HOME
The Info List - Jerome Robbins


--- Advertisement ---



Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(October 11, 1918 – July 29, 1998) was an American choreographer, director, dancer, and theater producer who worked in classical ballet, on Broadway, and in films and television. Among his numerous stage productions he worked on were On the Town, Peter Pan, High Button Shoes, The King And I, The Pajama Game, Bells Are Ringing, West Side Story, Gypsy: A Musical Fable, and Fiddler on the Roof; Robbins was a five time Tony Award
Tony Award
winner and a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors. He received two Academy Awards, including the 1961 Academy Award for Best Director
Academy Award for Best Director
with Robert Wise
Robert Wise
for West Side Story. A documentary about his life and work, Something to Dance About, featuring excerpts from his journals, archival performance and rehearsal footage, and interviews with Robbins and his colleagues, premiered on PBS
PBS
in 2009 and won both an Emmy and a Peabody Award
Peabody Award
the same year.[1][2]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 1930s and 40s 2.2 1950s

2.2.1 House Un-American Activities Committee

2.3 1960s 2.4 1970s and 80s 2.5 1990s 2.6 Death

3 Personal life 4 Awards

4.1 Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
Award

5 Broadway productions and notable ballets 6 Bibliography 7 References 8 Articles 9 External links

9.1 Video

Early life[edit] Robbins was born Jerome Wilson Rabinowitz in the Jewish Maternity Hospital at 270 East Broadway on Manhattan’s Lower East Side
Lower East Side
– a neighborhood populated by many immigrants.[3] He was the son of Lena (Rips) and Harry Rabinowitz.[4] The Rabinowitz family lived in a large apartment house at 51 East 97th Street at the northeast corner of Madison Avenue. Known as "Jerry" to those close to him, Robbins was given a middle name that reflected his parents' patriotic enthusiasm for the then-president. In the early 1920s, the Rabinowitz family moved to Weehawken, New Jersey. His father and uncle opened the Comfort Corset Company in Union City, New Jersey. The family had many show business connections, including vaudeville performers and theater owners. In the 1940s, their name was legally changed to Robbins. Robbins began studying modern dance in high school with Alys [CK] Bentley, who encouraged her pupils to improvise steps to music. Said Robbins later: "What [she] gave me immediately was the absolute freedom to make up my own dances without inhibition or doubts.” After graduation he went to study chemistry at New York University (NYU) but dropped out after a year for financial reasons, and to pursue dance full-time. He joined the company of Senya Gluck Sandor, a leading exponent of expressionistic modern dance; it was Sandor who recommended that he change his name to Robbins. Sandor also encouraged him to take ballet, which he did with Ella Daganova; in addition he studied Spanish dancing with Helen Veola; Asian dance with Yeichi Nimura; and dance composition with Bessie Schonberg. While a member of Sandor’s company Robbins made his stage debut with the Yiddish Art Theater, in a small role in The Brothers Ashkenazi. Career[edit] 1930s and 40s[edit]

