The Info List - Jesse Jackson

Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. (né Burns; born October 8, 1941) is an American civil rights activist, Baptist
minister, and politician. He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988 and served as a shadow U.S. Senator for the District of Columbia from 1991 to 1997. He is the founder of the organizations that merged to form Rainbow/PUSH. Former U.S. Representative Jesse Jackson Jr.
Jesse Jackson Jr.
is his eldest son. Jackson was also the host of Both Sides with Jesse Jackson on CNN
from 1992 to 2000.


1 Early life and education 2 Civil rights
Civil rights

2.1 SCLC and Operation Breadbasket 2.2 Operation PUSH and the Rainbow Coalition

3 International activism 4 Political activism

4.1 1984 presidential campaign 4.2 Relations with Jewish
community 4.3 1988 presidential campaign 4.4 Campaign platform 4.5 Stand on abortion 4.6 Later political activities

4.6.1 1990s 4.6.2 2000s 4.6.3 2010s

5 Electoral history 6 Awards and recognition 7 Personal life 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Early life and education Jackson was born in Greenville, South Carolina, to Helen Burns (1924–2015), a 16-year-old high school student, and her 33-year-old married neighbor, Noah Louis Robinson (1908-1997). Robinson was a former professional boxer who was an employee of a textile brokerage and a well-known figure in the black community.[1][2][3] One year after Jesse's birth, his mother married Charles Henry Jackson, a post office maintenance worker who later adopted the boy.[1][2] Jesse was given his stepfather's name in the adoption, but as he grew up, he also maintained a close relationship with Robinson. He considered both men to be his father.[1][2] As a young child, Jackson was taunted by the other children regarding his out-of-wedlock birth, and has said these experiences helped motivate him to succeed.[1][2] Living under Jim Crow
Jim Crow
segregation laws, Jackson was taught to go to the back of the bus and use separate water fountains – practices he accepted until the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955.[2] He attended the racially segregated Sterling High School in Greenville, where he was elected student class president, finished tenth in his class, and earned letters in baseball, football and basketball.[4] Upon graduating from high school in 1959, he rejected a contract from a minor league professional baseball team so that he could attend the University of Illinois
University of Illinois
on a football scholarship.[3][5] Following his second semester at the predominantly white University of Illinois, Jackson transferred to the North Carolina
North Carolina
A&T, an historically black university located in Greensboro, North Carolina. There are differing accounts of the reasons behind this transfer. Jackson has claimed that he changed schools because racial prejudice prevented him from playing quarterback and limited his participation on a competitive public-speaking team.[5][6] Writing on ESPN.com
in 2002, sociologist Harry Edwards noted that the University of Illinois
University of Illinois
had previously had a black quarterback, but also noted that black athletes attending traditionally white colleges during the 1950s and 1960s encountered a "combination of culture shock and discrimination".[6] Edwards also suggested that Jackson had left the University of Illinois
in 1960 because he had been placed on academic probation.[6] However, the president of the University of Illinois
University of Illinois
reported in 1987 that Jackson's 1960 freshman year transcript was clean, and said he would have been eligible to re-enroll at any time.[7] While attending A&T, Jackson played quarterback and was elected student body president.[3] He became active in local civil rights protests against segregated libraries, theaters and restaurants.[8] He graduated with a B.S. in sociology in 1964, then attended the Chicago Theological Seminary on a scholarship.[2] He dropped out in 1966, three classes short of earning his master's degree, to focus full-time on the Civil Rights Movement.[4][9] He was ordained a minister in 1968, and in 2000, was awarded his Master of Divinity Degree based on his previous credits earned, plus his life experience and subsequent work.[9][10] Civil rights
Civil rights

Jackson speaks on a radio broadcast from the headquarters of Operation PUSH, (People United to Save Humanity) at its annual convention. July 1973. Photograph by John H. White.

Jackson surrounded by marchers carrying signs advocating support for the Hawkins-Humphrey Bill for full employment, January 1975.

SCLC and Operation Breadbasket Jackson has been known for commanding public attention since he first started working for Martin Luther King Jr.[11] In 1965, Jackson participated in the Selma to Montgomery marches
Selma to Montgomery marches
organized by James Bevel, King and other civil rights leaders in Alabama.[2] Impressed by Jackson's drive and organizational abilities, King soon began giving Jackson a role in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC), though he was concerned about Jackson's apparent ambition and attention-seeking.[2][12] When Jackson returned from Selma, he was charged with establishing a frontline office for the SCLC in Chicago.[12] In 1966, King and Bevel selected Jackson to head the Chicago branch of the SCLC's economic arm, Operation Breadbasket[12][13] and he was promoted to national director in 1967.[5] Operation Breadbasket had been started by the Atlanta leadership of the SCLC as a job placement agency for blacks.[14] Under Jackson's leadership, a key goal was to encourage massive boycotts by black consumers as a means to pressure white-owned businesses to hire blacks and to purchase goods and services from black-owned firms.[12][14] T. R. M. Howard, a 1950s proponent of the consumer boycott tactic, soon became a major supporter of Jackson's efforts – donating and raising funds, and introducing Jackson to prominent members of the black business community in Chicago.[12] Under Jackson's direction, Operation Breadbasket held popular weekly workshops on Chicago's South Side featuring white and black political and economic leaders,[13] and religious services complete with a jazz band and choir.[14] Jackson became involved in SCLC leadership disputes following the assassination of King on April 4, 1968. When King was shot, Jackson was in the parking lot one floor below.[2] Jackson told reporters he was the last person to speak to King, and that King died in his arms – an account that several King aides disputed.[2] In the wake of King's death, Jackson worked on SCLC's Poor People's Crusade in Washington, D.C., and was credited with managing its 15-acre tent city – but he began to increasingly clash with Ralph Abernathy, King's successor as chairman of the SCLC.[15][16] In 1969, The New York Times reported that Jackson was being viewed as King's successor by several black leaders and that Jackson was one of the few black activists who was preaching racial reconciliation. Jackson was also reportedly seeking coalition with whites in order to approach what were considered racial problems as economic and class problems, "When we change the race problem into a class fight between the haves and the have-nots, then we are going to have a new ball game", he said.[14] In the 21st century, some public school systems are working on an approach for affirmative action that deals with family income rather than race, recognizing that some minority members have been very successful. The Times also indicated that Jackson was being criticized as too involved with middle-class blacks, and for having an unattainable goal of racial unity.[14] In the spring of 1971, Abernathy ordered Jackson to move the national office of Operation Breadbasket from Chicago to Atlanta and sought to place another person in charge of local Chicago activities, but Jackson refused to move.[13] He organized the October 1971 Black Expo in Chicago, a trade and business fair to promote black capitalism and grass roots political power.[17] The five-day event was attended by black businessmen from 40 states, as well as politicians such as Cleveland Mayor Carl Stokes, and Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley. Daley's presence was seen as a testament to the growing political and economic power of blacks.[17] In December 1971, Jackson and Abernathy had a complete falling out, with the split described as part of a leadership struggle between Jackson, who had a national profile, and Abernathy, whose prominence from the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
was beginning to wane.[13] The break began when Abernathy questioned the handling of receipts from the Black Expo, and then suspended Jackson as leader of Operation Breadbasket for not obtaining permission to form non-profit corporations.[13] Al Sharpton, then youth group leader of the SCLC, left the organization to protest Jackson's treatment and formed the National Youth Movement.[18] Jackson, his entire Breadbasket staff, and 30 of the 35 board members resigned from the SCLC and began planning a new organization.[19][20] Time magazine quoted Jackson as saying at that time that the traditional civil rights movement had lost its "offensive thrust."[20] Operation PUSH and the Rainbow Coalition

