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Jerome
Jerome
(/dʒəˈroʊm/; Latin: Eusebius
Eusebius
Sophronius Hieronymus; Greek: Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian. He was born at Stridon, a village near Emona
Emona
on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia.[2][3][4] He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible
Bible
into Latin
Latin
(the translation that became known as the Vulgate), and his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive.[5] The protégé of Pope
Pope
Damasus I, who died in December of 384, Jerome was known for his teachings on Christian moral life, especially to those living in cosmopolitan centers such as Rome. In many cases, he focused his attention on the lives of women and identified how a woman devoted to Jesus
Jesus
should live her life. This focus stemmed from his close patron relationships with several prominent female ascetics who were members of affluent senatorial families.[6] He is recognised as a Saint
Saint
and Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church
by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Lutheran Church, and the Anglican Communion.[7] His feast day is 30 September.

Contents

1 Life 2 Translations and commentaries 3 Historical and hagiographic writings

3.1 Saint
Saint
Jerome's description of vitamin A deficiency

4 Letters 5 Theological
Theological
writings 6 Reception by later Christianity 7 In art 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

11.1 Latin
Latin
texts

11.1.1 Facsimiles

11.2 English translations

Life[edit] Eusebius
Eusebius
Sophronius Hieronymus was born at Stridon
Stridon
around 347 A.D.[8] He was of Illyrian ancestry and his native tongue was the Illyrian dialect.[9][10] He was not baptized until about 360–366 A.D., when he had gone to Rome
Rome
with his friend Bonosus (who may or may not have been the same Bonosus whom Jerome
Jerome
identifies as his friend who went to live as a hermit on an island in the Adriatic) to pursue rhetorical and philosophical studies. He studied under the grammarian Aelius Donatus. There Jerome
Jerome
learned Latin
Latin
and at least some Greek,[11] though probably not the familiarity with Greek literature he would later claim to have acquired as a schoolboy.[12] As a student in Rome, he engaged in the superficial escapades and homosexual behaviour of students there, which he indulged in quite casually but for which he suffered terrible bouts of guilt afterwards.[13] To appease his conscience, he would visit on Sundays the sepulchres of the martyrs and the Apostles
Apostles
in the catacombs. This experience would remind him of the terrors of hell:

"Often I would find myself entering those crypts, deep dug in the earth, with their walls on either side lined with the bodies of the dead, where everything was so dark that almost it seemed as though the Psalmist's words were fulfilled, Let them go down quick into Hell.[14] Here and there the light, not entering in through windows, but filtering down from above through shafts, relieved the horror of the darkness. But again, as soon as you found yourself cautiously moving forward, the black night closed around and there came to my mind the line of Vergil, "Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent"."[15][16]

St. Jerome
Jerome
in His Study (1480), by Domenico Ghirlandaio.

Jerome
Jerome
used a quote from Virgil—"On all sides round horror spread wide; the very silence breathed a terror on my soul"[17]—to describe the horror of hell. Jerome
Jerome
initially used classical authors to describe Christian concepts such as hell that indicated both his classical education and his deep shame of their associated practices, such as pederasty which was found in Rome. Although initially skeptical of Christianity, he was eventually converted.[18] After several years in Rome, he travelled with Bonosus to Gaul
Gaul
and settled in Trier
Trier
where he seems to have first taken up theological studies, and where he copied, for his friend Tyrannius Rufinus, Hilary of Poitiers' commentary on the Psalms and the treatise De synodis. Next came a stay of at least several months, or possibly years, with Rufinus at Aquileia, where he made many Christian friends. Some of these accompanied him when he set out about 373 on a journey through Thrace
Thrace
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
into northern Syria. At Antioch, where he stayed the longest, two of his companions died and he himself was seriously ill more than once. During one of these illnesses (about the winter of 373–374), he had a vision that led him to lay aside his secular studies and devote himself to God. He seems to have abstained for a considerable time from the study of the classics and to have plunged deeply into that of the Bible, under the impulse of Apollinaris of Laodicea, then teaching in Antioch
Antioch
and not yet suspected of heresy.

