Jesuit schools, as laid down in the Ratio atque Institutio Studiorum Societatis Iesu [The Official Plan of studies for the Society of Jesus] of 1599, was almost entirely based on the works of Aristotle.*Translation of the Ratio Studiorum
Ratio Studiorum
by Allan P. Farrell, S.J., available in PDF or HTML The Jesuits, nevertheless, have made numerous significant contributions to the development of science. For example, the Jesuits have dedicated significant study to earthquakes, and seismology has been described as "the Jesuit science".[156] The Jesuits
Jesuits
have been described as "the single most important contributor to experimental physics in the seventeenth century."[157] According to Jonathan Wright in his book God's Soldiers, by the eighteenth century the Jesuits
Jesuits
had "contributed to the development of pendulum clocks, pantographs, barometers, reflecting telescopes and microscopes – to scientific fields as various as magnetism, optics and electricity. They observed, in some cases before anyone else, the colored bands on Jupiter's surface, the Andromeda nebula, and Saturn's rings. They theorized about the circulation of the blood (independently of Harvey), the theoretical possibility of flight, the way the moon affected the tides, and the wave-like nature of light."[158] The Jesuit China missions
Jesuit China missions
of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy. One modern historian writes that in late Ming courts, the Jesuits
Jesuits
were "regarded as impressive especially for their knowledge of astronomy, calendar-making, mathematics, hydraulics, and geography."[159] The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
introduced, according to Thomas Woods, "a substantial body of scientific knowledge and a vast array of mental tools for understanding the physical universe, including the Euclidean geometry that made planetary motion comprehensible."[160] Another expert quoted by Woods said the scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits
Jesuits
coincided with a time when science was at a very low level in China. Notable members[edit] Main article: List of Jesuits See also: List of Jesuit theologians, Category:Jesuit philosophers, and List of Jesuit scientists

North American Martyrs

Notable Jesuits
Jesuits
include missionaries, educators, scientists, artists, philosophers, and Pope
Pope
Francis. Among many distinguished early Jesuits was Francis Xavier, a missionary to Asia who converted more people to Catholicism than anyone before, and Robert Bellarmine, a doctor of the Church. José de Anchieta
José de Anchieta
and Manuel da Nóbrega, founders of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were Jesuit priests. Another famous Jesuit was Jean de Brébeuf, a French missionary who was martyred during the 17th century in what was once New France
France
(now Ontario) in Canada. In Spanish America, José de Acosta
José de Acosta
wrote a major work on early Peru and New Spain
Spain
with important material on indigenous peoples. In South America, Saint Peter
Saint Peter
Claver was notable for his mission to African slaves, building on the work of Alonso de Sandoval (fr). Francisco Javier Clavijero
Francisco Javier Clavijero
was expelled from New Spain
Spain
during the Suppression of the Society of Jesus
Suppression of the Society of Jesus
in 1767 and wrote an important history of Mexico during his exile in Italy. Eusebio Kino
Eusebio Kino
is renowned in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico (an area then called the Pimeria Alta). He founded numerous missions and served as the peace-bringer between the tribes and the government of New Spain. Antonio Ruiz de Montoya was an important missionary in the Jesuit reductions of Paraguay. Baltasar Gracián
Baltasar Gracián
was a 17th-century Spanish Jesuit and baroque prose writer and philosopher. He was born in Belmonte, near Calatayud (Aragon). His writings, particularly El Criticón (1651-7) and Oráculo Manual y Arte de Prudencia ("The Art of Prudence", 1647) were lauded by Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. In Scotland, John Ogilvie (saint), a Jesuit, is the nation's only native saint. There are notable Jesuits
Jesuits
in the modern era, the most prominent being Pope
Pope
Francis. Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio of Argentina was elected Pope Francis on 13 March 2013 and is the first Jesuit to be elected pope.[161] Gerard Manley Hopkins
Gerard Manley Hopkins
was one of the first English poets to use sprung verse. Anthony de Mello
Anthony de Mello
was a Jesuit priest and psychotherapist who became widely known for his books which introduced Westerners to the East Indian traditions of spirituality. The Feast of All Jesuit Saints and Blesseds is celebrated on November 5.[162] Institutions[edit] Educational institutions[edit] See also: List of Jesuit educational institutions Although the work of the Jesuits
Jesuits
today embraces a wide variety of apostolates, ministries, and civil occupations, they are probably most well known for their educational work. Since the inception of the order, Jesuits
Jesuits
have been teachers. Besides serving on the faculty of Catholic and secular schools, the Jesuits
Jesuits
are the Catholic religious order with the second highest number of schools which they run: 168 tertiary institutions in 40 countries and 324 secondary schools in 55 countries. (The Brothers of the Christian Schools have over 560 Lasallian educational institutions.) They also run elementary schools at which they are less likely to teach. Many of the schools are named after Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
and other prominent Jesuits. Jesuit educational institutions aim to promote the values of Eloquentia Perfecta. This is a Jesuit tradition that focuses on cultivating a person as a whole, as one learns to speak and write for the common good.

Jesuit universities gallery

Fordham University, USA 

University
University
of Ingolstadt, Germany 

St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, India 

St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, India 

Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan 

University
University
of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain 

Comillas Pontifical University, Spain 

Georgetown University, USA 

Boston College, USA 

Loyola College, Chennai 

Pontifical Gregorian U., Rome 

St. Joseph University, Beirut 

University
University
of Pacific, Peru 

Sogang University, Seoul 

Université de Namur, Belgium 

UBISINOS, Brazil 

St. Mary's U., Halifax 

Regis College, U. of Toronto 

Loyola College Montreal 

Pontifical Xaverian U., Bogota 

Pontifical Catholic U., Ecuador 

Social and development institutions[edit] See also: List of Jesuit development centres Since the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
and their own General Congregations which followed it, Jesuits
Jesuits
have become increasingly involved in works directed primarily toward social and economic development for the poor and marginalized.[163] Included in this would be research, training, advocacy, and action for human development, as well as direct services. Most Jesuit schools have an office that fosters social awareness and social service in the classroom and through extracurricular programs, usually detailed on their websites. The Jesuits
Jesuits
also run over 500 notable or stand-alone social or economic development centres in 56 countries around the world. Since the Second Vatican Council, Jesuits
Jesuits
have founded many schools with the special purpose of serving the poor or marginalized, as among the Dalits in India
India
and the Cristo Rey Network
Cristo Rey Network
in the United States. Publications[edit]