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2012)

national headquarters in Kenwood, Chicago

People United to Save Humanity
People United to Save Humanity
(Operation PUSH) officially began operations on December 25, 1971;[20] Jackson later changed the name to People United to Serve Humanity.[21] T. R. M. Howard
T. R. M. Howard
was installed as a member of the board of directors and chair of the finance committee.[12] At its inception, Jackson planned to orient Operation PUSH toward politics and to pressure politicians to work to improve economic opportunities for blacks and poor people of all races.[20] SCLC officials reportedly felt the new organization would help black businesses more than it would help the poor.[20] In 1978 Jackson called for a closer relationship between blacks and the Republican Party, telling the Party's National Committee that "Black people need the Republican Party to compete for us so we can have real alternatives ... The Republican Party needs black people if it is ever to compete for national office."[22] In 1983 Jackson and Operation PUSH led a boycott against beer giant Anheuser-Busch, criticizing the company's level of minority employment in their distribution network. August Busch IV, Anheuser-Busch's CEO was introduced in 1996 to Yusef Jackson, Jesse's son, by Jackson family friend Ron Burkle. In 1998 Yusef and his brother Jonathan were chosen by Anheuser-Busch
to head River North Sales, a Chicago beer distribution company, leading to controversy. "There is no causal connection between the boycott in 1983 and me meeting in the middle '90s and me buying this company in 1998," said Yusef.[23][24][25] In 1984, Jackson organized the Rainbow Coalition and resigned his post as president of Operation PUSH in 1984 to run for president of the United States, though he remained involved as chairman of the board.[21] PUSH's activities were described in 1987 as conducting boycotts of business to induce them to provide more jobs and business to blacks and as running programs for housing, social services and voter registration.[21] The organization was funded by contributions from businesses and individuals.[21] In early 1987 the continued existence of Operation PUSH was imperiled by debt, a fact that was used by Jackson's political opponents during his race for the 1988 Democratic Party nomination.[21] In 1996, the Operation PUSH and Rainbow Coalition organizations were merged. International activism Jackson's influence extended to international matters in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1983, Jackson traveled to Syria
to secure the release of a captured American pilot, Navy Lt. Robert Goodman who was being held by the Syrian government. Goodman had been shot down over Lebanon while on a mission to bomb Syrian positions in that country. After a dramatic personal appeal that Jackson made to Syrian President Hafez al-Assad, Goodman was released. Initially, the Reagan administration was skeptical about Jackson's trip to Syria. However, after Jackson secured Goodman's release, United States President
United States President
Ronald Reagan welcomed both Jackson and Goodman to the White House on January 4, 1984.[26] This helped to boost Jackson's popularity as an American patriot and served as a springboard for his 1984 presidential run. In June 1984, Jackson negotiated the release of twenty-two Americans being held in Cuba
after an invitation by Cuban president Fidel Castro.[27] On the eve of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Jackson made a trip to Iraq, to plead to Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
for the release of foreign nationals held there as a "human shield", securing the release of several British and twenty American individuals.[28][29][30] He traveled to Kenya
in 1997 to meet with Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi as United States President
United States President
Bill Clinton's special envoy for democracy to promote free and fair elections. In April 1999, during the Kosovo War, Jackson traveled to Belgrade
to negotiate the release of three U.S. POWs captured on the Macedonian border while patrolling with a UN peacekeeping unit. He met with the then-Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević, who later agreed to release the three men.[31] His international efforts continued into the 2000s. On February 15, 2003, Jackson spoke in front of over an estimated one million people in Hyde Park, London
Hyde Park, London
at the culmination of the anti-war demonstration against the imminent invasion of Iraq
by the U.S. and the United Kingdom. In November 2004, Jackson visited senior politicians and community activists in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in an effort to encourage better cross-community relations and rebuild the peace process and restore the governmental institutions of the Belfast Agreement. In August 2005, Jackson traveled to Venezuela
to meet Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, following controversial remarks by televangelist Pat Robertson
Pat Robertson
in which he implied that Chávez should be assassinated. Jackson condemned Robertson's remarks as immoral. After meeting with Chávez and addressing the Venezuelan Parliament, Jackson said that there was no evidence that Venezuela
posed a threat to the U.S. Jackson also met representatives from the Afro Venezuela
and indigenous communities.[32] In 2005, he was enlisted as part of the United Kingdom's "Operation Black Vote", a campaign run by Simon Woolley to encourage more of Britain's ethnic minorities to vote in political elections ahead of the May 2005 General Election.[33] Jackson served as a speaker for The International Peace Foundation in 2009 on the topic "Building a culture of peace and development in a globalized world".[34] He visited multiple locations in Malaysia, including the Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and in Thailand, including NIST International School in Bangkok.[35] Political activism During the 1980s, he achieved wide fame as a politician, as well as becoming a well-known spokesman for civil rights issues. In 1980 for example, Jackson mediated in a firefighters' strike.[2] 1984 presidential campaign