St. Jerome
Jerome
reading in the countryside, by Giovanni Bellini

Seized with a desire for a life of ascetic penance, he went for a time to the desert of Chalcis, to the southeast of Antioch, known as the "Syrian Thebaid", from the number of hermits inhabiting it. During this period, he seems to have found time for studying and writing. He made his first attempt to learn Hebrew
Hebrew
under the guidance of a converted Jew; and he seems to have been in correspondence with Jewish Christians in Antioch. Around this time he had copied for him a Hebrew Gospel, of which fragments are preserved in his notes, and is known today as the Gospel
Gospel
of the Hebrews, and which the Nazarenes considered to be the true Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew.[19] Jerome
Jerome
translated parts of this Hebrew
Hebrew
Gospel
Gospel
into Greek.[20] Returning to Antioch
Antioch
in 378 or 379, he was ordained by Bishop Paulinus, apparently unwillingly and on condition that he continue his ascetic life. Soon afterward, he went to Constantinople
Constantinople
to pursue a study of Scripture under Gregory Nazianzen. He seems to have spent two years there, then left, and the next three (382–385) he was in Rome again, as secretary to Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I
and the leading Roman Christians. Invited originally for the synod of 382, held to end the schism of Antioch
Antioch
as there were rival claimants to be the proper patriarch in Antioch. Jerome
Jerome
had accompanied one of the claimants, Paulinus back to Rome
Rome
in order to get more support for him, and distinguished himself to the pope, and took a prominent place in his councils. He was given duties in Rome, and he undertook a revision of the Latin Bible, to be based on the Greek manuscripts of the New Testament. He also updated the Psalter containing the Book of Psalms then at use in Rome
Rome
based on the Septuagint. Though he did not realize it yet, translating much of what became the Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible
Bible
would take many years and be his most important achievement (see Writings– Translations section below).

This painting by Antonio da Fabriano II, depicts Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
in study. The writing implements, scrolls, and manuscripts testify to Jerome's scholarly pursuits.[21] The Walters Art Museum.

In Rome
Rome
he was surrounded by a circle of well-born and well-educated women, including some from the noblest patrician families, such as the widows Lea, Marcella and Paula, with Paula's daughters Blaesilla and Eustochium. The resulting inclination of these women towards the monastic life, away from the indulgent lasciviousness in Rome, and his unsparing criticism of the secular clergy of Rome, brought a growing hostility against him among the Roman clergy and their supporters. Soon after the death of his patron Damasus (10 December 384), Jerome was forced by them to leave his position at Rome
Rome
after an inquiry was brought up by the Roman clergy into allegations that he had an improper relationship with the widow Paula. Still, his writings were highly regarded by women who were attempting to maintain a vow of becoming a consecrated virgin. His letters were widely read and distributed throughout the Christian empire and it is clear through his writing that he knew these virgin women were not his only audience.[6] Additionally, his condemnation of Blaesilla's hedonistic lifestyle in Rome
Rome
had led her to adopt ascetic practices, but it affected her health and worsened her physical weakness to the point that she died just four months after starting to follow his instructions; much of the Roman populace were outraged at Jerome
Jerome
for causing the premature death of such a lively young woman, and his insistence to Paula that Blaesilla should not be mourned, and complaints that her grief was excessive, were seen as heartless, polarising Roman opinion against him.[22] In August 385, he left Rome
Rome
for good and returned to Antioch, accompanied by his brother Paulinian and several friends, and followed a little later by Paula and Eustochium, who had resolved to end their days in the Holy Land. In the winter of 385, Jerome
Jerome
acted as their spiritual adviser. The pilgrims, joined by Bishop Paulinus of Antioch, visited Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and the holy places of Galilee, and then went to Egypt, the home of the great heroes of the ascetic life. At the Catechetical School of Alexandria, Jerome
Jerome
listened to the catechist Didymus the Blind
Didymus the Blind
expounding the prophet Hosea
Hosea
and telling his reminiscences of Anthony the Great, who had died 30 years before; he spent some time in Nitria, admiring the disciplined community life of the numerous inhabitants of that "city of the Lord", but detecting even there "concealed serpents", i.e., the influence of Origen
Origen
of Alexandria. Late in the summer of 388 he was back in Palestine, and spent the remainder of his life working in a cave near Bethlehem, the very cave Jesus
Jesus
was born,[23] surrounded by a few friends, both men and women (including Paula and Eustochium), to whom he acted as priestly guide and teacher.

Painting by Niccolò Antonio Colantonio, showing Jerome's removal of a thorn from a lion's paw.

Amply provided by Paula with the means of livelihood and of increasing his collection of books, he led a life of incessant activity in literary production. To these last 34 years of his career belong the most important of his works; his version of the Old Testament
Old Testament
from the original Hebrew
Hebrew
text, the best of his scriptural commentaries, his catalogue of Christian authors, and the dialogue against the Pelagians, the literary perfection of which even an opponent recognized. To this period also belong most of his polemics, which distinguished him among the orthodox Fathers, including the treatises against the Origenism
Origenism
later declared anathema, of Bishop John II of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and his early friend Rufinus. Later, as a result of his writings against Pelagianism, a body of excited partisans broke into the monastic buildings, set them on fire, attacked the inmates and killed a deacon, forcing Jerome
Jerome
to seek safety in a neighboring fortress (416). It is recorded that Jerome
Jerome
died near Bethlehem
Bethlehem
on 30 September 420. The date of his death is given by the Chronicon of Prosper of Aquitaine. His remains, originally buried at Bethlehem, are said to have been later transferred to the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore
Santa Maria Maggiore
in Rome, though other places in the West claim some relics—the cathedral at Nepi
Nepi
boasting possession of his head, which, according to another tradition, is in the Escorial. Translations and commentaries[edit]