Robbins in Three Virgins and a Devil, 1941

In 1937 Robbins made the first of many appearances as a dancer at Camp Tamiment, a resort in the Poconos known for its weekly Broadway-style revues; he also began dancing in the choruses of such Broadway shows as Great Lady and Keep Off the Grass, both choreographed by George Balanchine. Robbins had also begun creating dances for Tamiment’s Revues, some comic (featuring the talents of Imogene Coca
Imogene Coca
and Carol Channing) and some dramatic, topical, and controversial. One such dance, later also performed in New York City
New York City
at the 92nd Street Y, was Strange Fruit, set to the song performed indelibly by Billie Holiday. In 1946, Robbins joined Ballet Theatre (later known as American Ballet Theatre). From 1941 through 1944, Robbins was a soloist with the company, gaining notice for his Hermes
Hermes
in Helen of Troy, the title role in Petrouchka, the Youth in Agnes de Mille’s Three Virgins and a Devil, and Benvolio in Romeo and Juliet; and coming under the influence of the choreographers Michel Fokine, Antony Tudor, and George Balanchine. Robbins created and performed in Fancy Free, a ballet about sailors on liberty, at the Metropolitan Opera
Metropolitan Opera
as part of the Ballet Theatre season in 1944. One of Fancy Free's inspirations was Paul Cadmus' 1934 painting The Fleet's In! However, Robbins' scenario was more lighthearted than the painting. Robbins said in an interview with The Christian Science Monitor: "After seeing...Fleet's In, which I inwardly rejected though it gave me the idea of doing the ballet, I watched sailors, and girls, too, all over town." Robbins commissioned a score for the ballet from the then-unknown Leonard Bernstein[5] and enlisted Oliver Smith as set designer. With Fancy Free, Robbins created a dance that integrated classic ballet, 1940s social dancing, and a screwball plotline. Later that year, Robbins conceived and choreographed On the Town (1944), a musical partly inspired by Fancy Free, which effectively launched his Broadway career. Bernstein wrote the music and Smith designed the sets. The book and lyrics were by a team that Robbins would work with again, Betty Comden
Betty Comden
and Adolph Green, and the director was the Broadway legend George Abbott. Because Robbins, as choreographer, insisted that his chorus reflect the racial diversity of a New York City
New York City
crowd, On the Town broke the color bar on Broadway for the first time. Robbins' next musical was the jazz age fable Billion Dollar Baby (1945), and during rehearsals for the show an incident happened that became a part of Robbins – and Broadway – lore: the choreographer, preoccupied giving directions to the dancers, backed up onstage until he fell into the orchestra pit.[6] Two years later, he received plaudits for his humorous Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
ballet in High Button Shoes
High Button Shoes
(1947), and won his first Tony Award
Tony Award
for choreography. That same year, Robbins would become one of the first members of New York's newly formed Actors Studio, attending classes held by founding member Robert Lewis three times a week, alongside classmates such as Marlon Brando, Maureen Stapleton, Montgomery Clift, Herbert Berghof, Sidney Lumet, and about 20 others.[7] In 1948 he added another credit to his resume, becoming co-director as well as choreographer for Look Ma, I’m Dancin’!; and the year after that teamed with Irving Berlin
Irving Berlin
to choreograph Miss Liberty. While he was forging a career on Broadway, Robbins continued to work in ballet, creating a string of inventive and stylistically diverse works including Interplay, to a score by Morton Gould, and Facsimile, to music by Leonard Bernstein, a ballet that was banned in Boston [CK]. In 1949 Robbins left Ballet Theatre to join George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein’s newly formed New York City
New York City
Ballet as Associate Artistic Director. Soon after that he choreographed The Guests, a ballet about intolerance. 1950s[edit]

Robbins in 1951

At New York City
New York City
Ballet Robbins distinguished himself immediately as both dancer and choreographer. He was noted for his performances in Balanchine’s 1929 “The Prodigal Son” (revived expressly for him), Til Eulenspiegel, and (with Tanaquil LeClercq) Bouree Fantasque, as well as for his own ballets, such as Age of Anxiety, The Cage, Afternoon of a Faun, and The Concert, in all of which LeClercq played leading roles. He continued working on Broadway, as well as, staging dances for Irving Berlin's Call Me Madam, starring Ethel Merman, Rodgers and Hammerstein's The King and I, in which he created the celebrated “Small House of Uncle Thomas” ballet in addition to other dances, and the revue Two’s Company, starring Bette Davis. He also performed uncredited show doctoring on the musicals A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1951), Wish You Were Here (1952), Wonderful Town (1953), and choreographed and directed several sketches for the Ford 50th Anniversary Show, starring Mary Martin
Mary Martin
and Ethel Merman
Ethel Merman
on CBS.[8] In 1954, Robbins collaborated with George Abbott
George Abbott
on The Pajama Game (1954), which launched the career of Shirley MacLaine, and created, choreographed, and directed the Mary Martin
Mary Martin
vehicle, Peter Pan (which he re-staged for an Emmy Award winning television special in 1955, earning himself a nomination for best choreography). He also directed and co-choreographed (with Bob Fosse) Bells Are Ringing (1956), starring Judy Holliday. Robbins recreated his stage dances for The King and I for the 1956 film version. In 1957, he conceived, choreographed, and directed West Side Story.