Jackson in 1983

Main article: Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
presidential campaign, 1984 On November 3, 1983, Jackson announced his campaign for President of the United States in the 1984 election,[36] becoming the second African American
African American
(after Shirley Chisholm) to mount a nationwide campaign for president. In the Democratic Party primaries, Jackson, who had been written off by pundits as a fringe candidate with little chance at winning the nomination, surprised many when he took third place behind Senator Gary Hart
Gary Hart
and former Vice President Walter Mondale, who eventually won the nomination. Jackson garnered 3,282,431 primary votes, or 18.2 percent of the total, in 1984,[2] and won three to five primaries and caucuses, including Louisiana, the District of Columbia, South Carolina, and one of two separate contests in Mississippi.[37] More Virginia caucus-goers supported Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
than any other candidate, but Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale
won more Virginia delegates.[38] In May 1988, Jackson complained that he had won 21% of the popular vote[39] but was awarded only 9% of the delegates. He afterwards stated that he had been handicapped by party rules. While Mondale (in the words of his aides) was determined to establish a precedent with his vice presidential candidate by picking a woman or visible minority, Jackson criticized the screening process as a "p.r. parade of personalities". He also mocked Mondale, saying that Hubert Humphrey was the "last significant politician out of the St. Paul–Minneapolis" area.[40] Relations with Jewish
community Jackson was criticized in the early 1980s for referring to Jews as "Hymies" and New York City as "Hymietown" in remarks to a black Washington Post reporter.[2][41] (Hymie is a pejorative term for Jews.) Jackson mistakenly assumed the references would not be printed. Louis Farrakhan
Louis Farrakhan
made the situation worse by issuing, in Jackson's presence, a public warning to Jews that "If you harm this brother [Jackson], it will be the last one you harm."[2][41] Jackson made a public apology to Jews for the pejorative remarks, but Jackson refused to denounce Farrakhan's warning to Jews. Jackson apologized during a speech before national Jewish
leaders in a Manchester, New Hampshire synagogue, but an enduring split between Jackson and many in the Jewish
community continued at least through the 1990s.[41] Jackson also made other remarks evidencing a negative attitude toward Jews including saying that Richard Nixon was less attentive to poverty in the U.S. because "four out of five [of Nixon's top advisers] are German Jews and their priorities are on Europe and Asia"; that he was "sick and tired of hearing about the Holocaust"; and that there are "very few Jewish
reporters that have the capacity to be objective about Arab affairs". Shortly after President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
fired U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young for meeting with Palestine Liberation Organization representatives, Jackson and other black leaders began publicly endorsing a Palestinian state, with Jackson calling Israel's prime minister a "terrorist", and then soliciting Arab-American
financial support.[42] Jackson has since apologized for some of these remarks, but they badly damaged his presidential campaign, as "Jackson was seen by many conservatives in the United States as hostile to Israel and far too close to Arab governments."[43] According to a 1987 New York Times
New York Times
article, Jackson began attempting to improve his relationship with the Jewish
community after 1984.[2] In 2000, he was invited to speak in support of Jewish
Senator and Vice Presidential candidate Joe Lieberman
Joe Lieberman
at the Democratic National Convention.[44] 1988 presidential campaign Main article: Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
presidential campaign, 1988 In 1988, Jackson again sought the Democratic Party presidential nomination. According to a November 1987 article in The New York Times, "Most political analysts give him little chance of being nominated – partly because he is black, partly because of his unretrenched liberalism."[2] However, his successes in the past made him a more credible candidate, and he was both better financed and better organized than in 1984. Jackson once again exceeded expectations as he more than doubled his previous results, prompting R.W. Apple of The New York Times
New York Times
to call 1988 "the Year of Jackson".[45]

Jackson with Maryland's Sen. Decatur Trotter and Del. Curt Anderson during a Maryland Legislative Black Caucus meeting in Annapolis, Maryland (1988)

In early 1988, Jackson organized a rally at the former American Motors assembly plant in Kenosha, Wisconsin, approximately two weeks after new owner Chrysler
announced it would close the plant by the end of the year. In his speech, Jackson spoke out against Chrysler's decision, stating "We have to put the focus on Kenosha, Wisconsin, as the place, here and now, where we draw the line to end economic violence!" and compared the workers' fight to that of the 1965 Voting Rights Movement in Selma, Alabama. As a result, the UAW Local 72 union voted to endorse his candidacy, even against the rules of the UAW.[46] Briefly, after he won 55% of the vote in the Michigan
Democratic caucus, he was considered the frontrunner for the nomination, as he surpassed all the other candidates in total number of pledged delegates. However, Jackson's campaign suffered a significant setback less than two weeks after the UAW endorsement when he narrowly lost the Colorado primary to Michael Dukakis, and was defeated handily the following day in the Wisconsin
primary by Dukakis. Jackson's showing among white voters in Wisconsin
was significantly higher than in his 1984 run, but was also noticeably lower than pre-primary polling had predicted. The back-to-back victories established Dukakis as the clear Democratic frontrunner, and he went on to claim the party's nomination, but lost the general election in November.[47] Jackson's campaign had also been interrupted by allegations regarding his half-brother Noah Robinson Jr.'s criminal activity.[48] Jackson had to answer frequent questions about Noah, who was often referred to as "the Billy Carter
Billy Carter
of the Jackson campaign".[49] At the conclusion of the Democratic primary season, Jackson had captured 6.9 million votes and won 11 contests; seven primaries (Alabama, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia) and four caucuses (Delaware, Michigan, South Carolina and Vermont).[50] Jackson also scored March victories in Alaska's caucuses and Texas's local conventions, despite losing the Texas primary.[51][52] Campaign platform In both races, Jackson ran on what many considered to be a very liberal platform. In 1987, The New York Times
New York Times
described him as " a classic liberal in the tradition of the New Deal
New Deal
and the Great Society".[2] Declaring that he wanted to create a "Rainbow Coalition" of various minority groups, including African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Arab-Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, family farmers, the poor and working class, and homosexuals, as well as European American
European American
progressives who fit into none of those categories, Jackson ran on a platform that included:

Creating a Works Progress Administration-style program to rebuild America's infrastructure and provide jobs to all Americans, Re-prioritizing the War on Drugs
War on Drugs
to focus less on mandatory minimum sentences for drug users (which he views as racially biased) and more on harsher punishments for money-laundering bankers and others who are part of the "supply" end of "supply and demand" Reversing Reaganomics-inspired tax cuts for the richest ten percent of Americans and using the money to finance social welfare programs Cutting the budget of the Department of Defense by as much as fifteen percent over the course of his administration Declaring Apartheid-era South Africa to be a rogue nation Instituting an immediate nuclear freeze and beginning disarmament negotiations with the Soviet Union Supporting family farmers by reviving many of Roosevelt's New Deal–era farm programs Creating a single-payer system of universal health care Ratifying the Equal Rights Amendment Increasing federal funding for lower-level public education and providing free community college to all Applying stricter enforcement of the Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
and Supporting the formation of a Palestinian state.