The Sanctuary of Loyola
Sanctuary of Loyola
in Azpeitia, Basque Country, Spain, the main Jesuit shrine in the birthplace of Saint Ignatius of Loyola

Jesuits
Jesuits
are also known for their involvement in publications. La Civiltà Cattolica, a periodical produced in Rome
Rome
by the Jesuits, has often been used as a semi-official platform for popes and Vatican officials to float ideas for discussion or hint at future statements or positions. In the United States, America magazine has long had a prominent place in Catholic intellectual circles. Most Jesuit colleges and universities have their own presses which produce a variety of books, book series, textbooks, and academic publications. Ignatius Press, founded by a Jesuit, is an independent publisher of Catholic books, most of which are of the popular academic or lay-intellectual variety. In Australia, the Jesuits
Jesuits
produce a number of magazines, including Eureka Street, Madonna, Australian Catholics, and Province Express. In Sweden the Catholic cultural magazine Signum, edited by the Newman Institute, covers a broad spectrum of issues concerning faith, culture, research, and society. The printed version of Signum is published eight times per year. In addition, there is an up-to-date website (www.signum.se) containing an article archive dating from 1975 to the present. In popular culture[edit]

The character Father Mulcahy
Father Mulcahy
is a Jesuit priest in the novel, movie, and TV show M*A*S*H
M*A*S*H
franchise. The character Damien Karras
Damien Karras
is a Jesuit priest from the book and movie The Exorcist. The 1986 British drama film The Mission revolves around the experiences of a Jesuit missionary in 18th century South America. Antonio Banderas
Antonio Banderas
plays a Jesuit priest in The Body (2001 film). Édgar Ramírez
Édgar Ramírez
plays a Jesuit priest in Deliver Us from Evil (2014 film). The Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
film Silence is based on two Jesuit priests who travel to Japan
Japan
to spread Christianity. The main protagonist in James Blish's 1958 novel A Case of Conscience is a Jesuit priest. Aramis
Aramis
is made Superior General of the Jesuits
Jesuits
in A. Dumas' The Man in the Iron Mask (1850). Mary Doria Russell's 1996 novel The Sparrow follows a Jesuit space mission to make contact with a newfound planet; the majority of the characters are Jesuits. Angelo Cardinal Mennoni is the head of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
in A. J. Quinnell's 1987 novel The Name of the Father.

See also[edit]

Catholicism portal

Apostleship of Prayer Bollandist Canadian Indian residential school system Jesuit conspiracy theories Jesuit Ivy Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos Jesuits
Jesuits
and Nazi Germany List of Jesuit buildings List of saints of the Society of Jesus Misiones Province Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu Roman Catholicism in China Roman Catholicism in Japan Sexual abuse scandal in the Society of Jesus

Notes[edit]

^ Spanish: "todo el que quiera militar para Dios".[3] ^ Jesuit scholar John Padberg states that the restriction on Jewish/Muslim converts was limited only to the degree of parentage. Fourteen years later this was extended back to the fifth degree. Over time the restriction relating to Muslim ancestry was dropped.[121] In 1923, the 27th Jesuit General Congregation specified that "The impediment of origin extends to all who are descended from the Jewish race, unless it is clear that their father, grandfather, and great grandfather have belonged to the Catholic Church." In 1946, the 29th General Congregation dropped the requirement but still called for "cautions to be exercised before admitting a candidate about whom there is some doubt as to the character of his hereditary background." Robert Aleksander Maryks interprets the 1593 "Decree de genere" as preventing, despite Ignatius' desires, any Jewish or Muslim conversos and, by extension, any person with Jewish or Muslim ancestry, no matter how distant, from admission to the Society of Jesus.[122]

