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—— Tannaitic ——

Mishnah Tosefta

—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud Babylonian Talmud

—— Later ——

Minor Tractates

Halakhic Midrash

—— Exodus ——

Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai

—— Leviticus ——

Sifra
Sifra
(Torat Kohanim)

—— Numbers and Deuteronomy ——

Sifre Sifrei Zutta on Numbers (Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim)

Aggadic Midrash

—— Tannaitic ——

Seder Olam Rabbah Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules Baraita on the Erection of the Tabernacle

—— 400–600 ——

Genesis Rabbah Lamentations Rabbah Pesikta de-Rav Kahana Esther Rabbah Midrash Iyyob Leviticus Rabbah Seder Olam Zutta Tanhuma Megillat Antiochus

—— 650–900 ——

Avot of Rabbi Natan Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer Tanna Devei Eliyahu Alphabet of Sirach Ecclesiastes Rabbah Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah Deuteronomy Rabbah Devarim Zutta Pesikta Rabbati Midrash Shmuel Midrash Proverbs Ruth Rabbah Baraita of Samuel Targum
Targum
Sheni

—— 900–1000 ——

Ruth Zuta Eichah Zuta Midrash Tehillim Midrash Hashkem Exodus Rabbah Shir ha-Shirim Zutta

—— 1000–1200 ——

Midrash Tadshe Sefer haYashar

—— Later ——

Yalkut Shimoni Machir ben Abba Mari Midrash Jonah Ein Yaakov Midrash HaGadol Numbers Rabbah Smaller midrashim

Targum

—— Torah
Torah
——

Targum
Targum
Onkelos Targum
Targum
Pseudo-Jonathan Fragment Targum Targum
Targum
Neofiti

—— Nevi'im
Nevi'im
——

Targum
Targum
Jonathan

—— Ketuvim
Ketuvim
——

Targum
Targum
Tehillim Targum
Targum
Mishlei Targum
Targum
Iyyov Targum
Targum
to the Five Megillot Targum Sheni
Targum Sheni
to Esther Targum
Targum
to Chronicles

v t e

The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
(Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי‬, Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud
Talmud
or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael ( Talmud
Talmud
of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah. Naming this version of the Talmud
Talmud
after the Land of Israel rather than Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is considered more accurate by some because, while the work was certainly composed in "the West" (as seen from Babylonia), i.e. in the Holy Land, it mainly originates from the Galilee
Galilee
rather than from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Judea, as no Jews lived in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at this time.[1][2] The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
was compiled in the Land of Israel, then divided between the Byzantine provinces of Palaestina Prima
Palaestina Prima
and Palaestina Secunda, and was brought to an end sometime around 400.[citation needed] The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
predates its counterpart, the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(known in Hebrew as the Talmud Bavli), by about 200 years,[citation needed] and is written in both Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic. The word Talmud
Talmud
itself is often defined as "instruction".[3] Both versions of the Talmud
Talmud
comprise two parts, the Mishnah
Mishnah
(of which there is only one version), which was finalized by Judah the Prince
Judah the Prince
around the year 200 CE, and either the Babylonian or the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Gemara. The Gemara
Gemara
is what differentiates the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
from its Babylonian counterpart. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Gemara
Gemara
contains the written discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
(primarily in the academies of Tiberias
Tiberias
and Caesarea), compiled c. 350-400 CE into a series of books.[citation needed] The Babylonian Gemara, which is the second recension of the Mishnah, was compiled by the scholars of Babylonia
Babylonia
(primarily in the Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita), and was completed c. 500. The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
is often seen as more authoritative and is studied much more than the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. In general, the terms "Gemara" or "Talmud," without further qualification, refer to the Babylonian recension. Additionally, the Babylonian manuscripts were copied and distributed nearly complete through the Middle Ages, while the "Jerusalem" version was rare, and several portions were lost. (See Text editions, below.)