With the exception of a resolution to implement sanctions against South Africa for its apartheid policies, none of these positions made it into the party's platform in either 1984 or 1988.[citation needed] Stand on abortion Although Jackson was one of the most liberal members of the Democratic Party, his position on abortion was originally more in line with pro-life views. Within one month after the 1973 Supreme Court decision, Roe v. Wade, legalized abortion, Jackson began a PUSH campaign against the decision, calling abortion murder and declaring that Jesus and Moses might not have been born if abortion had been available in ancient times.[12] Jackson's strong rhetoric on abortion temporarily alienated one of his major supporters, T. R. M Howard, a black physician who made a living from performing abortions.[12] In 1975, Jackson endorsed a plan for a constitutional amendment banning abortion.[53] He also endorsed the Hyde Amendment, which bars the funding of abortions through the federal Medicaid
program. Writing in a 1977 National Right to Life Committee
National Right to Life Committee
News report, Jackson argued that the basis for Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
– the right to privacy – was also a premise that had been used to justify slavery and the treatment of slaves on the plantations. Jackson decried what he believed was the casual taking of life, and the decline in society's value system. However, Jackson later adopted a pro-choice view that abortion is a right and that the government should not prevent a woman from having an abortion.[54] Later political activities 1990s

Jackson with Maude Barlow

He ran for office as "shadow senator" for the District of Columbia when the position was created in 1991,[55] and served as such through 1997, when he did not run for re-election. This unpaid position was primarily a post to lobby for statehood for the District of Columbia.[56] In the mid-1990s, he was approached about being the United States Ambassador to South Africa but declined the opportunity in favor of helping his son Jesse Jackson Jr.
Jesse Jackson Jr.
run for the United States House of Representatives.[57] Jackson was initially critical of the "Third Way" or more moderate policies of Bill Clinton, so much so that, according to journalist Peter Beinart, Clinton was "petrified about a primary challenge from" Jackson in the 1996 election.[58] However, he became a key ally in gaining African American
African American
support for Clinton and eventually became a close adviser and friend of the Clinton family.[57] His son, Jesse Jackson Jr., also emerged as a political figure, becoming a member of the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
from Illinois. On May 2, 1999, during the Kosovo war, three US soldiers who had been held captive were released as a result of talks with Jackson.[59] Jackson's negotiation was not sanctioned by the Clinton Administration.[59] On November 18, 1999, seven Decatur, Illinois
high school students were expelled for two years after participating in a brawl at a football game. The incident was caught on home video and became a national media event when CNN
ran pictures of the fight. After the students were expelled, Jackson spoke out arguing that the expulsions were unfair and racially biased. He called on the school board to reverse their decision.[60] 2000s On January 20, 2001, Bill Clinton's final day in office, Jackson had petitioned Clinton for the pardons of Congressman Mel Reynolds, John Bustamante, and Dorothy Rivers, all of which were approved. Jesse requested a fourth pardon, for his half-brother Noah Robinson, who had been convicted of murdering Leroy Barber and sentenced to life imprisonment. This was the only pardon Clinton disapproved as Robinson had submitted three pardon appeals prior, all of which were denied by the Justice Department.[61] Jackson was a target of the 2002 white supremacist terror plot.[62]

Jackson at an anti-war rally in 2007 with Sean Penn

In early 2005, Jackson visited the parents in the Terri Schiavo case; he supported their unsuccessful bid to keep her alive.[63] In 2005, the Federal Election Commission
Federal Election Commission
ruled that Jackson and the Democratic National Committee
Democratic National Committee
had violated electoral law and levied on them a $200,000 fine.[64] In March 2006, an African-American woman accused three white members of the Duke University
Duke University
men's lacrosse team of raping her. During the ensuing controversy, Jackson stated that his Rainbow/PUSH
Coalition would pay for the rest of her college tuition regardless of the outcome of the case. The case against the three men was later thrown out and the players were declared innocent by the North Carolina Attorney General.[65] Jackson took a key role in the scandal caused by comedic actor Michael Richards' racially charged comments in November 2006. Richards called Jackson a few days after the incident to apologize; Jackson accepted Richards' apology[66] and met with him publicly as a means of resolving the situation. Jackson also joined black leaders in a call for the elimination of the "N-word" throughout the entertainment industry.[67] On June 23, 2007, Jackson was arrested in connection with a protest at a gun store in Riverdale, a poor suburb of Chicago, Illinois. Jackson and others were protesting due to allegations that the gun store had been selling firearms to local gang members and was contributing to the decay of the community. According to police reports, Jackson refused to stop blocking the front entrance of the store and let customers pass. He was charged with one count of criminal trespass to property.[68]

Jackson at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in 2009.

In March 2007, Jackson declared his support for then-Senator Barack Obama in the 2008 democratic primaries.[69] Jackson later criticized Obama in 2007 for "acting like he's white," in response to the Jena 6 beating case.[70] On July 6, 2008, during an interview with Fox News, a microphone picked up Jackson whispering to fellow guest Reed Tuckson:[71] "See, Barack's been, ahh, talking down to black people on this faith-based... I want to cut his nuts off."[72] Jackson was expressing his disappointment in Obama's Father's Day
Father's Day
speech chastisement of black fathers.[73] Subsequent to his Fox News interview, Jackson apologized and reiterated his support for Obama.[72] On November 4, 2008, Jackson attended the Obama victory rally in Chicago's Grant Park. In the several moments before Obama spoke, Jackson was seen in tears.[74] 2010s

Jackson in 2012

Jackson at the Islamic Society of North America
Islamic Society of North America
convention in Chicago in September 2016

Jackson has commended Obama's 2012 decision to support gay marriage and has compared the fight for same-sex marriage to fight against slavery and the anti-miscegenation laws that once prevented interracial marriage.[75] He would be in favor of federal legislation extending marriage rights to gays, because he feels that if this issue is left up to the states, some states will continue to deny gays equal protection and equal rights.[75] Electoral history