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ a b Cheney, David M. (13 April 2017). " Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(Institute of Consecrated Life)". Catholic-Hierarchy. Kansas
Kansas
City. Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ Spiteri, Stephen C. (2016). Baroque Routes. University
University
of Malta. p. 16. ^ (in Spanish) See Fórmula del Instituto on Google Books. ^ O'Malley 2006, p. xxxv. ^ "Poverty And Chastity For Every Occasion". National Public Radio. Washington, D.C. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2013.  ^ "The Jesuits: 'God's marines'". The Week. New York. 23 March 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2017.  ^ "About Our Jesuits". Ignatius House Retreat Center. Atlanta, Georgia. Retrieved 15 May 2013.  ^ "News on the elections of the new Superior General". Sjweb.info. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ "africa.reuters.com, Spaniard
Spaniard
becomes Jesuits' new "black pope"". Africa.reuters.com. 9 February 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ " Curia
Curia
Generalizia of the Society of Jesus". Sjweb.info. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ a b Curia
Curia
Generalis, Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(10 April 2013). "From the Curia
Curia
- THE SOCIETY OF JESUS IN NUMBERS". Digital News Service SJ. The Jesuit Portal – Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
Homepage. 17 (10). Retrieved 27 June 2013. The new statistics of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
as of January 1st, 2013 have been published. [...] As of 1 January 2013, the total number of Jesuits
Jesuits
was 17,287 [...]—a net loss of 337 members from 1 January 2012.  ^ See perspective circle graph (3d pie cake) on Google Images. ^ Lapitan, Giselle (22 May 2012). "The changing face of the Jesuits". Province Express. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2013.  ^ Gray, Mark M. (9 January 2015). "Nineteen Sixty-four: By the Numbers: Jesuit Demography". nineteensixty-four.blogspot.com. CARA. Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ Raper, Mark (23 May 2012). "Changing to best serve the universal mission". Jesuit Asia Pacific Conference. Retrieved 27 June 2013.  ^ Reilly, Patrick (28 July 2016). "American Jesuits
Jesuits
Are in a Free Fall, and the Crisis is Getting Worse". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 16 June 2017.  ^ a b Puca, Pasquale (30 January 2008). "St. Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
and the Development of the Society of Jesus". L'Osservatore Romano Weekly Edition in English. The Cathedral Foundation: 12. Retrieved 23 February 2010.  ^ http://www.uscatholic.org/articles/201609/do-we-need-priests-run-catholic-colleges-30773 ^ Jones, Autumn (30 December 2014). "The New Brand of Jesuit Universities". The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ "St. Aloysius College mission statement". Staloysius.nsw.edu.au. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ "Time Magazine on "Men for Others"". America Magazine. 2009-11-10. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ a b Text of the Formula of the Institute as approved by Pope
Pope
Paul III in 1540, Boston College, Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies. ^ O'Malley 1993, p. 5. ^ Michael Servetus Research Website that includes graphical documents in the University
University
of Paris
Paris
of: Ignations of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Alfonso Salmerón, Nicholas Bobadilla, Peter Faber
Peter Faber
and Simao Rodrigues, as well as Michael de Villanueva ("Servetus") ^ Campbell 1921, p. 24. ^ Coyle 1908, p. 142. ^ "Chapter 2". www.reformation.org. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ Brading 1991, p. 166. ^ a b Campbell 1921, p. 7. ^ a b Höpfl 2004, p. 426. ^ Campbell 1921, p. 72. ^ (in Latin) Jesuitas (1583). "SEXTA PARS - CAP. 1". Constitutiones Societatis Iesu: cum earum declarationibus.  ^ Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
(1970). The constitutions of the society of Jesus. Translated by Ganss, George E. Institute of Jesuit Sources. p. 249. Carried and directed by Divine Providence through the agency of the superior as if he were a lifeless body which allows itself to be carried to any place and to be treated in any manner desired.  ^ Painter 1903, p. 167. ^ Pollen 1912. ^ Campbell 1921, p. 857. ^ Gonzalez 1985, p. 144. ^ Mullins, Mark R., ed. (2003). Handbook of Christianity in Japan. Leiden: Brill. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9004131566. OCLC 191931641.  ^ Jacques, Roland (2002). Portuguese Pioneers of Vietnamese Linguistics Prior to 1650 – Pionniers Portugais de la Linguistique Vietnamienne Jusqu’en 1650 (in English & French). Bangkok, Thailand: Orchid Press. ISBN 974-8304-77-9. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ Jacques, Roland (2004). "Bồ Đào Nha và công trình sáng chế chữ quốc ngữ: Phải chăng cần viết lại lịch sử?" Translated by Nguyễn Đăng Trúc. In Các nhà truyền giáo Bồ Đào Nha và thời kỳ đầu của Giáo hội Công giáo Việt Nam (Quyển 1) – Les missionnaires portugais et les débuts de l’Eglise catholique au Viêt-nam (Tome 1) (in Vietnamese & French). Reichstett, France: Định Hướng Tùng Thư. ISBN 2-912554-26-8. ^ "The American Catholic quarterly review". archive.org. p. 244. Retrieved 2017-05-31.  ^ Adelaar 2004. ^ Udías 2003. ^ Parker 1978, p. 26. ^ Hobson 2004, pp. 194–195; Parker 1978, p. 26. ^ Rule, Paul (2003), "François Noël, SJ, and the Chinese Rites Controversy", The History of the Relations between the Low Countries and China
China
in the Qing Era, Leuven Chinese Studies, Vol. XIV, Leuven: Leuven University
University
Press, pp. 152 . ^ Ricci, Matteo (1603), 《天主實義》 [Tiānzhŭ Shíyì, The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven] . (in Chinese) ^ a b Charbonnier, Jean-Pierre (2007), Couve de Murville, Maurice Noël Léon, ed., Christians in China: AD 600 to 2000, San Francisco: Ignatius Press, pp. 256–62 . ^ Von Collani, Claudia (2009), "Biography of Charles Maigrot MEP", Stochastikon Encyclopedia, Würzburg: Stochastikon . ^ Seah, Audrey (2017), "The 1670 Chinese Missal: A Struggle for Indigenization amidst the Chinese Rites Controversy", China's Christianity: From Missionary
Missionary
to Indigenous Church, Studies in Christian Mission, Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, p. 115 . ^ Ott, Michael (1913), "Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon", Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. XV, New York: Encyclopedia Press . ^ Mungello 1994. ^ Devine 1925, p. 1. ^ Devine 1925, p. 3. ^ Paquin 1932, p. 29. ^ Devine 1925, p. 5. ^ Delaney & Nicholls 1989, p. 1. ^ Delaney & Nicholls 1989, p. 2. ^ Kennedy 1950, p. 42. ^ a b Delaney & Nicholls 1989, p. 3. ^ Carpenter 2004, p. 61. ^ a b Kennedy 1950, p. 43. ^ " First Nations
First Nations
Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization.  ^ Kennedy 1950, p. 46. ^ Kennedy 1950, p. 49. ^ Kennedy 1950, p. 53. ^ The Provincial Statutes of Canada: anno undecimo et duodecimo Victoriae Reginae (Montreal: Stewart Derbishire and George Desbarats, 1848), pp. 1483, 1484 ^ Jesuits
Jesuits
at thecanadianencyclopedia.ca ^ Perrin 1970, p. 24. ^ Carroll, Rory (12 September 2015). "America's dark and not-very-distant history of hating Catholics". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 June 2017.  ^ a b Mahoney 2003, p. 47. ^ Curran 1993. ^ a b c d Brading 1991, p. 242. ^ Konrad 1980. ^ Cline 1997, p. 250. ^ Van Handel 1991. ^ Carlos María de Bustamante, Los tres siglos de México durante el gobierno español, hasta la entrada del ejército trigarante. Obra escrita en Roma por el P. Andrés Cavo, de la Compañía de Jesús; publicada con notas y suplemento. 4 vols. Mexico 1836–38. ^ Warren 1973, p. 84. ^ Diego Luis de Motezuma, Corona mexicana, o historia de los Motezumas, por el Padre Diego Luis de Motezuma de la Compañía de Jesús. Madrid
Madrid
1914. ^ Mecham 1966, pp. 358–359. ^ Brading 1991, p. 185. ^ Sandoval 2008. ^ Brading 1991, pp. 167–169. ^ Ganson, Barbara (2003), The Guarani under Spanish Rule, Stanford: Stanford University