Contents

1 Historical context 2 Place and date of composition 3 Text editions 4 Comparison to Babylonian Talmud 5 Influence 6 Translations into English 7 Commentators 8 References 9 External links

Historical context[edit]

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Following the redaction of the Mishnah, many Jewish scholars living in Roman-controlled Syria Palaestina
Syria Palaestina
moved to the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
to escape the harsh decrees against Jews enacted by the emperor Hadrian after the Bar Kokhba revolt. The remaining scholars who lived in the Galilee
Galilee
area decided to continue their teaching activity in the learning centers that had existed since Mishnaic times. Place and date of composition[edit] The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
probably originated in Tiberias
Tiberias
in the School of Johanan bar Nappaha. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias, Sepphoris
Sepphoris
and Caesarea. It is written largely in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic variety that differs from its Babylonian counterpart. This Talmud
Talmud
is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah
Mishnah
that was developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina
Syria Palaestina
(principally those of Tiberias
Tiberias
and Caesarea). Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel. Traditionally, the redaction of this Talmud
Talmud
was thought to have been brought to an abrupt end around 425, when Theodosius II
Theodosius II
suppressed the Nasi and put an end to the practice of semikhah (formal scholarly ordination). It was thought that the compilers of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended, and that this is the reason why the Gemara
Gemara
do not comment upon the whole Mishnah.[4] In recent years scholars have come to doubt the causal link between the abolition of the Nasi and the seeming incompletion of the final redaction. However, as no evidence exists of Amoraim
Amoraim
activity in Syria Palaestina after the 370s, it is still considered very likely that the final redaction of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
took place in the late fourth or early fifth century.[5] Text editions[edit] According to the Jewish Encyclopedia,

Yerushalmi has not been preserved in its entirety; large portions of it were entirely lost at an early date, while other parts exist only in fragments. The editio princeps (ed. Bomberg, Venice, 1523 et seq.), based on the Leiden manuscript and on which all later editions are based, terminates with the following remark: "Thus far we have found what is contained in this Talmud; and we have endeavored in vain to obtain the missing portions." Of the four manuscripts used for this first edition (comp. the note at the conclusion of Shab. xx. 17d and the passage just cited), only one is now in existence; it is preserved in the library of the University of Leyden (see below). Of the six orders of the Mishnah, the fifth, Ḳodashim, is missing entirely from the Palestinian Talmud, while the sixth, Ṭohorot, contains only the first three chapters of the treatise Niddah (iv. 48d-51b).

The Leiden Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
(Or. 4720) is today the only extant complete manuscript of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. It was copied in 1289 by Rabbi Yechiel ben Yekutiel the Physician of Rome and shows elements of a later recension. The additions which are added in the biblical glosses of the Leiden manuscript do not appear in extant fragments of the same Talmudic tractates found in Yemen,[6] additions which are now incorporated in every printed edition of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. These Yemenite fragments are important as source material (as evidenced below), a consequence of isolation the Yemenite community. The Leiden manuscript is important in that it preserves some earlier variants to textual readings, such as in Tractate Pesachim 10:3 (70a), which brings down the old Hebrew word for charoseth (the sweet relish eaten at Passover), viz. dūkeh (Hebrew: דוכה‬), instead of rūbeh/rabah (Hebrew: רובה‬), saying with a play on words: “The members of Isse's household would say in the name of Isse: Why is it called dūkeh? It is because she pounds [the spiced ingredients] with him.” The Hebrew word for "pound" is dakh (דך), which rules out the spelling of rabah (רבה), as found in the printed editions. Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews
still call it dūkeh. [7] Among the Hebrew manuscripts held in the Vatican Library
Vatican Library
is a late 13th-century – early 14th-century copy of Tractate Sotah and the complete Seder Zera'im for the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
(Vat. ebr. 133): Berakhot, Peah, Demai, Kilayim, Sheviit, Terumot, Maaserot, Maaser Sheni, Ḥallah and Orlah (without the Mishnah
Mishnah
for the Tractates, excepting only the Mishnah
Mishnah
to the 2nd chapter of Berakhot).[8] L. Ginzberg printed variant readings from this manuscript on pp. 347–372 at the end of his Fragments of the Yerushalmi (New York 1909). S. Lieberman printed variants at the end of his essay, ʿAl ha-Yerushalmi (Hebrew), Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1929. Both editors noted that this manuscript is full of gross errors but also retains some valuable readings. Comparison to Babylonian Talmud[edit]

A page of a medieval Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza.