1984 Democratic Party presidential primaries

Candidate Votes Percentage

Walter Mondale 6,952,912 38.32%

Gary Hart 6,504,842 35.85%

Jesse Jackson 3,282,431 18.09%

John Glenn 617,909 3.41%

George McGovern 334,801 1.85%

Unpledged 146,212 0.81%

Lyndon LaRouche 123,649 0.68%

Reubin O'Donovan Askew 52,759 0.29%

Alan Cranston 51,437 0.28%

Ernest Hollings 33,684 0.19%

1984 Democratic National Convention
1984 Democratic National Convention
delegate voting

Candidate Votes Percentage

Walter Mondale 2,191 56.41%

Gary Hart 1,201 30.92%

Jesse Jackson 466 12.00%

Thomas F. Eagleton 18 0.46%

George McGovern 4 0.10%

John Glenn 2 0.05%

Joe Biden 1 0.03%

1988 Democratic presidential primaries

Candidate Votes Percentage

Michael Dukakis 9,898,750 42.47%

Jesse Jackson 6,788,991 29.13%

Al Gore 3,185,806 13.67%

Dick Gephardt 1,399,041 6.00%

Paul M. Simon 1,082,960 4.65%

Gary Hart 415,716 1.78%

Unpledged 250,307 1.07%

Bruce Babbitt 77,780 0.33%

Lyndon LaRouche 70,938 0.30%

David Duke 45,289 0.19%

James Traficant 30,879 0.13%

Douglas E. Applegate 25,068 0.11%

1988 Democratic National Convention
1988 Democratic National Convention
delegate voting

Candidate Votes Percentage

Michael Dukakis 2,877 70.09%

Jesse Jackson 1,219 29.70%

Richard H. Stallings 3 0.07%

Joe Biden 2 0.05%

Dick Gephardt 2 0.05%

Lloyd Bentsen 1 0.02%

Gary Hart 1 0.02%

Shadow Senator from District of Columbia, 1990[76]

Candidate Votes Percentage

Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(D) 105,633 46.80%

Florence Pendleton (D) 58,451 25.89%

Harry T. Alexander (I) 13,983 6.19%

Milton Francis (R) 13,538 6.00%

Joan Gillison (R) 12,845 5.69%

Keith M. Wilkerson (D.C. Statehood) 4,545 2.01%

Anthony W. Peacock (D.C. Statehood) 4,285 1.90%

John West (I) 3,621 1.60%

David L. Whitehead (I) 3,341 1.48%

Sam Manuel (Socialist Workers) 2,765 1.23%

Awards and recognition Ebony Magazine named Jackson to its "100 most influential black Americans" list in 1971.[15] In 1979, Jackson received the Jefferson Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged.[77] In 1989, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal
Spingarn Medal
from the NAACP.[78] In 1991, Jackson received the American Whig-Cliosophic Society's James Madison Award for Distinguished Public Service.[79] Clinton awarded Jackson the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest honor bestowed on civilians in August 2000.[80] In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante
Molefi Kete Asante
included Jackson on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[8] In 2008, Jackson was presented with an Honorary Fellowship from Edge Hill University. In an AP-AOL "Black Voices" poll in February 2006, Jackson was voted "the most important black leader".[81] Jackson inherited the title of the High Prince of the Agni people of Côte d'Ivoire from Michael Jackson. In August 2009, he was crowned Prince Côte Nana by Amon N'Douffou V, King of Krindjabo, who rules more than a million Agni tribespeople.[82] Personal life

Jackson at the 2012 Bud Billiken Parade

Jackson married Jacqueline Lavinia Brown (born 1944) on December 31, 1962,[83] and together they have five children: Santita (1963), Jesse Jr. (1965), Jonathan Luther (1966), Yusef DuBois (1970), and Jacqueline Lavinia (1975).[84] Jackson's younger brother, Charles "Chuck" Jackson, was a singer with the vocal group The Independents and as a solo artist who issued two albums in the late 1970s. Along with his songwriting partner and fellow producer, Marvin Yancy, he was largely responsible for launching the career of Natalie Cole.[85] On Memorial Day, May 25, 1987, Jesse was made a Master Mason
Master Mason
on Sight by Grand Master Senter of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Illinois; thereby making him a Prince Hall Freemason.[86] In 2001, it was revealed Jackson had an affair with a staffer, Karin Stanford, that resulted in the birth of a daughter Ashley in May 1999. According to CNN, in August 1999, the Rainbow Push Coalition had paid Stanford $15,000 in moving expenses and $21,000 in payment for contracting work. A promised advance of an additional $40,000 against future contracting work was rescinded once the affair became public.[87] This incident prompted Jackson to withdraw from activism for a short time.[88] Jackson was paying $4,000 a month in child support as of 2001.[89] In November 2017, Jackson was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease.[90] See also

"I Am - Somebody" - a poem popularized by Jesse Jackson List of civil rights leaders List of Notable Freemasons