University
Press, pp 3, 52-53. ^ a b c Sacks 1990, pp. 11–14. ^ Ganson, pp 44-51 ^ Durant & Durant 1961, pp. 249–250. ^ "The Jesuit Missions in South America: Jesuits
Jesuits
Reductions
Reductions
in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil
Brazil
- Colonial Voyage". www.colonialvoyage.com. Retrieved 2017-05-31.  ^ Campbell 1921, pp. 87ff. ^ " Dominus ac Redemptor
Dominus ac Redemptor
Noster". www.reformation.org. Retrieved 2017-05-31.  ^ Chancellerie Fédérale Suisse, Votation populaire du 20 mai 1973 (20 May 1973). "Arrêté fédéral abrogeant les articles de la constitution fédérale sur les jésuites et les couvents (art. 51 et 52)" (in French). Retrieved 23 October 2007.  ^ Pius XI, dilectissima Nobis, 1933 ^ Novak, Michael (21 October 1984). "The Case Against Liberation Theology". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 31 May 2017.  ^ "20 December 1999, Eulogy for His Eminence Cardinal Paolo Dezza John Paul II". w2.vatican.va. Retrieved 2017-05-31.  ^ "Religion: John Paul Takes On the Jesuits". Time. 1981-11-09. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2017-05-31.  ^ Müller et al. 2000. ^ Krickl, Tony (3 February 2007). "CGU Student Josh Harris to Spend Two Months in Federal Prison for Protesting". Claremont Courier. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2015.  ^ Lehigh, Scot (19 June 2002). "BC is leading the way on church reform". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 16 June 2017.  ^ "Rev. Thomas J. Reese, S.J., Chair". United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. 2014-05-19. Retrieved 2017-06-01.  ^ Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
(22 April 2006). "Address of his Holiness Benedict XVI to the Fathers and Brothers of the Society of Jesus". Retrieved 23 October 2007.  ^ Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
(15 May 2006). "Letter to the Superior General of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
on the 50th anniversary of the Encyclical Haurietis Aquas". Retrieved 23 October 2007.  ^ Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
(3 November 2006). "Address of his Holiness Benedict XVI—Visit of the Holy Father to the Pontifical Gregorian University". Retrieved 23 October 2007.  ^ "To the Fathers of the General Congregation of the Society of Jesus (February 21, 2008) BENEDICT XVI". w2.vatican.va. Retrieved 2017-05-31.  ^ a b "To understand Pope
Pope
Francis, look to the Jesuits". National Catholic Reporter. 2014-03-12. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ " Pope Francis
Pope Francis
and the Dirty War". The New Yorker. 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2017-06-01.  ^ "Vatican, Argentine church to open "dirty war" archives". Crux. 2016-10-25. Retrieved 2017-06-01.  ^ " General Congregation 36". jesuits.org. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ enquiries@thetablet.co.uk, The Tablet - w:. "Dominican Master urges Jesuits
Jesuits
to adopt 'audacity and humility' in electing Superior General". www.thetablet.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ "The first session in the aula and Father Nicolás' resignation - General Congregation 36". General Congregation 36. 2016-10-03. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ " Jesuits
Jesuits
elect first Latin-American general". Crux. 2016-10-14. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ a b "Father General's House". www.sjweb.info. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ "USA Assistancy". www.sjweb.info. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ "The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions". Jesuit.org. 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2013-03-18.  ^ Gerard 1911. ^ Voltaire
Voltaire
(1769), "XXXI", Histoire du Parlement de Paris, Châtel fut écartelé, le jésuite Guignard fut pendu; et ce qui est bien étrange, Jouvency, dans son Histoire des Jésuites, le regarde comme un martyr et le compare à Jésus-Christ. Le régent de Châtel, nommé Guéret, et un autre jésuite, nommé Hay, ne furent condamnés qu’à un bannissement perpétuel.   ^ Fraser 2005, p. 448. ^ Nelson 1981, p. 190. ^ see Malachi Martin
Malachi Martin
(1987) The Jesuits: The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
and the Betrayal of the Roman Catholic Church, Simon & Schuster, Linden Press, New York, 1987, ISBN 0-671-54505-1 ^ Rosa, De La; Coello, Alexandre (1932). "El Estatuto de Limpieza de Sangre de la Compañía de Jesús (1593) y su influencia en el Perú Colonial". Archivum historicum Societatis Iesu. Institutum Societatis Iesu: 45–93. ISSN 0037-8887.  ^ Reites 1981, p. 17. ^ Padberg 1994, p. 204. ^ Maryks 2010, p. xxviii. ^ Kavanaugh, John F. (15 December 2008). "Abortion Absolutists". America. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ O'Brien, Dennis (30 May 2005). "No to Abortion: Posture, Not Policy". America. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ Rigali, Norbert J. (23 September 2000). "Words and Contraception". America. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ McCormick, Richard A. (17 July 1993). "'Humanae Vitae' 25 Years Later". America. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ Dulles, Avery (28 September 1968). " Karl Rahner
Karl Rahner
on 'Humanae Vitae'". America. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ Reese, Thomas J. (31 March 2009). "Pope, Condoms and AIDS". On Faith. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ Zagano, Phyllis (17 February 2003). "Catholic Women Deacons". America. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ Martin, James (21 November 2008). "Jesuit General: Liberation Theology
Theology
"Courageous"". America. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ Martin, James (29 August 2010). "Glenn Beck and Liberation Theology". America. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ Worthen, Molly (15 September 2012). "The Power of Political Communion". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ Thavis, John (8 September 2006). "'Sala Stampa' style change: From toreador to low-key mathematician". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 12 June 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ Pollard 2006, p. 357. ^ Pollard 2006, p. 356. ^ Pollard 2006, p. 356–357. ^ Lapomarda 2005, pp. 140–141. ^ Lapomarda 2005, appx. A. ^ Lapomarda 2005, p. 33, appx. A. ^ Lapomarda 2005, pp. 266–267. ^ Anton Gill; An Honourable Defeat; A History of the German Resistance to Hitler; Heinemann; London; 1994; p. 264. ^ Lapomarda 2005, p. 33. ^ Peter Hoffmann; The History of the German Resistance
German Resistance
1933–1945; 3rd Edn (First English Edn); McDonald & Jane's; London; 1977; p. 33. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 1025–1026. ^ Peter Hoffmann; The History of the German Resistance
German Resistance
1933–1945; 3rd Edn (First English Edn); McDonald & Jane's; London; 1977; p. 160 ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 648–649. ^ "Pontiff Praises a Bavarian Foe of Nazism". Zenit News Agency. Retrieved 2013-11-06.  ^ "Library : The Gentile Holocaust". Catholic Culture. Retrieved 2013-11-06.  ^ Martin Gilbert; The Righteous - The Unsung Heroes of the Holocaust; Doubleday; 2002; ISBN 0-385-60100-X; p. 299 ^ Martin Gilbert; The Righteous: the Unsung Heroes of the Holocaust; Holt Paperback; New York; 2004; Preface ^ Braun Roger (1910–1981); Yad Vashem ^ Chaillet Pierre (1900–1972); Yad Vashem ^ De Coster, Father Jean-Baptiste; Yad Vashem ^ Fleury Jean (1905–1982); Yad Vashem ^ "Hiatt Holocaust
Holocaust
Collection". Holycross.edu. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ Hough 2007, p. 68. ^ Ashworth 1986, p. 154. ^ Wright 2004, p. 200. ^ Ebrey 2010, p. 212. ^ Woods 2005, p. 101. ^ Ivereigh 2014, pp. 1–2. ^ "November 5: Feast of all Jesuit Saints and Blessed European Tertianship". tertianship.eu. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ "4th Decree". onlineministries.creighton.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-30. 