There are significant differences between the two Talmud
Talmud
compilations. The language of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
is Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic dialect which differs from that of the Babylonian. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
is often fragmentary and difficult to read, even for experienced Talmudists. The redaction of the Babylonian Talmud, on the other hand, is more careful and precise. The traditional explanation for this difference was the idea that the redactors of the Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
had to finish their work abruptly. A more probable explanation is the fact that the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
wasn't redacted for at least another 200 years, in which a broad discursive framework was created. The law as laid down in the two compilations is basically similar, except in emphasis and in minor details. In a novel view, David Weiss Halivni describes the longer discursive passages in the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
as the "Stammaitic" layer of redaction, and believe that it was added later than the rest: if one were to remove the "Stammaitic" passages, the remaining text would be quite similar in character to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. Neither the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
nor the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
covers the entire Mishnah: for example, a Babylonian Gemara
Gemara
exists only for 37 out of the 63 tractates of the Mishnah. In particular:

The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
covers all the tractates of Zeraim, while the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
covers only tractate Berachot. The reason might be that most laws from the Orders Zeraim (agricultural laws limited to the land of Israel) had little practical relevance in Babylonia
Babylonia
and were therefore not included.[9] The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
has a greater focus on the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
and the Torah's agricultural laws pertaining to the land because it was written in the Land of Israel where the laws applied. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
does not cover the Mishnaic order of Kodashim, which deals with sacrificial rites and laws pertaining to the Temple, while the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
does cover it. It is not clear why this is, as the laws were not directly applicable in either country following the Temple's 70 CE destruction. In both Talmuds, only one tractate of Tohorot (ritual purity laws related to the Temple and sacrificial system) is examined, since the other tractates deal exclusively with Temple-related laws of ritual purity.

The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
records the opinions of the rabbis of Israel
Israel
as well as of those of Babylonia, while the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
seldom cites the Babylonian rabbis. The Babylonian version contains the opinions of more generations because of its later date of completion. For both these reasons it is regarded as a more comprehensive collection of the opinions available. On the other hand, because of the centuries of redaction between the composition of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Babylonian Talmud, the opinions of early amoraim might be closer to their original form in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. Influence[edit] The influence of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
has been far greater than that of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. In the main, this is because the influence and prestige of the Jewish community of Israel
Israel
steadily declined in contrast with the Babylonian community in the years after the redaction of the Talmud
Talmud
and continuing until the Gaonic era. Furthermore, the editing of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
was superior to that of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
version, making it more accessible and readily usable. Hai Gaon, on the preeminence of the Babylonian Talmud, has written:

Anything that has been decided halachically in our Talmud
Talmud
(i.e. the Babylonian Talmud), we do not rely on [any contradictory view found in] the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, seeing that many years have passed since instruction coming from there (i.e. the Land of Israel) had ceased on account of persecution, whereas here (i.e. in Babylonia) is where the final decisions were clarified.[10]

However, on the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud’s continued importance for the understanding of arcane matters, Rabbi Hai Gaon
Hai Gaon
has also written:

Whatever we find in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
and there is nothing that contradicts it in our own Talmud
Talmud
(i.e. the Babylonian Talmud), or which gives a nice explanation for its matters of discourse, we can hold-on to it and rely upon it, for it is not to be viewed as inferior to the commentaries of the rishonim (i.e. the early exponents of the Torah).[11]

In addition, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land. It was also an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan
Kairouan
school of Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacob, with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot
Tosafot
and the Mishneh Torah
Torah
of Maimonides. The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
has traditionally been studied more widely and has had greater influence on the halakhic tradition than the Jerusalem Talmud. However, some traditions associated with the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud are reflected in certain forms of the liturgy, particularly those of the Italian Jews and Romaniotes. Following the formation of the modern state of Israel
Israel
there was some interest in restoring the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud's traditions. For example, David Bar-Hayim
David Bar-Hayim
of the Makhon Shilo institute has issued a siddur reflecting the practices found in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
and other sources. Translations into English[edit]