^ a b c d Smothers, Ronald (January 31, 1997). "Noah L. Robinson, 88, Father of Jesse Jackson". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Joyce Purnick and Michael Oreskes (November 29, 1987). " Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Aims for the Mainstream". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2012.  ^ a b c "Topics: Jesse Jackson". History.com. A & E Television Networks. Retrieved October 3, 2012.  ^ a b Henderson, Ashyia, ed. (2001), "Jesse Jackson", Contemporary Black Biography, Volume 27, Gale Group, retrieved September 30, 2012  ^ a b c "Jesse Jackson". MSN Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) October 31, 2009. ^ a b c Harry, Edwards (February 28, 2002). "The man who would be King in the Sports Arena". Espn.go.com. Retrieved October 1, 2012.  ^ "University says Jackson records show no blemish". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, Kansas. December 31, 1987. Retrieved October 1, 2012.  ^ a b Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 168. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.  ^ a b "Jackson to get a degree". The Telegraph-Herald. Dubuque, Iowa. June 1, 2000. p. 10A. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ "Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Sr. Receives Master's Degree From Chicago Theological Seminary". Findarticles.com. June 19, 2000. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ Thomas, Evan (May 7, 1984). "Pride and Prejudice". Time. Retrieved October 6, 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h Beito, David T.; Beito, Linda Royster (2009). Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois
University of Illinois
Press. pp. 206–216. Retrieved October 6, 2012.  ^ a b c d e King, Seth G. (December 12, 1971). "Jackson Quits Post at S.C.L.C. In Policy Split With Abernathy". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2012.  ^ a b c d e Hebers, John (June 2, 1969). " Operation Breadbasket Is Seeking Racial Solutions in Economic Problems". Retrieved October 5, 2012.  ^ a b "Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Chief B-CC Speaker". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. April 19, 1971. Retrieved October 7, 2012.  ^ "Nation: Turmoil in Shantytown". Time. June 7, 1968. Retrieved October 6, 2012.  ^ a b "Races: Black Expo in Chicago". Time magazine. October 11, 1971. Retrieved October 5, 2012.  ^ Interview with Al Sharpton, David Shankbone, Wikinews, December 3, 2007. ^ "Politics: In Search of a Black Strategy". Time. December 20, 1971. Retrieved October 5, 2012.  ^ a b c d e "Races: Jackson PUSHes On". Time magazine. January 3, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2012.  ^ a b c d e Oreskes, Michael (October 7, 1987). "Operation PUSH Clearing Debts, Leader Says". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2012.  ^ "Nation: Wooing the Black Vote". Time. January 30, 1978.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Jackson". Crain's Chicago Business. October 15, 2005.  ^ "Jackson Contacts Cultivated Beer Deal". tribunedigital-chicagotribune.  ^ http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-11-03/business/ct-biz-1103-jackson-deal-20131103_1_bdt-capital-partners-river-north-sales-service-city-beverage.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Jesse Jackson's Mission to Damascus". Eightiesclub.tripod.com. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ Depalma, Anthony (July 13, 2010). "New York Times". Topics.nytimes.com. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ Terry, Don (April 15, 2009). " Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
reunites with hostage he rescued 19 years ago". Frost Illustrated. Frost Inc. NNPA. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.  ^ "The Pilgrimage of Jesse Jackson". Frontline. Episode 1415. Show #1415 transcript. Boston. April 30, 1996. PBS. WGBH.  ^ Wilson, Joseph (2005) [2004]. The politics of truth : inside the lies that put the White House on trial and betrayed my wife's CIA identity : a diplomat's memoir. Carroll & Graf Publishers. pp. 146–7. ISBN 978-0-7867-1551-0. Retrieved September 24, 2010.  ^ "PBS Frontline chronology". Pbs.org. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ Wilpert, Gregory (August 28, 2005). " Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Says Venezuela
No Threat, Praises Venezuelan Government Concerns". venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ "Operation Black Vote - Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
tour kick starts!". Obv.org.uk. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ "International Peace Foundation - Previous speakers and artists". 2007. Retrieved August 12, 2017.  ^ "2009-04-23: Bridges - Rev. Jesse Jackson". NIST International School. 2009. Retrieved 2017-08-12.  ^ Jackson and White, p. 33. ^ "1984 Texas Jackson-for-President Campaign Collection: An Inventory of Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library". Lib.utexas.edu. April 21, 1984. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ Beck, Melinda (April 16, 1984). "Keeping 'Em Corralled". Newsweek.  ^ Williams, Juan (May 22, 1984). "Manatt, Jackson to Confer Again on Vote- Delegate Disparity". Washington Post. The primaries lasted through June 12, and the final percentage has been calculated as 18.09%.  ^ Thomas, Evan. "Trying to Win the Peace", Time, July 2, 1984 ^ a b c Larry J. Sabato's Feeding Frenzy (July 21, 1998). "Jesse Jackson's 'Hymietown' Remark – 1984". Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.  ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 273. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. Retrieved October 6, 2012.  ^ Elliott, Justin (December 16, 2010) A White House campaign funded by ... Libya? Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Salon.com ^ "Don't ask, don't tell". Salon. August 17, 2000. Archived from the original on January 25, 2003.  ^ R.W. Apple Jr. (April 29, 1988). "Jackson is seen as winning a solid place in history". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2008.  ^ Dudley (1994) ^ Dionne, E. J. Jr. (April 6, 1988). "Dukakis Defeats Jackson Handily in Wisconsin
Vote", The New York Times ^ An investigation into allegations that Robinson had ordered the murder of a former employee was begun in 1987. See, Gibson, Ray; Possley, Maurice (October 4, 1987). "Jackson's Half-brother Probed In Killing Of Former Employee". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 5, 2012.  Robinson was ultimately convicted on racketeering and drug conspiracy charges, and of being an accessory to the attempted murder of another employee. He was sentenced to life in prison. See, O'Connor, Matt (August 22, 1992). "Robinson To Spend Life In Prison For Drug, Conspiracy Convictions". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 5, 2012.  ^ "Shakedown" by Kenneth Timmerman ^ "Keep Hope Alive". Jesse Jackson, pages 234-235. ^ "Jackson and Dukakis Lead in Texas Voting". The New York Times. March 20, 1988. Retrieved May 6, 2010.  ^ Spencer, Hal (March 12, 1988). "Jackson Edges Out Dukakis In Alaska". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2010.  ^ "Christians Join Bishop's Ban on Abortion". UPI via The Milwaukee Journal. December 1, 1975. p. 4.  ^ "Reprint of a Washington Post article from 1988". Swissnet.ai.mit.edu. May 21, 1988. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ Robin Toner (July 6, 1990). "Jackson to Run For Lobby Post In Washington". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2008.  ^ Richard L. Berke (March 27, 1991). "Behind-the-scenes role for a 'shadow senator'". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2008.  ^ a b Berke, Richard L. (March 6, 1998). "Testing of the President: The Counselor; Once a Nemesis, Jackson Has Become the President's Spiritual Adviser". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2008.  ^ Beinart, Peter (October 6, 2010) Obama's a Lock in 2012, The Daily Beast ^ a b SUSAN SACHS, CRISIS IN THE BALKANS: PRISONERS; Serbs Release 3 Captured U.S. Soldiers May 2, 1999 New York Times ^ "7 Students Charged in a Brawl That Divides Decatur, Ill". The New York Times. November 10, 1999.  ^ Timmerman, Kenneth, "Shakedown, Exposing the Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Racket" ^ Haskell, Dave (July 26, 2002). "Jury convicts white supremacists". United Press International. Retrieved January 1, 2015.  ^ "Terri Schiavo's mom pleads: 'Give my child back'". CNN. March 30, 2005. Retrieved May 6, 2010.  ^ "Democrats, Jackson fined $200,000 by FEC". tribunedigital-chicagotribune.  ^ Beard, Aaron (April 11, 2007). "Prosecutors Drop Charges in Duke Case". The San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 26, 2007. Retrieved April 11, 2007.  ^ "Sharpton: Comedian's apology not enough - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved May 6, 2010.  ^ "Black leaders: End N-word in entertainment". CNN. Archived from the original on November 28, 2006.  ^ Graves, Emma (June 24, 2006). "Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Arrested During Anti-Gun Protest". CommonDreams.org. Retrieved January 11, 2011.  ^ Bellandi, Deanna (March 30, 2007). " Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
backs Obama for 2008". MSNBC. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ "Jesse Jackson: Obama needs to bring more attention to Jena 6". CNN.com. September 19, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2008.  ^ Jackson regrets vulgar Obama comment, Michael Calderone, Politico, July 10, 2008 ^ a b "Jackson apologizes for 'crude' Obama remarks". CNN.com. July 9, 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2008.  ^ Bai, Matt (August 6, 2008). "Is Obama the End of Black Politics?". The New York Times. The New York Times
New York Times
Company. Retrieved November 21, 2008.  ^ Television, World (November 5, 2008). "World Television Studios". Worldtelevisionstudios.blogspot.com. Retrieved August 21, 2010.  ^ a b Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
likens gay marriage push to fight over slavery retrieved May 17, 2012 ^ Two candidates who won the highest number of vote take two shadow seats. ^ "National - Jefferson Awards Foundation".  ^ NAACP
Spingarn Medal
Spingarn Medal
Archived May 5, 2014, at WebCite ^ archives-trim.un.org PDF Archived December 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Riechmann, Deb (August 3, 2000). "Clinton to Award Medals of Freedom". ABC News. Retrieved October 1, 2012.  ^ Sean Alfano (February 15, 2006). "Poll: Jesse Jackson, Rice Top Blacks". CBSNews.com. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ " Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Is Now African Royalty, Inherits Crown from Michael Jackson". August 14, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2009.  ^ Purnick, Joyce; Oreskes, Michael (November 29, 1987). "Jesse Jackson Aims for the Mainstream". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2012.  ^ "Voices & Viewpoints: Jesse Jackson". Archived from the original on August 20, 2003. Retrieved 2008-07-10. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "About Chuck Jackson, Marvin Yancy". MTV. Retrieved September 1, 2013.  ^ "Famous Freemasons". Retrieved October 3, 2012. ; Proceedings of the 138th Communication of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio F&AM. Columbus, Ohio: Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio. 1987. p. 16. ; Gray, David (2012). The History of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio F&AM 1971 – 2011: The Fabric of Freemasonry. Columbus, Ohio: Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio F&AM. p. 414. ISBN 978-0615632957.  ^ "Operation PUSH documents financial ties with Jackson lover". CNN. February 1, 2001. Retrieved May 6, 2010.  ^ "Jackson retreats". Salon.com. January 19, 2001. Archived from the original on February 13, 2009. Retrieved January 16, 2011.  ^ "Mother wants Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
to 'be a father' to illegitimate child". CNN.com. August 16, 2001. Retrieved September 8, 2015.  ^ " Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
diagnosed with Parkinson's disease". CNN. November 17, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017. 