The Fleet's In!, painted by Paul Cadmus, 1934, the inspiration for the ballet, Fancy Free (1944)

West Side Story
West Side Story
is a contemporary version of Romeo and Juliet, set in Hell's Kitchen. The show, with music by Leonard Bernstein, marked the first collaboration between Robbins and Stephen Sondheim, who wrote the lyrics, as well as Arthur Laurents, who wrote the book. Because book, music, and dance were envisioned as an organic whole, the cast, in a Broadway first, had to be equally skilled as actors, singers, and dancers. To help the young cast grow into their roles, Robbins did not allow those playing members of opposite gangs (Jets and Sharks) to mix during the rehearsal process. He also, according to dancer Linda Talcott Lee, "played psychological games" with the cast: “And he would plant rumors among one gang about the other, so they really hated each other.”[9] Although it opened to good reviews, it was overshadowed by Meredith Willson's The Music Man
The Music Man
at that year's Tony Awards. West Side Story
West Side Story
did, however, earn Robbins his second Tony Award for choreography. The streak of hits continued with Gypsy
Gypsy
(1959), starring Ethel Merman. Robbins re-teamed with Sondheim and Laurents, and the music was by Jule Styne. The musical is based—loosely—on the life of stripper Gypsy
Gypsy
Rose Lee. In 1956 Robbins’ muse, Tanaquil LeClercq, contracted polio and was paralyzed; for the next decade Robbins largely withdrew from his activities at New York City
New York City
Ballet, but he established his own small dance company, Ballets USA, which premiered at the inaugural season of Gian Carlo Menotti’s Festival of the Two Worlds in Spoleto, Italy in June 1958, toured Europe and the US under the auspices of the State Department, and appeared on television on The Ed Sullivan Show. Among the dances he created for it were N.Y. Export: Opus Jazz and Moves. House Un-American Activities Committee[edit] In 1950, Robbins was called to testify before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), suspected of Communist sympathies. Robbins, though willing to confess to past party membership, resisted naming names of others with similar political connections; he held out for three years until, according to two family members in whom he confided, he was threatened with public exposure of his homosexuality.[10] Robbins named the names of persons he said were Communists, including actors Lloyd Gough and Elliot Sullivan, dance critic Edna Ocko, Madeline Lee Gilford, filmmaker Lionel Berman and playwright Jerome Chodorov and his brother Edward Chodorov. Because he cooperated with HUAC, Robbins's career did not visibly suffer and he was not blacklisted.[11] 1960s[edit]