The first volume, Berakhoth, was translated into English in 1886 by Dr. Moses Schwab, under the title "The Talmud
Talmud
of Jerusalem" (Available online). The author has an earlier translation into French, which covers many more volumes. Talmud
Talmud
of the Land of Israel: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation Jacob Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, others. University of Chicago Press. This translation uses a form-analytical presentation which makes the logical units of discourse easier to identify and follow. Schottenstein Edition of the Yerushalmi Talmud
Talmud
Mesorah/Artscroll. This translation is the counterpart to Mesorah/Artscroll's Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud
Talmud
(i.e. Babylonian Talmud). (n.b. currently incomplete – only some volumes available) The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
ed. Heinrich W. Guggenheimer, Walter de Gruyter (Publisher's Website). This edition, which is only partial, contains a bare translation with simple footnotes clarifying only the most problematic points.

Commentators[edit] There is no comprehensive commentary to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
by any of the Rishonim but explanations of many individual passages can be found in the literature of the Rishonim. Most significantly, Rabbi Samson ben Abraham of Sens (c. 1150–c. 1230), known as the Rash, excerpts and explains many sections of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
in his commentary to the Mishna
Mishna
of Seder Zeraim. His work however, is focused on the Mishna
Mishna
and is not a comprehensive commentary on the entire Jerusalem Talmud. Kaftor VaFerach, by Rabbi Ishtori Haparchi
Ishtori Haparchi
(1280-1355), a disciple of Rabbi Asher ben Jehiel, the Rosh, is one of the few surviving compositions of the Rishonim about all of Seder Zeraim. Many Acharonim, however, wrote commentaries on all or major portions of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, and as with the Babylonian Talmud, many also wrote on individual tractates of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. One of the first of the Acharonim to write a commentary on the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
was Solomon Sirilio (1485–1554), also known as Rash Sirilio, whose commentaries cover only the Seder Zeraim and the tractate Shekalim of Seder Moed. Sirilio's commentary remained in manuscript form until 1875, when it was first printed in Mainz
Mainz
by Meir Lehmann.[12] In the Vilna edition of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, Rash Sirilio appears only for tractates Berakhot and Pe'ah but the commentary for the entire Seder Zeraim appears in the Mutzal Mi’Eish edition of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. In addition to his commentary, Sirilio worked to remove mistakes made by manuscript copyists that over time had slipped into the text of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
and his amended text of the Gemara
Gemara
is reproduced alongside his commentary in the Vilna and Mutzal Mi’Eish editions of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. Today's modern printed editions almost all carry the commentaries, Korban ha-Eida, by David ben Naphtali Fränkel (c. 1704–1762) of Berlin, and Pnei Moshe, by Moses Margolies (c.1710?–1781) of Amsterdam. A modern edition and commentary, known as Or Simchah, is currently being prepared in Beersheba; another edition in preparation, including paraphrases and explanatory notes in modern Hebrew, is Yedid Nefesh. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
has also received some attention from Adin Steinsaltz, who plans a translation into modern Hebrew and accompanying explanation similar to his work on the Babylonian Talmud.[13] So far only Tractates Pe'ah and Shekalim have appeared.[14]

v t e

Commentators on the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud

16th century

Solomon Sirilio Samuel Jaffe Ashkenazi Elazar Azkari

17th century

Joshua ben Israel
Israel
Benveniste

18th century

Elijah of Fulda David ben Naphtali Fränkel Jacob ben Abraham Kahana Moses Margolies Vilna Gaon

19th century

Yechiel Michel HaLevi Epstein Meir Marim Joseph Saul HaLevi Nathansohn Yaakov Dovid Wilovsky Yisroel ben Shmuel of Shklov

20th century

Yechiel Bar-Lev Yisroel Chaim Daiches Louis Ginzberg Chaim Kanievsky Yitzchok Isaac Krasilschikov Saul Lieberman

Lost commentaries

Maimonides Menachem Ziemba

Unpublished commentaries

Moses ben Mordecai Zacuto Moshe Feinstein

References[edit]