Dudley, K. (1994), The End of the Line, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-16908-1 . Jackson, Jesse L. Jr. (2001), A More Perfect Union: Advancing New American Rights, with Frank E. Watkins, New York: Welcome Rain Publishers, ISBN 1-56649-186-X .

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jesse Jackson.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jesse Jackson

has original works written by or about: Jesse Jackson

Interview with Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
About South African-US Relations from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives Jesse Jackson
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on IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
- Keep Hope Alive Affiliates Quotes Ubben Lecture at DePauw University 1984 DNC speech transcript and audio 1988 DNC speech transcript and audio Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
Calls for "War on Poverty" - video interview by Democracy Now!

Party political offices

New seat Democratic nominee for U.S. Shadow Senator from the District of Columbia (Seat 2) 1990 Succeeded by Paul Strauss

U.S. Senate

New seat U.S. Shadow Senator (Seat 2) from the District of Columbia 1991–1997 Served alongside: Florence Pendleton Succeeded by Paul Strauss

Articles and topics related to Jesse Jackson

v t e

United States Shadow Senators from the District of Columbia

Seat 1

Florence Pendleton Michael D. Brown

Seat 2

Jesse L. Jackson Paul Strauss

v t e

(1980 ←) United States presidential election, 1984
United States presidential election, 1984
(→ 1988)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Ronald Reagan

VP nominee George H. W. Bush

Candidates Ben Fernandez Harold Stassen

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Walter Mondale

VP nominee Geraldine Ferraro

Candidates Reubin Askew Alan Cranston John Glenn Gary Hart Fritz Hollings Jesse Jackson George McGovern

Third party and independent candidates

Citizens Party

Nominee Sonia Johnson

VP nominee Richard Walton

Communist Party

Nominee Gus Hall

VP nominee Angela Davis

Libertarian Party

Nominee David Bergland

VP nominee Jim Lewis

Candidates Gene Burns Earl Ravenal Mary Ruwart

Prohibition Party

Nominee Earl Dodge

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Edward Winn

VP nominee Helen Halyard

Socialist Party

Nominee Sonia Johnson

VP nominee Richard Walton

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Melvin T. Mason

VP nominee Matilde Zimmermann

Workers World Party

Nominee Larry Holmes Alternate nominee Gavrielle Holmes

VP nominee Gloria La Riva

Independents and other candidates

Charles Doty Larry Flynt Larry "Bozo" Harmon Lyndon LaRouche Running mate Billy Davis

Other 1984 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(1984 ←) United States presidential election, 1988
United States presidential election, 1988
(→ 1992)

Republican Party Convention Primaries Primary results


George H. W. Bush

VP nominee

Dan Quayle


Bob Dole Pete du Pont Ben Fernandez Alexander Haig Jack Kemp Paul Laxalt Isabell Masters Pat Robertson Donald Rumsfeld Harold Stassen

Democratic Party Convention Primaries Primary results


Michael Dukakis


VP nominee

Lloyd Bentsen


Douglas Applegate Bruce Babbitt Joe Biden


David Duke Dick Gephardt Al Gore


Gary Hart Jesse Jackson


Lyndon LaRouche Andy Martin Patricia Schroeder Paul Simon James Traficant

Third party and independent candidates

Libertarian Party Convention


Ron Paul
Ron Paul

VP nominee

Andre Marrou


Jim Lewis Russell Means

New Alliance Party


Lenora Fulani

Populist Party


David Duke

Prohibition Party


Earl Dodge

VP nominee

George Ormsby

Socialist Equality Party


Edward Winn

Socialist Party


Willa Kenoyer

VP nominee

Ron Ehrenreich

Socialist Workers Party


James Warren

VP nominee

Kathleen Mickells

Workers World Party


Larry Holmes

VP nominee

Gloria La Riva

Independents and others

Jack Herer Lyndon LaRouche Herbert G. Lewin William A. Marra Eugene McCarthy

Other 1988 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

Civil rights
Civil rights

Notable events (timeline)

Prior to 1954

Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore


Brown v. Board of Education

Bolling v. Sharpe Briggs v. Elliott Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County Gebhart v. Belton

White America, Inc. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company Emmett Till Montgomery bus boycott

Browder v. Gayle

Tallahassee bus boycott Mansfield school desegregation 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

"Give Us the Ballot"

Royal Ice Cream sit-in Little Rock Nine

National Guard blockade

Civil Rights Act of 1957 Kissing Case Biloxi wade-ins


Greensboro sit-ins Nashville sit-ins Sit-in movement Civil Rights Act of 1960 Gomillion v. Lightfoot Boynton v. Virginia Rock Hill sit-ins Robert F. Kennedy's Law Day Address Freedom Rides


Garner v. Louisiana Albany Movement University of Chicago
University of Chicago
sit-ins "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Meredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot "Segregation now, segregation forever"

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

1963 Birmingham campaign

Letter from Birmingham Jail Children's Crusade Birmingham riot 16th Street Baptist
Church bombing

John F. Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights March on Washington