St Jerome, by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, 1607, at St John's Co-Cathedral, Valletta, Malta

Jerome
Jerome
was a scholar at a time when that statement implied a fluency in Greek. He knew some Hebrew
Hebrew
when he started his translation project, but moved to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to strengthen his grip on Jewish scripture commentary. A wealthy Roman aristocrat, Paula, funded his stay in a monastery in Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and he completed his translation there. He began in 382 by correcting the existing Latin language
Latin language
version of the New Testament, commonly referred to as the Vetus Latina. By 390 he turned to translating the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
from the original Hebrew, having previously translated portions from the Septuagint
Septuagint
which came from Alexandria. He believed that the mainstream Rabbinical Judaism had rejected the Septuagint
Septuagint
as invalid Jewish scriptural texts because of what were ascertained as mistranslations along with its Hellenistic heretical elements.[24] He completed this work by 405. Prior to Jerome's Vulgate, all Latin
Latin
translations of the Old Testament
Old Testament
were based on the Septuagint, not the Hebrew. Jerome's decision to use a Hebrew
Hebrew
text instead of the previous translated Septuagint
Septuagint
went against the advice of most other Christians, including Augustine, who thought the Septuagint
Septuagint
inspired. Modern scholarship, however, has sometimes cast doubts on the actual quality of Jerome's Hebrew
Hebrew
knowledge. Many modern scholars believe that the Greek Hexapla
Hexapla
is the main source for Jerome's "iuxta Hebraeos" translation of the Old Testament.[25] However, detailed studies have shown that to a considerable degree Jerome
Jerome
was a competent Hebraist.[26]

Saint
Saint
Jerome, unknown Southern Dutch artist, 1520, Hamburger Kunsthalle

For the next 15 years, until he died, Jerome
Jerome
produced a number of commentaries on Scripture, often explaining his translation choices in using the original Hebrew
Hebrew
rather than suspect translations. His patristic commentaries align closely with Jewish tradition, and he indulges in allegorical and mystical subtleties after the manner of Philo
Philo
and the Alexandrian school. Unlike his contemporaries, he emphasizes the difference between the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
"apocrypha" and the Hebraica veritas of the protocanonical books. In his Vulgate's prologues, he describes some portions of books in the Septuagint
Septuagint
that were not found in the Hebrew
Hebrew
as being non-canonical (he called them apocrypha);[27] for Baruch, he mentions by name in his Prologue to Jeremiah
Jeremiah
and notes that it is neither read nor held among the Hebrews, but does not explicitly call it apocryphal or "not in the canon".[28] His Preface to The Books
Books
of Samuel
Samuel
and Kings[29] includes the following statement, commonly called the Helmeted Preface:

This preface to the Scriptures may serve as a “helmeted” introduction to all the books which we turn from Hebrew
Hebrew
into Latin, so that we may be assured that what is not found in our list must be placed amongst the Apocryphal writings. Wisdom, therefore, which generally bears the name of Solomon, and the book of Jesus, the Son of Sirach, and Judith, and Tobias, and the Shepherd are not in the canon. The first book of Maccabees I have found to be Hebrew, the second is Greek, as can be proved from the very style.

Although Jerome
Jerome
was once suspicious of the apocrypha, it is said that he later viewed them as Scripture. For example, in Jerome's letter to Eustochium
Eustochium
he quotes Sirach 13:2,[30] elsewhere Jerome
Jerome
also refers to Baruch, the Story of Susannah and Wisdom as scripture.[31][32][33]

Jerome
Jerome
in the desert, tormented by his memories of the dancing girls, by Francisco de Zurbarán. Rome.

Jerome's commentaries fall into three groups:

His translations or recastings of Greek predecessors, including fourteen homilies on the Book of Jeremiah
Book of Jeremiah
and the same number on the Book of Ezekiel
Book of Ezekiel
by Origen
Origen
(translated ca. 380 in Constantinople); two homilies of Origen of Alexandria
Origen of Alexandria
on the Song of Solomon
Song of Solomon
(in Rome, ca. 383); and thirty-nine on the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke (ca. 389, in Bethlehem). The nine homilies of Origen
Origen
on the Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
included among his works were not done by him. Here should be mentioned, as an important contribution to the topography of Palestine, his book De situ et nominibus locorum Hebraeorum, a translation with additions and some regrettable omissions of the Onomasticon of Eusebius. To the same period (ca. 390) belongs the Liber interpretationis nominum Hebraicorum, based on a work supposed to go back to Philo
Philo
and expanded by Origen. Original commentaries on the Old Testament. To the period before his settlement at Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and the following five years belong a series of short Old Testament
Old Testament
studies: De seraphim, De voce Osanna, De tribus quaestionibus veteris legis (usually included among the letters as 18, 20, and 36); Quaestiones hebraicae in Genesim; Commentarius in Ecclesiasten; Tractatus septem in Psalmos 10–16 (lost); Explanationes in Michaeam, Sophoniam, Nahum, Habacuc, Aggaeum. After 395 he composed a series of longer commentaries, though in rather a desultory fashion: first on Jonah
Jonah
and Obadiah
Obadiah
(396), then on Isaiah (ca. 395-ca. 400), on Zechariah, Malachi, Hoseah, Joel, Amos (from 406), on the Book of Daniel
Book of Daniel
(ca. 407), on Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(between 410 and 415), and on Jeremiah
Jeremiah
(after 415, left unfinished). New Testament
New Testament
commentaries. These include only Philemon, Galatians, Ephesians, and Titus (hastily composed 387–388); Matthew (dictated in a fortnight, 398); Mark, selected passages in Luke, Revelation, and the prologue to the Gospel
Gospel
of John.