Rehearsals for West Side Story, 1961

In 1961, Robbins directed, with Robert Wise, the movie version of West Side Story. He was fired from the production as soon as principal photography was complete. However, when the film received 10 Academy Awards, Robbins won two, one for his Direction and one for “Brilliant Achievements in the Art of Choreography on Film.” In 1962, Robbins directed Arthur Kopit's non-musical play Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin' So Sad. The production ran over a year off-Broadway and was transferred to Broadway for a short run in 1963, after which Robbins directed Anne Bancroft in a revival of Bertolt Brecht’s Mother Courage and Her Children. Robbins was still highly sought after as a show doctor. He took over the direction of two troubled productions during this period and helped turn them into successes. In 1962, he saved A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962), a musical farce starring Zero Mostel, Jack Gilford, David Burns, and John Carradine. The production, with book by Burt Shevelove and Larry Gelbart, and score by Stephen Sondheim, was not working. Robbins staged an entirely new opening number which explained to the audience what was to follow, and the show played successfully from then on. In 1964, he took on a floundering Funny Girl and devised a show that ran 1348 performances. The musical helped turn lead Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
into a superstar. That same year, Robbins won Tony Awards
Tony Awards
for his direction and choreography in Fiddler on the Roof
Fiddler on the Roof
(1964). The show starred Zero Mostel as Tevye and ran for 3242 performances, setting the record (since surpassed) for longest-running Broadway show. The plot, about Jews living in Russia near the beginning of the 20th century, allowed Robbins to return to his religious roots. 1970s and 80s[edit] He continued to choreograph and stage productions for both the Joffrey Ballet and the New York City
New York City
Ballet into the 1970s. Robbins became ballet master of the New York City
New York City
Ballet in 1972 and worked almost exclusively in classical dance throughout the next decade, pausing only to stage revivals of West Side Story
West Side Story
(1980) and Fiddler on the Roof (1981). In 1981, his Chamber Dance Company toured the People's Republic of China. The 1980s saw an increased presence on TV as NBC
NBC
aired Live From Studio 8H: An Evening of Jerome Robbins' Ballets with members of the New York City
New York City
Ballet, and a retrospective of Robbins's choreography aired on PBS
PBS
in a 1986 installment of Dance in America. The latter led to his creating the anthology show Jerome Robbins' Broadway
Jerome Robbins' Broadway
in 1989 which recreated the most successful production numbers from his 50-plus year career. Starring Jason Alexander
Jason Alexander
as the narrator (a performance that would win Alexander a Tony), the show included stagings of cut numbers like Irving Berlin's Mr. Monotony and well-known ones like the "Tradition" number from Fiddler on the Roof. He was awarded a fifth Tony Award
Tony Award
for it. 1990s[edit] Following a bicycle accident in 1990 and heart-valve surgery in 1994, in 1996 he began showing signs of a form of Parkinson's disease, and his hearing was quickly deteriorating. He nevertheless staged Les Noces for City Ballet in 1998, his last project. Death[edit] Robbins suffered a stroke in July 1998, two months after the premiere of his re-staging of Les Noces. He died at his home in New York on July 29, 1998. On the evening of his death, the lights of Broadway were dimmed for a moment in tribute. He was cremated and his ashes were scattered on the Atlantic Ocean. Personal life[edit] Robbins had relationships with a number of people, from Montgomery Clift and Nora Kaye to Buzz Miller and Jess Gerstein. He never married.[11] Awards[edit] Robbins shared the Best Director Oscar with Robert Wise
Robert Wise
for the film version of West Side Story
West Side Story
(1961). Robbins was only the second director to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Academy Award for Best Director
for a film debut (after Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
for Marty). That same year, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences honored him with a special award for his choreographic achievements on film. In all, he was awarded with five Tony Awards, two Academy Awards, the Kennedy Center Honors
Kennedy Center Honors
(1981), the National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts
(1988), the French Legion of Honor, three honorary doctorates, and an Honorary Membership in the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1979.[12] Robbins was inducted into the National Museum of Dance's Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame 10 years later, in 1989. Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
Award[edit] In 1995, Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
instructed the directors of his foundation to establish a prize for "some really greatly outstanding person or art institution. The prizes should "lean toward the arts of dance ..." The first two Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
Awards were bestowed in 2003, to New York City Ballet and to lighting designer Jennifer Tipton.[13] Broadway productions and notable ballets[edit]