Bibliography[edit]

Adelaar, Willem F. H. (2004). "Review of Kaskaskia Illinois-to-French Dictionary
Dictionary
edited by Carl Masthay". International Journal of Lexicography. 17 (3): 325–327. doi:10.1093/ijl/17.3.325. ISSN 1477-4577.  Ashworth, William B. (1986). "Catholicism and Early Modern Science". In Lindberg, David C.; Numbers, Ronald L. God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science. Berkeley, California: University
University
of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05538-4.  Brading, D. A. (1991). The First America: Spanish Monarchs, Creole Patriots, and the Liberal State, 1492–1867. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39130-6.  Campbell, Thomas J. (1921). The Jesuits, 1534–1921: A History of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
from Its Foundation to the Present Time. New York: The Encyclopedia Press. Retrieved 19 June 2017.  Carpenter, Roger M. (2004). The Renewed, The Destroyed, and the Remade: The Three Thought Worlds of the Iroquois
Iroquois
and the Huron, 1609–1650. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-87013-728-0.  Cline, Sarah L. (1997). "Church and State: Habsburg New Spain". In Werner, Michael S. Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, Society & Culture. 1. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 978-1-884964-31-2.  Coyle, Henry (1908). Our church, her Children and Institutions. 2. Boston: Angel Guardian Press.  Curran, Robert Emmett (1993). The Bicentennial History of Georgetown University. Washington: Georgetown University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-485-8.  Delaney, Paul J.; Nicholls, Andrew D. (1989). After The Fire: Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons Since 1649. Elmvale, Ontario: East Georgian Bay Company.  Devine, E. J. (1925). The Jesuit Martyrs of Canada. Toronto: The Canadian Messenger.  Durant, Will; Durant, Ariel (1961). The Age of Reason Begins: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Shakespeare, Bacon, Montaigne, Rembrandt, Galileo, and Descartes, 1558–1648. The Story of Civilization. 7. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-01320-2.  Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (2010). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-12433-1.  Fraser, Antonia (2005) [1996]. The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith
Faith
in 1605. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-0-7538-1401-7.  Gerard, John (1911). "Monita Secreta". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Gonzalez, Justo L. (1985). The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Present Day.  Hobson, John M. (2004). The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
University
Press.  Höpfl, Harro (2004). Jesuit Political Thought: The Society of Jesus and the State, c. 1540–1630. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83779-8.  Hough, Susan Elizabeth (2007). Richter's Scale: Measure of an Earthquake, Measure of a Man. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12807-8.  Ivereigh, Austen (2014). The Great Reformer: Francis and the Making of a Radical Pope. New York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-1-62779-157-1.  Kennedy, J. H. (1950). Jesuit and Savage in New France. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University
University
Press.  Konrad, Herman W. (1980). A Jesuit Hacienda in Colonial Mexico: Santa Lucía, 1576–1767. Stanford, California: Stanford University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1050-3.  Lapomarda, Vincent A. (2005). The Jesuits
Jesuits
and the Third Reich (2nd ed.). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-7734-6265-6.  Mahoney, Kathleen A. (2003). Catholic Higher Education in Protestant America: The Jesuits
Jesuits
and Harvard in the Age of the University. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University
University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7340-9.  Maryks, Robert Aleksander (2010). The Jesuit Order As a Synagogue of Jews: Jesuits
Jesuits
of Jewish Ancestry and Purity-of-Blood Laws in the Early Society of Jesus. Studies in Medieval and Reformation
Reformation
Traditions. 146. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17981-3.  Mecham, J. Lloyd (1966). Church and State in Latin
Latin
America: A History of Politico-Ecclesiastical Relations (2nd ed.). Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University
University
of North Carolina Press.  Müller, Andreas; Tausch, Arno; Zulehner, Paul M.; Wickens, Henry, eds. (2000). Global Capitalism, Liberation Theology, and the Social Sciences: An Analysis of the Contradictions of Modernity at the Turn of the Millennium. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56072-679-1.  Mungello, David E., ed. (1994). The Chinese Rites Controversy: Its History and Meaning. Monumenta Serica Monograph Series. 33. Nettetal, Germany: Steyler Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8050-0348-3.  Nelson, Robert J. (1981). Pascal: Adversary and Advocate. Cambridge, Massachusetts.  O'Malley, John W. (1993). The First Jesuits. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University
University
Press. ISBN 978-06-7430-313-3.   ———  (2006). "Introduction". In O'Malley, John W.; Bailey, Gauvin Alexander; Harris, Steven J.; Kennedy, T. Frank. The Jesuits
Jesuits
II: Cultures, Sciences, and the Arts, 1540–1773. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-3861-6.  Padberg, John W. (1994). For Matters of Greater Moment:The First Thirty Jesuit General Congregations. St. Louis, Missouri: Institute of Jesuit Sources. ISBN 978-1-880810-06-4.  Painter, F. V. N. (1903). A History of Education. International Education Series. 2. New York: D. Appleton and Company.  Paquin, Julien (1932). The Tragedy of Old Huron. Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario: The Martyrs' Shrine.  Parker, John (1978). Windows into China: The Jesuits
Jesuits
and their Books, 1580–1730. Maury A. Bromsen Lecture in Humanistic Bibliography. 5. Boston: Trustees of the Public Library of the City of Boston. ISBN 978-0-89073-050-8. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  Perrin, Pat (1970). Crime and Punishment: The Colonial Period to the New Frontier. Discovery Enterprises.  Pollard, John (2006). "Jesuits, The". In Blamires, Cyprian P. World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia. 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 356–357. ISBN 978-1-57607-940-9.  Pollen, John Hungerford (1912). "Society of Jesus". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Reites, James W. (1981). "St. Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
and the Jews". Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits. St. Louis, Missouri: American Assistancy Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality. 13 (4). ISSN 2328-5575. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  Sacks, Richard S. (1990). "Historical Setting". In Hanratty, Dennis M.; Meditz, Sandra. Paraguay: A Country Study (PDF). Area Handbook Series (2nd ed.). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 1–49. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  Sandoval, Alonso de (2008). Von Germeten, Nicole, ed. Treatise on Slavery: Selections from De Instauranda Aethiopum Salute. Translated by von Germeten, Nicole. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87220-929-9.  Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. London: Secker & Warburg.  Udías, Agustín (2003). Searching the Heavens and the Earth: The History of Jesuit Observatories. Astrophysics and Space Science Library. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-1189-4.  Warren, J. Benedict (1973). "An Introductory Survey of Secular Writings in the European Tradition on Colonial Middle America, 1503–1818". In Cline, Howard F. Handbook of Middle American Indians. Volume 13: Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources, Part Two. Austin, Texas: University
University
of Texas Press (published 2015). pp. 42–137. ISBN 978-1-4773-0683-3.  Van Handel, Robert Michael (1991). The Jesuit and Franciscan
Franciscan
Missions in Baja California (MA thesis). University
University
of California, Santa Barbara.  Woods, Thomas E. (2005). How The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Built Western Civilization. Washington: Regnery Publishing (published 2012). ISBN 978-1-59698-328-1.  Wright, Jonathan (2004). God's Soldiers: Adventure, Politics, Intrigue, and Power: A History of the Jesuits. New York: Doubleday Religious Publishing Group (published 2005). ISBN 978-0-385-50080-7. 