Historical and hagiographic writings[edit]

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In the Middle Ages, Jerome
Jerome
was often ahistorically depicted as a cardinal.

Jerome
Jerome
is also known as a historian. One of his earliest historical works was his Chronicle (or Chronicon or Temporum liber), composed ca. 380 in Constantinople; this is a translation into Latin
Latin
of the chronological tables which compose the second part of the Chronicon of Eusebius, with a supplement covering the period from 325 to 379. Despite numerous errors taken over from Eusebius, and some of his own, Jerome
Jerome
produced a valuable work, if only for the impulse which it gave to such later chroniclers as Prosper, Cassiodorus, and Victor of Tunnuna to continue his annals. Of considerable importance as well is the De viris illustribus, which was written at Bethlehem
Bethlehem
in 392, the title and arrangement of which are borrowed from Suetonius. It contains short biographical and literary notes on 135 Christian authors, from Saint
Saint
Peter down to Jerome
Jerome
himself. For the first seventy-eight authors Eusebius
Eusebius
(Historia ecclesiastica) is the main source; in the second section, beginning with Arnobius
Arnobius
and Lactantius, he includes a good deal of independent information, especially as to western writers. Four works of a hagiographic nature are:

the Vita Pauli monachi, written during his first sojourn at Antioch (ca. 376), the legendary material of which is derived from Egyptian monastic tradition; the Vitae Patrum (Vita Pauli primi eremitae), a biography of Saint Paul of Thebes; the Vita Malchi monachi captivi (ca. 391), probably based on an earlier work, although it purports to be derived from the oral communications of the aged ascetic Malchus of Syria
Syria
originally made to him in the desert of Chalcis; the Vita Hilarionis, of the same date, containing more trustworthy historical matter than the other two, and based partly on the biography of Epiphanius and partly on oral tradition.

The so-called Martyrologium Hieronymianum
Martyrologium Hieronymianum
is spurious; it was apparently composed by a western monk toward the end of the 6th or beginning of the 7th century, with reference to an expression of Jerome's in the opening chapter of the Vita Malchi, where he speaks of intending to write a history of the saints and martyrs from the apostolic times. Saint
Saint
Jerome's description of vitamin A deficiency[edit]

The following passage, taken from Saint
Saint
Jerome’s “Life of St. Hilarion”, which was written about A.D. 392, appears to be the earliest account of the etiology, symptoms and cure of severe vitamin A deficiency. "From his thirty-first to his thirty-fifth year he had for food six ounces of barley bread, and vegetables slightly cooked without oil. But finding that his eyes were growing dim, and that his whole body was shrivelled with an eruption and a sort of stony roughness (impetigine et pumicea quad scabredine) he added oil to his former food, and up to the sixty-third year of his life followed this temperate course, tasting neither fruit nor pulse, nor anything whatsoever besides."[34]

Letters[edit]

Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
by Matthias Stom

Jerome's letters or epistles, both by the great variety of their subjects and by their qualities of style, form an important portion of his literary remains. Whether he is discussing problems of scholarship, or reasoning on cases of conscience, comforting the afflicted, or saying pleasant things to his friends, scourging the vices and corruptions of the time and against sexual immorality among the clergy,[35] exhorting to the ascetic life and renunciation of the world, or breaking a lance with his theological opponents, he gives a vivid picture not only of his own mind, but of the age and its peculiar characteristics. Because there was no distinct line between personal documents and those meant for publication, we frequently find in his letters both confidential messages and treatises meant for others besides the one to whom he was writing.[36] Due to the time he spent in Rome
Rome
among wealthy families belonging to the Roman upper-class, Jerome
Jerome
was frequently commissioned by women who had taken a vow of virginity to write them in guidance of how to live their life. As a result, he spent a great deal of his life corresponding to these women about certain abstentions and lifestyle practices.[6] These included the clothing she should wear, the interactions she should undertake and how to go about conducting herself during such interactions, and what and how she ate and drank. The letters most frequently reprinted or referred to are of a hortatory nature, such as Ep. 14, Ad Heliodorum de laude vitae solitariae; Ep. 22, Ad Eustochium
Eustochium
de custodia virginitatis; Ep. 52, Ad Nepotianum de vita clericorum et monachorum, a sort of epitome of pastoral theology from the ascetic standpoint; Ep. 53, Ad Paulinum de studio scripturarum; Ep. 57, to the same, De institutione monachi; Ep. 70, Ad Magnum de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis; and Ep. 107, Ad Laetam de institutione filiae.