"I Have a Dream"

St. Augustine movement


Twenty-fourth Amendment Bloody Tuesday Freedom Summer

workers' murders

Civil Rights Act of 1964 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches

"How Long, Not Long"

Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
of 1965 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections March Against Fear White House Conference on Civil Rights Chicago Freedom Movement/Chicago open housing movement Memphis sanitation strike King assassination

funeral riots

Poor People's Campaign Civil Rights Act of 1968 Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

Activist groups

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights Atlanta Student Movement Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Committee on Appeal for Human Rights Council for United Civil Rights Leadership Dallas County Voters League Deacons for Defense and Justice Georgia Council on Human Relations Highlander Folk School Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights Montgomery Improvement Association Nashville Student Movement NAACP

Youth Council

Northern Student Movement National Council of Negro Women National Urban League Operation Breadbasket Regional Council of Negro Leadership Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Southern Regional Council Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) The Freedom Singers Wednesdays in Mississippi Women's Political Council


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Sermon on the Mount Mahatma Gandhi

Ahimsa Satyagraha

The Kingdom of God Is Within You Frederick Douglass W. E. B. Du Bois Mary McLeod Bethune


Jim Crow
Jim Crow
laws Plessy v. Ferguson

Separate but equal

Buchanan v. Warley Hocutt v. Wilson Sweatt v. Painter Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States Katzenbach v. McClung Loving v. Virginia Fifth Circuit Four Brown Chapel Holt Street Baptist
Church Edmund Pettus Bridge March on Washington Movement African-American churches attacked Journey of Reconciliation Freedom Songs

"Kumbaya" "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" "Oh, Freedom" "This Little Light of Mine" "We Shall Not Be Moved" "We Shall Overcome"

Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam

"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence"

Watts riots Voter Education Project 1960s counterculture In popular culture

King Memorial Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument Freedom Riders
Freedom Riders
National Monument Civil Rights Memorial

Noted historians

Taylor Branch Clayborne Carson John Dittmer Michael Eric Dyson Chuck Fager Adam Fairclough David Garrow David Halberstam Vincent Harding Steven F. Lawson Doug McAdam Diane McWhorter Charles M. Payne Timothy Tyson Akinyele Umoja Movement photographers

v t e

Tribune Media

Corporate directors

Bruce Karsh (Chairman) Peter Liguori (President and CEO) Chandler Bigelow (CFO)

Tribune Broadcasting (TV stations by primary affiliations)

TV networks

Broadcast Antenna TV This TV
This TV
1 Cable CLTV Food Network
Food Network
(30%) WGN America



The CW













TV programs

$100,000 Fortune Hunt Adventure Inc. American Idol Rewind Andromeda Animal Rescue Around the World for Free The Arsenio Hall Show At the Movies The Bill Cunningham Show BeastMaster Beyond with James Van Praagh The Bob & Tom Show Bozo, Gar and Ray: WGN TV Classics The Bozo Show The Bozo Super Sunday Show Bzzz! The Charles Perez Show City Guys The Dennis Miller Show Dog Tales Earth: Final Conflict EyeOpener Family Feud Final Shot: The Hank Gathers Story Flipper Geraldo Ghostbusters Hollywood Christmas Parade Illinois
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Soul Train
Music Awards To Live and Die in L.A. Tales from the Darkside Tribune Studios U.S. Farm Report Underground What a Country! WWE Superstars WGN Morning News WGN Sports Yule Log



TV production

Tribune Studios


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TV by the Numbers

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The WB
The WB
(25%, 1995–2006) Tribune Publishing (1847–2014) Tribune Media
Tribune Media
Services (1933–2014) Chicago Cubs Radio Network (1925 to 2014) Gracenote
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1 A joint venture between Tribune and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 2 Owned by Dreamcatcher Broadcasting, LLC, Tribune operates these stations through an SSA. 3 Owned by iHeartMedia, and operated by Tribune.

v t e

Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album


Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
– The Best of the Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
Shows (1959) Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln Portrait (1960) Robert Bialek (producer) – FDR Speaks (1961) Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
– Humor in Music (1962) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
– The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(playwright) – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(1964) That Was the Week That Was
That Was the Week That Was
– BBC Tribute to John F. Kennedy (1965) Goddard Lieberson
Goddard Lieberson
(producer) – John F. Kennedy - As We Remember Him (1966) Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
- A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– Gallant Men (1968) Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
– Lonesome Cities (1969) Art Linkletter
Art Linkletter
& Diane Linkletter – We Love You Call Collect (1970) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
– Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam (1971) Les Crane
Les Crane
– Desiderata (1972) Bruce Botnick (producer) – Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974) Peter Cook
Peter Cook
and Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
– Good Evening (1975) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
(1976) Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- Great American Documents (1977) Julie Harris – The Belle of Amherst
The Belle of Amherst
(1978) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
– Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare


Pat Carroll – Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Donovan's Brain
Donovan's Brain
(1982) Tom Voegeli (producer) – Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
- The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983) William Warfield
William Warfield
Lincoln Portrait (1984) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
– The Words of Gandhi (1985) Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast – Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986) Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
and Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
– Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987) Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Lake Wobegon Days (1988) Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
– Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(1989) Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
– It's Always Something (1990) George Burns
George Burns
– Gracie: A Love Story (1991) Ken Burns
Ken Burns
– The Civil War (1992) Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe – What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
On the Pulse of Morning
On the Pulse of Morning
(1994) Henry Rollins
Henry Rollins
– Get in the Van (1995) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
– Phenomenal Woman (1996) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
It Takes a Village (1997) Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
– Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998) Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
Still Me
Still Me
(1999) LeVar Burton
LeVar Burton
– The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.


Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) – The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001) Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and Charles B. Potter (producer) – A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) – Live 2002 (2003) Al Franken
Al Franken
and Paul Ruben (producer) – Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
– My Life (2005) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(2006) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
- With Ossie and Ruby (2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Jacob Bronstein (producer) – The Audacity of Hope (2008) Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon
Cynthia Nixon
and Blair Underwood
Blair Underwood
– An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
Al Gore
(2009) Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
– Always Looking Up (2010) Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
– The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
Presents Earth
(The Audiobook) (2011) Betty White
Betty White
– If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012) Janis Ian
Janis Ian
– Society's Child (2013) Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
– America Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
– Diary of a Mad Diva (2015) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
– In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017) Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
The Princess Diarist
The Princess Diarist

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100276689 LCCN: n50027794 ISNI: 0000 0001 0786 7609 GND: 118836129 SELIBR: 191341 SUDOC: 029444357 BNF: cb121070458 (data) MusicBrainz: 9f969800-0a6f-44fd-aacc-e118513b0f6d NKC: kup19970000043033 SN