Further reading[edit] Surveys[edit]

Bangert, William V. A History of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(2nd ed. 1958) 552 pp. Barthel, Manfred. Jesuits: History & Legend of the Society of Jesus (1984) 347 pp. Chapple, Christopher. Jesuit Tradition in Education & Missions: A 450-Year Perspective (1993), 290 pp. Mitchell, David. Jesuits: A History (1981) 320 pp. O'Malley, John W. The Jesuits: A History from Ignatius to the Present (2014), 138 pp Wright, Jonathan. God's Soldiers: Adventure, Politics, Intrigue & Power: A History of the Jesuits
Jesuits
(2004) 368 pp

Specialized studies[edit]

Alden, Dauril. Making of an Enterprise: The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
in Portugal, Its Empire
Empire
& Beyond, 1540–1750 (1996) 707pp Brockey, Liam Matthew. Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724 (2007) 496 pp. Brodrick James (1940). The Origin of the Jesuits. Originally Published Longmans Green. , Special
Special
Edition Published 1997 by Loyola University
University
Press, US - ISBN 0829409300 Brodrick, James. Saint Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
(1506–1552) (1952). Brodrick, James. Saint Ignatius Loyola: The Pilgrim Years 1491–1538, Published November 1, 1998 by Ignatius Press Bygott, Ursula M. L. With Pen & Tongue: The Jesuits
Jesuits
in Australia, 1865–1939 (1980) 423 pp. Dalmases, Cándido de. Ignatius of Loyola, Founder of the Jesuits: His Life & Work (1985) 362 pp. Caraman, Philip. Ignatius Loyola: A Biography of the Founder of the Jesuits
Jesuits
(1990), 222 pp. Cushner, Nicholas P. Soldiers of God: The Jesuits
Jesuits
in Colonial America, 1565-1767 (2002) 402 pp. Edwards, Francis. Jesuits
Jesuits
in England from 1580 to the Present Day (1985) 333 pp. Edwards, Francis. Robert Persons: The Biography of an Elizabethan Jesuit, 1546–1610 (1995) 411 pp. Healy, Róisin. Jesuit Specter in Imperial Germany
Germany
(2003) 263 pp. Höpfl, Harro. Jesuit Political Thought: The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
& the State, c. 1540-1640 (2004) 406 pp. Hsia, Ronnie Po-chia. "Jesuit Foreign Missions. A Historiographical Essay." Journal of Jesuit Studies(2014) 1#1 pp: 47–65. Kaiser, Robert Blair. Inside the Jesuits: How Pope Francis
Pope Francis
is Changing the Church and the World (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014) Klaiber, Jeffrey. The Jesuits
Jesuits
in Latin
Latin
America: 1549-2000:: 450 Years of Inculturation, Defense of Human Rights, and Prophetic Witness. St Louis, MO: Institute of Jesuit Sources 2009. Lapomarda, Vincent A., The Catholic Bishops of Europe and the Nazi Persecutions of Catholics and Jews, The Edwin Mellen Press (2012) McCoog, Thomas M., ed. Mercurian Project: Forming Jesuit Culture: 1573–1580 (2004) 992 pp.; 30 advanced essays by scholars Martin, A. Lynn. Jesuit Mind. The Mentality of an Elite in Early Modern France
France
(1988) 256 pp. O'Malley, John. "The Society of Jesus." in R. Po-chia Hsia, ed., A Companion to the Reformation
Reformation
World (2004) pp. 223–36. O'Malley, John W. ed. Saints or Devils Incarnate? Studies in Jesuit History (2013) 312 pp Parkman, Francis (1867). The Jesuits
Jesuits
in North America in the Seventeenth Century (PDF). p. 637.  Pomplun, Trent. "Jesuit on the Roof of the World: Ippolito Desideri's Mission to Tibet." Oxford University
University
Press (2010). Roberts, Ian D. Harvest of Hope: Jesuit Collegiate Education in England, 1794–1914 (1996) 253 pp. Ronan, Charles E. and Bonnie B. C. Oh, eds. East Meets West: The Jesuits
Jesuits
in China, 1582–1773 (1988), 332 pp. Ross, Andrew C. Vision Betrayed: The Jesuits
Jesuits
in Japan
Japan
& China, 1542–1742 (1994) 216 pp. Santich, Jan Joseph. Missio Moscovitica: The Role of the Jesuits
Jesuits
in the Westernization of Russia, 1582–1689 (1995) 255 pp. Wright, Jonathan. "From Immolation to Restoration: The Jesuits, 1773–1814." Theological Studies (2014) 75#4 pp. 729–745.