Letter to Dardanus (Ep. 129)

You may delineate the Promised Land of Moses
Moses
from the Book of Numbers (ch. 34): as bounded on the south by the desert tract called Sina, between the Dead Sea and the city of Kadesh-barnea, [which is located with the Arabah
Arabah
to the east] and continues to the west, as far as the river of Egypt, that discharges into the open sea near the city of Rhinocolara; as bounded on the west by the sea along the coasts of Palestine, Phoenicia, Coele‑Syria, and Cilicia; as bounded on the north by the circle formed by the Taurus Mountains[37] and Zephyrium and extending to Hamath, called Epiphany‑Syria; as bounded on the east by the city of Antioch
Antioch
Hippos
Hippos
and Lake Kinneret, now called Tiberias, and then the Jordan River which discharges into the salt sea, now called the Dead Sea.[38][39]

Theological
Theological
writings[edit]

Francesco St Jerome
Francesco St Jerome
- Jacopo Palma il Giovane

Practically all of Jerome's productions in the field of dogma have a more or less vehemently polemical character, and are directed against assailants of the orthodox doctrines. Even the translation of the treatise of Didymus the Blind
Didymus the Blind
on the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
into Latin
Latin
(begun in Rome
Rome
384, completed at Bethlehem) shows an apologetic tendency against the Arians and Pneumatomachoi. The same is true of his version of Origen's De principiis (ca. 399), intended to supersede the inaccurate translation by Rufinus. The more strictly polemical writings cover every period of his life. During the sojourns at Antioch
Antioch
and Constantinople
Constantinople
he was mainly occupied with the Arian controversy, and especially with the schisms centering around Meletius of Antioch
Antioch
and Lucifer Calaritanus. Two letters to Pope
Pope
Damasus (15 and 16) complain of the conduct of both parties at Antioch, the Meletians and Paulinians, who had tried to draw him into their controversy over the application of the terms ousia and hypostasis to the Trinity. At the same time or a little later (379) he composed his Liber Contra Luciferianos, in which he cleverly uses the dialogue form to combat the tenets of that faction, particularly their rejection of baptism by heretics. In Rome
Rome
(ca. 383) he wrote a passionate counterblast against the teaching of Helvidius, in defense of the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary and of the superiority of the single over the married state. An opponent of a somewhat similar nature was Jovinianus, with whom he came into conflict in 392 (Adversus Jovinianum, Against Jovinianus) and the defense of this work addressed to his friend Pammachius, numbered 48 in the letters). Once more he defended the ordinary practices of piety and his own ascetic ethics in 406 against the Gallic presbyter Vigilantius, who opposed the cultus of martyrs and relics, the vow of poverty, and clerical celibacy. Meanwhile, the controversy with John II of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Rufinus concerning the orthodoxy of Origen
Origen
occurred. To this period belong some of his most passionate and most comprehensive polemical works: the Contra Joannem Hierosolymitanum (398 or 399); the two closely connected Apologiae contra Rufinum (402); and the "last word" written a few months later, the Liber tertius seuten ultima responsio adversus scripta Rufini. The last of his polemical works is the skilfully composed Dialogus contra Pelagianos (415). Reception by later Christianity[edit]

The Virgin and Child
Child
with Saints Jerome
Jerome
and Nicholas of Tolentino by Lorenzo Lotto

Jerome
Jerome
is the second most voluminous writer (after Augustine of Hippo) in ancient Latin
Latin
Christianity. In the Catholic Church, he is recognized as the patron saint of translators, librarians and encyclopedists.[40] He acquired a knowledge of Hebrew
Hebrew
by studying with a Jew
Jew
who converted to Christianity, and took the unusual position (for that time) that the Hebrew, and not the Septuagint, was the inspired text of the Old Testament. The traditional view is that he used this knowledge to translate what became known as the Vulgate, and his translation was slowly but eventually accepted in the Catholic Church.[41] The later resurgence of Hebrew
Hebrew
studies within Christianity owes much to him. He showed more zeal and interest in the ascetic ideal than in abstract speculation. It was this strict asceticism that made Martin Luther judge him so severely. In fact, Protestant
Protestant
readers are not generally inclined to accept his writings as authoritative. The tendency to recognize a superior comes out in his correspondence with Augustine (cf. Jerome's letters numbered 56, 67, 102–105, 110–112, 115–116; and 28, 39, 40, 67–68, 71–75, 81–82 in Augustine's).[citation needed] Despite the criticisms already mentioned, Jerome
Jerome
has retained a rank among the western Fathers. This would be his due, if for nothing else, on account of the great influence exercised by his Latin
Latin
version of the Bible
Bible
upon the subsequent ecclesiastical and theological development.[42] In art[edit]