^ Structure and Form in the Babylonian Talmud, Louis Jacobs, Cambridge University Press, 14 Feb 2008, pg 3 ^ Schiffman, Lawrence (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple
Second Temple
and Rabbinic Judaism. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-88125-372-6. Although it is popularly known as the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
( Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi), a more accurate name for this text is either "Palestinian Talmud" or " Talmud
Talmud
of the Land of Israel." Indeed, for most of the amoraic age, under both Rome and Byzantium, Jews were prohibited from living in the holy city, and the centers of Jewish population had shifted northwards... The Palestinian Talmud
Talmud
emerged primarily from the activity of the sages of Tiberias
Tiberias
and Sepphoris, with some input, perhaps entire tractates, from the sages of the "south" (Lydda, modern Lod) and the coastal plain, most notably Caesarea.  ^ "Talmud". Merriam-Webster. 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2015. Origin of TALMUD Late Hebrew talmūdh, literally, instruction  ^ G. Stemberger, Einleitung in Talmud
Talmud
und Midrasch (München 1992), p. 172–5. ^ C.E. Hayes, Between the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds, accounting for halakhic difference in selected sugyot from Tractate Avodah Zarah (New York 1997), p. 20–1. ^ Yehuda Levi Nahum, Hasifat Genuzim Miteman (Revelation of Ancient Yemenite Treasures), Holon (Israel) 1971, pp. 19–29 (article: "Fragment of Mishnah
Mishnah
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
Shevi'it (chapter 7), by Prof. Zvi Meir Rabinowitz). ^ Yehuda Ratzaby, Dictionary of the Hebrew Language used by Yemenite Jews (אוצר לשון הקדש שלבני תימן), Tel-Aviv 1978, s.v. דּוּכֵּהּ (p. 54). ^ Vatican Library
Vatican Library
- Vat. ebr. 133, Sotah (ff. 1r–21r), Berakhot (ff. 22r–50v), Pe'ah (ff. 50v–66r), Demai (ff. 66r–80r), Kilayim (ff. 80r–94v), Shevi'it (ff. 94v–107v), Terumot (ff. 107v–125v), Ma'aserot (ff. 126r–135r), Ma'aser Sheni (ff. 135r–144v), Ḥallah (ff. 144v–148v) and Orlah (ff.148v–151v). ^ Steinsaltz, Adin (1976). The Essential Talmud. BasicBooks, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-465-02063-1.  ^ Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi, vol. 1, B’rachot, Friedman’s Oz ve-Hadar edition, New-York 2010, Introduction, p. 17; Geonic Responsa from the Geniza (Simha Assaf), pp. 125–126. The original Hebrew and Aramaic: ומילתא דפסיקא בתלמוד דילנא לא סמכינן בה על תלמודא דבני ארץ ישראל הואיל ושנים רבות איפסיקא הוראה מתמן בשמאדא והכא הוא דאיתבררי מסקני ^ Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi, vol. 1, B’rachot, Friedman’s Oz ve-Hadar edition, New-York 2010, Introduction, p. 19, who quotes from Sefer Ha-Eshkol of Abraham ben Isaac of Narbonne, vol. 2, Benjamin Hirsch (Zvi) Auerbach’s edition, Halberstadt 1868, s.v. Hilchos Sefer-Torah, p. 49 (Responsum of Rabbi Hai Gaon). The original Hebrew: כל מה שמצינו בתלמוד ארץ ישראל ואין חולק עליו בתלמודנו, או שנותן טעם יפה לדבריו נאחזנו ונסמוך עליו, דלא גרע מפירושי הראשונים ^ Berakhoth Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi (ברכות תלמוד ירושלמי), with commentary by Solomon Sirilio, ed. Meir Lehmann, Mayence
Mayence
1875. ^ "Religion: Giving The Talmud
Talmud
to the Jews". Time. 1988-01-18. Retrieved 2010-05-06.  ^ Steinsaltz, Rabbi Adin Even-Israel. "The Aleph Society- Let My People Know". The Aleph Society. Retrieved 17 March 2018. 

External links[edit]

Online Facsimile edition of the Leiden manuscript The Leiden manuscript of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
(Brief Overview) Full Text of the Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi (Hebrew) Mechon-Mamre Full Text of the Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi (Hebrew) Snunit The Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi in 750 MP3s - from YerushalmiOnline.org The Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi, Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906 Talmud/Mishna/Gemara, Jewish Virtual Library Jewish History: Talmud
Talmud
Aish.com Lost segment of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
u

.