1939 Stars In Your Eyes – musical – performer in the role of "Gentleman of the Ballet" 1939 The Straw Hat Revue – revue – performer 1941 Giselle
Giselle
– ballet – dancer in the role of a "Peasant" 1941 Three Virgins and a Devil – ballet to the music of Ottorino Respighi, dancer in the role of the "Youth" 1941 Gala Performance – ballet to the music of Serge Prokofiev
Serge Prokofiev
– dancer in the role of an "Attendant Cavalier" 1944 On the Town – musical – choreographer and the originator of the idea for the show 1945 Common Ground – play – co-director 1945 Interplay – ballet to the music of Morton Gould
Morton Gould
– choreographer and dancer 1945 Billion Dollar Baby – musical – choreographer 1946 Fancy Free – ballet (revival) – original played at the Metropolitan Opera
Metropolitan Opera
House in 1944 1947 High Button Shoes
High Button Shoes
– musical – choreographer – Tony Award for Best Choreography 1948 Look, Ma, I'm Dancin'! – musical – choreographer, co-director, and the originator of the idea for the show 1949 Miss Liberty – musical – choreographer 1950 Call Me Madam
Call Me Madam
– musical – choreographer 1951 The King and I
The King and I
– musical – choreographer 1951 The Cage – ballet to music of Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
– choreographer 1952 Interplay - ballet to music of Morton Gould
Morton Gould
– choreographer 1952 Two's Company – revue – choreographer 1953 Afternoon of a Faun – ballet to the music of Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
– choreographer 1954 The Pajama Game
The Pajama Game
– musical – co-director 1954 Peter Pan – musical – director and choreographer 1956 The Concert (or the Perils of Everybody) – ballet to the music of Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
– choreographer 1956 Bells Are Ringing – musical – director and co-choreographer with Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
– Tony co-Nominee for Best Choreography 1957 West Side Story
West Side Story
– musical – choreographer, director – Tony Award for Best Choreography 1958 3 x 3 – ballet to the music of Georges Auric – choreographer 1958 New York Export: Opus Jazz – ballet to the music of Robert Prince, choreographer 1959 Gypsy
Gypsy
– musical – choreographer and director – Tony Award Nomination for Best Direction of a Musical 1959 Moves – silent ballet – choreographer 1962 A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
– musical – uncredit directing and choreography assistant 1963 Mother Courage and Her Children
Mother Courage and Her Children
– play – co-producer and director – Tony Award
Tony Award
nomination for Best Play, and Best Producer of a Play 1963 Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin' So Sad – play – director 1964 Funny Girl – musical – production supervisor 1964 Fiddler on the Roof
Fiddler on the Roof
– musical – director and choreographer – Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Direction of a Musical, and Best Choreography 1966 The Office – never officially opened – director 1969 Dances at a Gathering – ballet to the music of Frédéric Chopin – choreographer[14] 1970 In the Night – ballet to the music of Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
– choreographer 1971 The Goldberg Variations (ballet) - ballet to the music of Johann Sebastian Bach – choreographer 1979 The Four Seasons (ballet) - ballet to the music of Giuseppe Verdi[15] – choreographer 1975 In G Major (ballet) - ballet to the music of Maurice Ravel
Maurice Ravel
– choreographer 1983 I'm Old Fashioned – ballet to Morton Gould's adaptation of Jerome Kern's theme – choreographer 1983 Glass Pieces – ballet to the music of Philip Glass
Philip Glass
– choreographer 1989 Jerome Robbins' Broadway
Jerome Robbins' Broadway
– revue – director and choreographer – Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Direction of a Musical

Bibliography[edit]

Lawrence, Greg (2001). Dance with Demons: The Life of Jerome Robbins. G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0-399-14652-0. OCLC 45015298.  Jowitt, Deborah (2005). Jerome Robbins: His Life, His Theater, His Dance. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-86986-5.  Vaill, Amanda (2006). Somewhere: The Life of Jerome Robbins. Broadway. ISBN 978-0-7679-0420-9.  Conrad, Christine (2001). Jerome Robbins: That Broadway Man', Booth-Clibborn ISBN 1-86154-173-2 Emmet Long, Robert (2001). Broadway, the Golden Years: Jerome Robbins and the Great Choreographer Directors, 1940 to the Present. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-1462-1 Altman, Richard (1971). The Making of a Musical: Fiddler on the Roof. Crown Publishers. Thelen, Lawrence (1999). The Show Makers: Great Directors of the American Musical Theatre. Routledge.ISBN 0415923468