Statue Of Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
(Hieronymus) – Bethlehem, Palestine Authority, West Bank

In art, Jerome
Jerome
is often represented as one of the four Latin
Latin
doctors of the Church along with Augustine of Hippo, Ambrose, and Pope
Pope
Gregory I. As a prominent member of the Roman clergy, he has often been portrayed anachronistically in the garb of a cardinal. Even when he is depicted as a half-clad anchorite, with cross, skull and Bible
Bible
for the only furniture of his cell, the red hat or some other indication of his rank as cardinal is as a rule introduced somewhere in the picture. During Jerome's life, cardinals did not exist. However, by the time of the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Baroque
Baroque
it was common practice for a secretary to the pope to be a cardinal (as Jerome
Jerome
had effectively been to Damasus), and so this was reflected in artistic interpretations. He is also often depicted with a lion, in reference to the popular hagiographical belief that Jerome
Jerome
had tamed a lion in the wilderness by healing its paw. The source for the story may actually have been the second century Roman tale of Androcles, or confusion with the exploits of Saint
Saint
Gerasimus ( Jerome
Jerome
in later Latin
Latin
is "Geronimus").[43][44][45] Hagiographies of Jerome
Jerome
talk of his having spent many years in the Syrian desert, and artists often depict him in a "wilderness", which for West European painters can take the form of a wood or forest.[46]

Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
in his study by Pieter Coecke van Aelst
Pieter Coecke van Aelst
and Workshop, Walters Art Museum

The saint is often depicted in connection with the vanitas motif, the reflection on the meaninglessness of earthly life and the transient nature of all earthly goods and pursuits. In the 16th century Saint Jerome
Jerome
in his study by Pieter Coecke van Aelst
Pieter Coecke van Aelst
and workshop the saint is depicted with a skull. Behind him on the wall is pinned an admonition, Cogita Mori (Think upon death). Further reminders of the vanitas motif of the passage of time and the imminence of death are the image of the Last Judgment
Last Judgment
visible in the saint's Bible, the candle and the hourglass.[47] He is also sometimes depicted with an owl, the symbol of wisdom and scholarship.[48] Writing materials and the trumpet of final judgment are also part of his iconography.[48] He is commemorated on 30 September with a memorial. See also[edit]

Bible
Bible
translations Ferdinand Cavallera Church Fathers Genesius of Arles Letter of Jerome
Jerome
to Pope
Pope
Damasus Order of St. Jerome International Translation Day

References[edit]