Primary sources[edit]

Desideri, Ippolito. "Mission to Tibet: The Extraordinary Eighteenth-Century Account of Father Ippolito Desideri." Translated by Michael J. Sweet. Edited by Leonard Zwilling. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2010. Donnelly, John Patrick, ed. Jesuit Writings of the Early Modern Period: 1540–1640 (2006)

In German[edit]

Klaus Schatz. Geschichte der deutschen Jesuiten: Bd. 1: 1814–1872 Münster: Aschendorff Verlag, 2013. XXX, 274 S. ISBN 978-3-402-12964-7. online review Schatz. Geschichte der deutschen Jesuiten: Bd. 2: 1872–1917 Schatz. Geschichte der deutschen Jesuiten: Bd. 3: 1917–1945 Schatz. Geschichte der deutschen Jesuiten: Bd. 4: 1945–1983 Schatz. Geschichte der deutschen Jesuiten: Bd. 5: Quellen, Glossar, Biogramme, Gesamtregister

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Society of Jesus.

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
documents[edit]

Benedict XVI's Address to the Members of the Society of Jesus, 22 April 2006 Benedict XVI's Visit to the Pontifical Gregorian University, 3 November 2006

Jesuit documents[edit]

The Jesuit Ratio Studiorum
Ratio Studiorum
of 1599 The Jesuit Mission Press in Japan, 1591–1610 Letter of the Jesuit Social Justice Secretariat to the leaders of the G8, July 2005 The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola

Other links[edit]

The BBC Radio 4 In Our Time programme on 18 January 2007 was devoted to the early history and educational role of the Jesuits; the programme's website offers a free podcast and 'listen again' service In Our Time website "The Jesuit Curia
Curia
in Rome". Retrieved 2 April 2012.  "Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu - Jesuit Archive in Rome". Retrieved 2 July 2013.  "Society of Jesus" section of Wikisource's Roman Catholicism portal.

v t e

Society of Jesus

History

Protestant Reformation Counter-Reformation Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola Ad maiorem Dei gloriam Magis Regimini militantis Ecclesiae Exposcit debitum Suppression of the Society of Jesus List of Jesuits

Saints

José de Anchieta Modeste Andlauer Edmund Arrowsmith Robert Bellarmine John Berchmans Jacques Berthieu Andrew Bobola Francis Borgia John de Brebeuf Alexander Briant John de Britto Edmund Campion Peter Canisius Juan del Castillo Noël Chabanel Peter Claver Claude de la Colombiere Anthony Daniel Paul Denn Philip Evans Peter Faber Thomas Garnet Charles Garnier Aloysius Gonzaga
Aloysius Gonzaga
( Roque González de Santa Cruz John Soan de Goto Rene Goupil Melchior Grodziecki Alberto Hurtado Rémy Isoré Ignatius of Loyola Francis Jerome Isaac Jogues James Kisai Stanislaus Kostka Jean de Lalande Gabriel Lalemant David Lewis Ignatius of Loyola Lèon-Ignance Mangin Paul Miki Henry Morse John Ogilvie Nicholas Owen Joseph Pignatelli István Pongrácz Bernardino Realino John Francis Regis Alonso Rodriguez Alphonsus Rodriguez José María Rubio Robert Southwell André de Soveral Henry Walpole Francis Xavier

Popes

Francis

Theology

Luis de Molina Francisco Suárez Jean Daniélou Karl Rahner Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Henri de Lubac John Courtney Murray Joseph Fitzmyer List of Jesuit theologians

General

Bollandist La Civiltà Cattolica General Congregation Superior General of the Society of Jesus Pontifical Gregorian University Pontifical Biblical Institute Pontifical Oriental Institute Jesuit China
China
missions Jesuit missions in North America List of Jesuit development centres List of Jesuit educational institutions Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm

  Category

v t e

Catholic religious institutes

Including orders (monastic/cenobitic/enclosed/idiorrhythmic), Canons Regular, mendicants, second orders, Clerks Regular, and congregations of the Catholic Church

Male and female

Alexians Assumptionists (A.A.) Augustinian Recollects
Recollects
(O.A.R.) Basilian Alepians (B.A.) Basilian Chouerites (B.C.) Benedictines
Benedictines
(O.S.B.) Canossians (F.D.C.C.) Carmelites
Carmelites
(O. Carm.) Carthusians
Carthusians
(O. Cart.) Cistercians
Cistercians
(O. Cist.) Congregation of Our Lady of Sion (N.D.S.) Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary
Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary
(SS.CC.) Congregations of the Heart of Mary Discalced Carmelites
Carmelites
(O.C.D.) Dominicans (O.P.) Franciscans
Franciscans
(O.F.M.) Institute of the Incarnate Word (I.V.E.) Maryknoll
Maryknoll
(M.M.) Mercedarians (O. de M.) Miles Jesu Missionaries
Missionaries
of Charity (M.C.) Missionaries
Missionaries
of St. Charles Borromeo (C.S.) Premonstratensians
Premonstratensians
(O.Praem.) Servants of Charity (S.C.) Servite Order
Servite Order
(O.S.M.) Society of the Atonement
Society of the Atonement
(S.A.) T.O.R. Franciscans Trappists
Trappists
(O.C.S.O.) Trinitarian Order
Trinitarian Order
(O.SS.T.)