References[edit]

^ Fick, David (November 12, 2008). "Something to dance about: new Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
documentary". Musical Cyberspace. Retrieved 2014-02-25.  ^ 69th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2010. ^ Kisselgoff, Anna (July 30, 1998). "Jerome Robbins, 79, Is Dead; Giant of Ballet and Broadway". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-02-25.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/books/first/l/lawrence-01dance.html ^ Paul R. Laird and David Schiff. "Bernstein, Leonard." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 14 Aug. 2014. <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/A2223796>. ^ Green, Jesse (March 15, 2009). "When You're a Shark You're a Shark All the Way". New York. Retrieved 2014-02-25.  ^ Lewis, Robert (1996). "The Actors Studio, 1947". Slings and Arrows: Theater in My Life. New York: Applause Books. p. 183. ISBN 1-55783-244-7. Retrieved 2014-02-25. At the end of the summer, on Gadget's return from Hollywood, we settled the roster of actors for our two classes in what we called the Actors Studio
Actors Studio
- using the word 'studio' as we had when we named our workshop in the Group, the Group Theatre Studio... My group, meeting three times a week, consisted of Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift, Maureen Stapleton, Eli Wallach, Mildred Dunnock, Jerome Robbins, Herbert Berghof, Tom Ewell, John Forsythe, Anne Jackson, Sidney Lumet, Kevin McCarthy, Karl Malden, E.G. Marshall, Patricia Neal, Beatrice Straight, David Wayne, and - well, I don't want to drop names, so I'll stop there. In all, there were about fifty.  ^ Harris, Jay S. (editor) (1978). TV Guide: The First 25 Years. New York: New American Library. p. 23. ISBN 0-452-25225-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Gihring, Tim; Scott, Gregory J. (July 2011). "July 2011 Arts Calendar". Minnesota Monthly. Greenspring Media Group Inc. Retrieved 2014-02-25.  ^ Vaill, Amanda (January 27, 2009). "Jerome Robbins-About the Artist". American Masters. PBS. Retrieved 2014-02-25.  ^ a b Vaill, Amanda (May 6, 2008). Somewhere: The Life of Jerome Robbins. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 978-0767904216.  ^ "About Jerome Robbins: Awards & Honors". JeromeRobbins.org. Retrieved 2014-02-25.  ^ " Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
Award". Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
Foundation. Archived from the original on October 20, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014.  ^ B, Peter (17 October 2017). "NYCB Chronological history of repetory". www.nycballet.com.  ^ " Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
Catalog of Work: The Four Seasons". Jerome Robbins. Retrieved February 17, 2018. 

[1] Articles[edit]

NY Times, August 9, 1998 NY Times, Alan Riding, March 12, 1999

NY Times, Alastair Macaulay, April 27, 2008

External links[edit]

Official website Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
Foundation and Trust Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
on IMDb

Video[edit]

Archive footage of ABT (then Ballet Theatre) performing Robbins' ballet Interplay in 1949 at Jacob's Pillow

v t e

Jerome Robbins

Ballets

2 and 3 Part Inventions Afternoon of a Faun Andantino Antique Epigraphs Brahms/Handel Brandenburg The Cage Circus Polka The Concert Dances at a Gathering Dybbuk Fancy Free Fanfare The Firebird Four Bagatelles The Four Seasons Gershwin Piano Concerto Glass Pieces The Goldberg Variations I'm Old Fashioned In G Major In Memory Of ... In the Night Interplay Ives, Songs Mother Goose Moves Les Noces NY Export: Opus Jazz Opus 19/The Dreamer Other Dances Piano Pieces Requiem Canticles Suite of Dances A Suite of Dances Tricolore Watermill West Side Story
West Side Story
Suite