Notes

^ "St. Jerome
Jerome
(Christian scholar)". Britannica Encyclopedia. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2017.  ^ Scheck, Thomas P. Commentary on Matthew (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 117). p. 5.  "" ^ Maisie Ward, Saint
Saint
Jerome, Sheed & Ward, London 1950, p. 7 "It may be taken as certain that Jerome
Jerome
was an Italian, coming from that wedge of Italy
Italy
which seems on the old maps to be driven between Dalmatia and Pannonia." ^ Tom Streeter, The Church and Western Culture: An Introduction to Church History, AuthorHouse 2006, p. 102 " Jerome
Jerome
was born around 340 AD at Stridon, a town in northeast Italy
Italy
at the head of the Adriatic Ocean." ^ Schaff, Philip, ed. (1893). A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. 2nd series. VI. Henry Wace. New York: The Christian Literature Company. Retrieved 2010-06-07.  ^ a b c Megan Hale Williams, The Monk and the Book: Jerome
Jerome
and the Making of Christian Scholarship, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006) ^ In the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
he is known as Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium or Blessed Jerome. Though "Blessed" in this context does not have the sense of being less than a saint, as in the West. ^ Williams, Megan Hale (2006), The Monk and the Book: Jerome
Jerome
and the making of Christian Scholarship, Chicago  ^ Pevarello, Daniele (2013). The Sentences of Sextus and the origins of Christian ascetiscism. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. p. 1. ISBN 9783161525797.  ^ Wilkes 1995, p. 266: "Alongside Latin
Latin
the native Illyrian survived in the country areas, and St Jerome
Jerome
claimed to speak his 'sermo gentilis' (Commentary on Isaiah
Isaiah
7.19)." ^ Walsh, Michael, ed. (1992), Butler's Lives of the Saints, New York: HarperCollins, p. 307  ^ Kelly, JND (1975), Jerome: His Life, Writings, and Controversies, New York: Harper & Row, pp. 13–14  ^ Payne, Robert (1951), The Fathers of the Western Church, New York: Viking Press, pp. 90–92  ^ Psalm 55:15 ^ Jerome, Commentarius in Ezzechielem, c. 40, v. 5  ^ Patrologia Latina 25, 373: Crebroque cryptas ingredi, quae in terrarum profunda defossae, ex utraque parte ingredientium per parietes habent corpora sepultorum, et ita obscura sunt omnia, ut propemodum illud propheticum compleatur: Descendant ad infernum viventes (Ps. LIV,16): et raro desuper lumen admissum, horrorem temperet tenebrarum, ut non tam fenestram, quam foramen demissi luminis putes: rursumque pedetentim acceditur, et caeca nocte circumdatis illud Virgilianum proponitur (Aeneid. lib. II): "Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent." ^ P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid Theodore C. Williams, Ed. Perseus Project (retrieved 23 Aug 2013) ^ Payne, Robert (1951), The Fathers of the Western Church, New York: Viking, p. 91  ^ Rebenich, Stefan (2002), Jerome, p. 211, Further, he began to study Hebrew: 'I betook myself to a brother who before his conversion had been a Hebrew
Hebrew
and'...  ^ Pritz, Ray (1988), Nazarene Jewish Christianity: from the end of the New Testament, p. 50, In his accounts of his desert sojourn, Jerome
Jerome
never mentions leaving Chalcis, and there is no pressing reason to think...  ^ " Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
in His Study". The Walters Art Museum.  ^ Joyce Salisbury, Encyclopedia of women in the ancient world, Blaesilla ^ Bennett, Rod (2015). The Apostasy That Wasn't: The Extraordinary Story of the Unbreakable Early Church. Catholic Answers Press. ISBN 1941663494.  ^ "(...) die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem innerjüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang (...) [von den] Rabbinen zuerst gerühmt (...) Später jedoch, als manche ungenaue Übertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuaginta und Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistische Irrlehren abgaben, lehte man die Septuaginta ab." Verband der Deutschen Juden (Hrsg.), neu hrsg. von Walter Homolka, Walter Jacob, Tovia Ben Chorin: Die Lehren des Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck, 1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff ^ Pierre Nautin, article Hieronymus, in: Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Vol. 15, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin – New York 1986, p. 304-315, here p. 309-310. ^ Michael Graves, Jerome's Hebrew
Hebrew
Philology: A Study Based on his Commentary on Jeremiah, Brill, 2007: 196-198. Page 197: "In his discussion he gives clear evidence of having consulted the Hebrew himself, providing details about the Hebrew
Hebrew
that could not have been learned from the Greek translations." ^ "The Bible".  ^ Kevin P. Edgecomb, Jerome’s Prologue to Jeremiah  ^ "Jerome's Preface to Samuel
Samuel
and Kings".  ^ Barber, Michael (2006-03-06). "Loose Canons: The Development of the Old Testament
Old Testament
(Part 2)". Retrieved 2007-08-01.  ^ Jerome, To Paulinus, Epistle
Epistle
58 (A.D. 395), in NPNF2, VI:119.: "Do not, my dearest brother, estimate my worth by the number of my years. Gray hairs are not wisdom; it is wisdom which is as good as gray hairs At least that is what Solomon
Solomon
says: "wisdom is the gray hair unto men.’ [Wisdom 4:9]" Moses
Moses
too in choosing the seventy elders is told to take those whom he knows to be elders indeed, and to select them not for their years but for their discretion [Num. 11:16]? And, as a boy, Daniel judges old men and in the flower of youth condemns the incontinence of age [Daniel 13:55–59 aka Story of Susannah 55–59]" ^ Jerome, To Oceanus, Epistle
Epistle
77:4 (A.D. 399), in NPNF2, VI:159.:"I would cite the words of the psalmist: 'the sacrifices of God are a broken spirit,’ [Ps 51:17] and those of Ezekiel
Ezekiel