Male

Adorno Fathers (C.R.M.) Albertine Brothers Augustinians
Augustinians
(O.S.A.) Barnabites
Barnabites
(B.) Basilians (C.S.B.) Brotherhood of Hope (B.H.) Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy (F.D.M.) Camillians (M.I.) Canons Regular
Canons Regular
of Saint John Cantius Capuchins (O.F.M. Cap.) Christian Brothers (Irish) (C.F.C.) Immaculate Heart of Mary (C.I.C.M.) Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
(S.S.S.) Claretians
Claretians
(C.M.F.) Companions of the Cross (C.C.) Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (C.S.T.) Conventual Franciscans
Conventual Franciscans
(O.F.M. Conv.) Crosiers (O.S.C.) De La Salle Brothers
De La Salle Brothers
(F.S.C.) Discalced Augustinians
Augustinians
(O.A.D.) Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars of the Renewal (C.F.R.) Franciscan
Franciscan
Missionaries
Missionaries
of the Eternal Word (M.F.V.A.) Gabrielites Holy Cross (C.S.C.) Holy Ghost Fathers
Holy Ghost Fathers
(C.S.Sp) Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest (I.C.R.S.S.) Jesuits
Jesuits
(S.J.) Josephite Fathers
Josephite Fathers
(S.S.J.) Legion of Christ
Legion of Christ
(L.C.) Little Brothers of Jesus Marians of the Immaculate Conception (M.I.C.) Marianists (S.M.) Marist Brothers
Marist Brothers
(F.M.S.) Marists (S.M.) Mechitarists
Mechitarists
(C.A.M.) Missionaries
Missionaries
of La Salette (M.S.) Missionaries
Missionaries
of St. Francis de Sales (M.S.F.S) Missionaries
Missionaries
of the Poor (M.O.P.) Missionaries
Missionaries
of the Precious Blood (C.PP.S.) Missionaries
Missionaries
of the Sacred Heart (M.S.C.) Missionaries
Missionaries
of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary Oblates of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.) Missionary
Missionary
Society of Saint Paul of Nigeria (M.S.P.) Missionary
Missionary
Society of St. Columban Oblates of the Virgin Mary
Oblates of the Virgin Mary
(O.M.V.) Oblates of St. Francis de Sales (O.S.F.S.) Oratory of Saint Philip Neri
Oratory of Saint Philip Neri
(C.O.) Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
(O.F.M.) Pallottines
Pallottines
(S.A.C.) Passionists
Passionists
(C.P.) Paulist Fathers
Paulist Fathers
(C.S.P.) Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter
Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter
(F.S.S.P.) Redemptorists (C.Ss.R.) Rogationists of the Heart of Jesus (R.C.J.) Sacred Heart Brothers Salesians (S.D.B.) Servants of Jesus and Mary (S.J.M.) Society of the Divine Word
Society of the Divine Word
(S.V.D.) Society of Saint Edmund (S.S.E.) Sons of the Most Holy Redeemer
Sons of the Most Holy Redeemer
(F.SS.R.) Vincentians (C.M.) White Fathers
White Fathers
(M. Afr.) Xaverian Brothers (C.F.X.) Sulpicians (P.S.S.)

Female

Adorers of the Blood of Christ (A.S.C.) Apostolic Carmel (A.C.) Basilian Alepian Sisters Basilian Chouerite Sisters Bridgettines Brigidines Congregation of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Hospitaller Sisters of the Immaculate Conception (CONFHIC) Daughters of Charity Daughters of Divine Love Daughters of Mary of the Immaculate Conception Faithful Companions of Jesus Felicians (C.S.S.F.) Filippini Sisters (M.P.F.) Handmaids of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Hijas de Jesús Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary Institute of the Maids of the Poor Little Sisters of Jesus Little Sisters of the Poor Lovers of the Holy Cross Marianites of Holy Cross Missionary
Missionary
Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God (S.M.I.C.) Missionary
Missionary
Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
(I.C.M.) Missionary
Missionary
Sisters of the Sacred Heart Oblate Sisters of Providence Oblates of Jesus the Priest Oblate Sisters of the Virgin Mary of Fatima (O.M.V.F.) Order of Our Lady of Charity
Order of Our Lady of Charity
(O.D.N.C.) Order of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary Poor Clares
Poor Clares
(O.S.C.) Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (R.C.S.J.) Religious of the Virgin Mary
Religious of the Virgin Mary
(R.V.M.) Servants of St. Joseph
Servants of St. Joseph
(S.S.J.) Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament Sisters of Charity Sisters of Charity
Sisters of Charity
of Saints Bartolomea Capitanio and Vincenza Gerosa (SCCG) Sisters of the Christian Doctrine (Nancy) Sisters of the Cross and Passion Sisters of the Destitute Sisters of the Good Shepherd (R.G.S) Sisters of Holy Cross Sisters of the Holy Cross Sisters of the Holy Family-Louisiana Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary Sisters of the Immaculate Conception Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary Sisters of Life Sisters of Mercy
Sisters of Mercy
(R.S.M.) Sisters of Providence of Saint Mary-of-the-Woods Sisters of Saint Francis (general) Sisters of Saint Francis (U.S.) Sisters of Saint Joseph The Sisters of St. Joseph
Sisters of St. Joseph
of Peace Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart (R.S.J.) Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls Ursulines
Ursulines
(O.S.U.) White Sisters

See also: Third orders of Catholic laity Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141318503 LCCN: n79046634 ISNI: 0000 0001 2369 4680 GND: 80092-2 SELIBR: 120699 SUDOC: 086020846 BNF: cb11872162f (data) HDS: 11718 NLA: 3658

.

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in D:\Bitnami\wampstack-7.1.16-0\apache2\htdocs\php\PeriodicService.php on line 61