Musicals

Peter Pan (1954)

Films

West Side Story
West Side Story
(1961)

v t e

Academy Award for Best Director

1927–1950

Frank Borzage
Frank Borzage
(1927) Lewis Milestone
Lewis Milestone
(1928) Frank Lloyd
Frank Lloyd
(1929) Lewis Milestone
Lewis Milestone
(1930) Norman Taurog
Norman Taurog
(1931) Frank Borzage
Frank Borzage
(1932) Frank Lloyd
Frank Lloyd
(1933) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1934) John Ford
John Ford
(1935) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1936) Leo McCarey (1937) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1938) Victor Fleming
Victor Fleming
(1939) John Ford
John Ford
(1940) John Ford
John Ford
(1941) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1942) Michael Curtiz
Michael Curtiz
(1943) Leo McCarey (1944) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1945) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1946) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1947) John Huston
John Huston
(1948) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1949) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950)

1951–1975

George Stevens
George Stevens
(1951) John Ford
John Ford
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
(1955) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1960) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
and Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Tony Richardson
Tony Richardson
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Carol Reed
Carol Reed
(1968) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1969) Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1972) George Roy Hill (1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975)

1976–2000

John G. Avildsen
John G. Avildsen
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) Sydney Pollack
Sydney Pollack
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Barry Levinson
Barry Levinson
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
(1995) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000)

2001–present

Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(2001) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) Tom Hooper
Tom Hooper
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens
George Stevens
Jr. (2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017)

v t e

Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film

1948–1975

Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1948) Robert Rossen
Robert Rossen
(1949) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1951) John Ford
John Ford
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
(1955) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1960) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
and Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Tony Richardson
Tony Richardson
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Anthony Harvey (1968) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1969) Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1972) George Roy Hill (1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975)

1976–2000

John G. Avildsen
John G. Avildsen
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Barry Levinson
Barry Levinson
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(1995) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2000)

2001–present

Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(2001) Rob Marshall
Rob Marshall
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) Tom Hooper
Tom Hooper
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

v t e

Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Direction of a Musical

1950s

Joshua Logan (1950) George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
(1951) Moss Hart
Moss Hart
(1957)

1960s

George Abbott
George Abbott
(1960) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1961) Abe Burrows
Abe Burrows
(1962) George Abbott
George Abbott
(1963) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1964) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1965) Albert Marre (1966) Harold Prince (1967) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1968) Peter H. Hunt (1969)

1970s

Ron Field (1970) Harold Prince (1971) Harold Prince and Michael Bennett (1972) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1973) Harold Prince (1974) Geoffrey Holder
Geoffrey Holder
(1975) Michael Bennett (1976) Gene Saks (1977) Richard Maltby Jr. (1978) Harold Prince (1979)

1980s

Harold Prince (1980) Wilford Leach (1981) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1982) Trevor Nunn (1983) Arthur Laurents
Arthur Laurents
(1984) Des McAnuff (1985) Wilford Leach (1986) Trevor Nunn and John Caird (1987) Harold Prince (1988) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1989)

1990s

Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1990) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1991) Jerry Zaks
Jerry Zaks
(1992) Des McAnuff (1993) Nicholas Hytner (1994) Harold Prince (1995) George C. Wolfe
George C. Wolfe
(1996) Walter Bobbie (1997) Julie Taymor
Julie Taymor
(1998) Matthew Bourne
Matthew Bourne
(1999)

2000s

Michael Blakemore (2000) Susan Stroman
Susan Stroman
(2001) John Rando (2002) Jack O'Brien (2003) Joe Mantello
Joe Mantello
(2004) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(2005) John Doyle (2006) Michael Mayer (2007) Bartlett Sher (2008) Stephen Daldry
Stephen Daldry
(2009)

2010s

Terry Johnson (2010) Casey Nicholaw and Trey Parker
Trey Parker
(2011) John Tiffany (2012) Diane Paulus (2013) Darko Tresnjak (2014) Sam Gold (2015) Thomas Kail (2016) Christopher Ashley (2017)

v t e

Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Choreography

1947-1975

Agnes de Mille
Agnes de Mille
/ Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1947) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1948) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1949) Helen Tamiris
Helen Tamiris
(1950) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1951) Robert Alton
Robert Alton
(1952) Donald Saddler (1953) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1954) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1955) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1956) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1957) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1958) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1959) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1960) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1961) Joe Layton
Joe Layton
(1962) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1963) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1964) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1965) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1966) Ron Field (1967) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1968) Joe Layton
Joe Layton
(1969) Ron Field (1970) Donald Saddler (1971) Michael Bennett (1972) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1973) Michael Bennett (1974) George Faison (1975)

1976-2000

Michael Bennett and Bob Avian (1976) Peter Gennaro (1977) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1978) Michael Bennett and Bob Avian (1979) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
and Thommie Walsh (1980) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1981) Michael Bennett and Michael Peters (1982) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
and Thommie Walsh (1983) Danny Daniels (1984) No Award (1985) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1986) Gillian Gregory (1987) Michael Smuin (1988) Cholly Atkins, Henry LeTang, Frankie Manning
Frankie Manning
and Fayard Nicholas (1989) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1990) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1991) Susan Stroman
Susan Stroman
(1992) Wayne Cilento (1993) Kenneth MacMillan (1994) Susan Stroman
Susan Stroman
(1995) Savion Glover
Savion Glover
(1996) Ann Reinking
Ann Reinking
(1997) Garth Fagan
Garth Fagan
(1998) Matthew Bourne
Matthew Bourne
(1999) Susan Stroman
Susan Stroman
(2000)

2001-present

Susan Stroman
Susan Stroman
(2001) Rob Ashford
Rob Ashford
(2002) Twyla Tharp
Twyla Tharp
(2003) Kathleen Marshall (2004) Jerry Mitchell (2005) Kathleen Marshall (2006) Bill T. Jones
Bill T. Jones
(2007) Andy Blankenbuehler (2008) Peter Darling (2009) Bill T. Jones
Bill T. Jones
(2010) Kathleen Marshall (2011) Christopher Gattelli (2012) Jerry Mitchell (2013) Warren Carlyle (2014) Christopher Wheeldon (2015) Andy Blankenbuehler (2016) Andy Blankenbuehler (2017)

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (1980s)

1980

Leonard Bernstein James Cagney Agnes de Mille Lynn Fontanne Leontyne Price

1981

Count Basie Cary Grant Helen Hayes Jerome Robbins Rudolf Serkin

1982

George Abbott Lillian Gish Benny Goodman Gene Kelly Eugene Ormandy

1983

Katherine Dunham Elia Kazan Frank Sinatra James Stewart Virgil Thomson

1984

Lena Horne Danny Kaye Gian Carlo Menotti Arthur Miller Isaac Stern

1985

Merce Cunningham Irene Dunne Bob Hope Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
& Frederick Loewe Beverly Sills

1986

Lucille Ball Hume Cronyn
Hume Cronyn
& Jessica Tandy Yehudi Menuhin Antony Tudor Ray Charles

1987

Perry Como Bette Davis Sammy Davis Jr. Nathan Milstein Alwin Nikolais

1988

Alvin Ailey George Burns Myrna Loy Alexander Schneider Roger L. Stevens

1989

Harry Belafonte Claudette Colbert Alexandra Danilova Mary Martin William Schuman

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 9993598 LCCN: n85173002 ISNI: 0000 0001 0869 2927 GND: 118911902 SELIBR: 334717 SUDOC: 067166717 BNF: cb13334435f (data) NDL: 01133470 NKC: xx0078920 BNE: XX1120885 SNAC: w6s7627m

^ B, P (2017). "NYCB complete

.