'I prefer the repentance of a sinner rather than his death,’ [Ez 18:23] and those of Baruch, 'Arise, arise, O Jerusalem,’ [Baruch 5:5] and many other proclamations made by the trumpets of the Prophets." ^ Jerome, Letter 51, 6, 7, NPNF2, VI:87-8: "For in the book of Wisdom, which is inscribed with his name, Solomon
Solomon
says: "God created man to be immortal, and made him to be an image of his own eternity."[Wisdom 2:23]...Instead of the three proofs from Holy Scripture which you said would satisfy you if I could produce them, behold I have given you seven" ^ Taylor, F. Sherwood (23 December 1944). "St. Jerome
Jerome
and Vitamin A". Nature. 154: 802–802. doi:10.1038/154802a0.  ^ "regulae sancti pachomii 84 rule 104. ^ W. H. Fremantle, "Prolegomena to Jerome", V. ^ Bechard, Dean Philip (1 January 2000). Paul Outside the Walls: A Study of Luke's Socio-geographical Universalism in Acts 14:8-20. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 203–205. ISBN 978-88-7653-143-9. In the Second Temple period, when Jewish authors were seeking to establish with greater precision the geographical definition of the Land, it became customary to construe “Mount Hor” of Num 34:7 as a reference to the Amanus range of the Taurus Mountains, which marked the northern limit of the Syrian plain (Bechard 2000, p. 205, note 98.)  ^ Sainte Bible
Bible
expliquée et commentée, contenant le texte de la Vulgate. Bibl. Ecclésiastique. 1837. p. 41. Quod si objeceris terram repromissionis dici, quae in Numerorum volumine continetur (Cap. 34), a meridie maris Salinarum per Sina et Cades-Barne, usque ad torrentem Aegypti, qui juxta Rhinocoruram mari magno influit; et ab occidente ipsum mare, quod Palaestinae, Phoenici, Syriae Coeles, Ciliciaeque pertenditur; ab aquilone Taurum montem et Zephyrium usque Emath, quae appellatur Epiphania Syriae; ad orientem vero per Antiochiam et lacum Cenereth, quae nunc Tiberias appellatur, et Jordanem, qui mari influit Salinarum, quod nunc Mortuum dicitur; (Image of p. 41 at Google Books)  ^ Hieronymus (1910). "Epistola CXXIX Ad Dardanum de Terra promissionis (al. 129; scripta circa annum 414ce)". Epistularum Pars III —Epistulae 121-154, p. 171 (The fifty-sixth volume of Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum also known as the Vienna Corpus: Letters Part 3, Containing letters 121-154 of St. Jerome.) Image of p. 171 at Archive.org ^ "St. Jerome: Patron Saint
Saint
of Librarians Luther College Library and Information Services". Lis.luther.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ Stefan Rebenich, Jerome
Jerome
(New York: Routlage, 2002), pp. 52–59 ^ "Jerome, St." Pages 872-873 in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Third Edition Revised. Edited by E. A. Livingstone; F. L. Cross. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ^ Hope Werness, Continuum encyclopaedia of animal symbolism in art, 2006 ^ "Eugene Rice has suggested that in all probability the story of Gerasimus's lion became attached to the figure of Jerome
Jerome
some time during the seventh century, after the military invasions of the Arabs had forced many Greek monks who were living in the deserts of the Middle East to seek refuge in Rome. Rice conjectures ( Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
in the Renaissance, pp. 44–45) that because of the similarity between the names Gerasimus and Geronimus – the late Latin
Latin
form of Jerome's name – 'a Latin-speaking cleric . . . made St Geronimus the hero of a story he had heard about St Gerasimus; and that the author of Plerosque nimirum, attracted by a story at once so picturesque, so apparently appropriate, and so resonant in suggestion and meaning, and under the impression that its source was pilgrims who had been told it in Bethlehem, included it in his life of a favourite saint otherwise bereft of miracles.'" Salter, David. Holy and Noble Beasts: Encounters With Animals in Medieval Literature. D. S. Brewer. p. 12. ISBN 9780859916240.  ^ "a figment" found in the thirteenth-century Golden Legend
Golden Legend
by Jacobus de Voragine Williams, Megan Hale. The Monk and the Book: Jerome
Jerome
and the Making of Christian Scholarship. Chicago: U of Chicago P. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-226-89900-8.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
in Catholic Saint
Saint
info". Catholic-saints.info. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
in His Study". The Walters Art Museum.  ^ a b The Collection: Saint
Saint
Jerome, gallery of the religious art collection of New Mexico State University, with explanations. Accessed August 10, 2007.

Bibliography

J.N.D. Kelly, Jerome: His Life, Writings, and Controversies (Peabody, MA 1998) S. Rebenich, Jerome
Jerome
(London and New York, 2002) "Biblia Sacra Vulgata", Stuttgart, 1994. ISBN 3-438-05303-9 This article uses material from Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religion.

Further reading[edit]

Saint
Saint
Jerome, Three biographies: Malchus, St. Hilarion and Paulus the First Hermit Authored by Saint
Saint
Jerome, London, 2012. limovia.net. ISBN 978-1-78336-016-1

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jerome

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Jerome.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Jerome

Letters of Jerome
Jerome
Dataset – corpus as structured data, with sender, receiver, and letter-type classification St. Jerome
Jerome
(pdf) from Fr. Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints The Life of St. Jerome, Priest, Confessor
Confessor
and Doctor of the Church  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Jerome". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Jewish Encyclopedia: Jerome St. Jerome
Jerome
– Catholic Online St Jerome
Jerome
(Hieronymus) of Stridonium Orthodox synaxarion earlyfathers.com/jerome/ Early Church Fathers. Jerome: Great Translator (link cybersquatted as of Mar. 17, 2013) Further reading of depictions of Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
in art Saint
Saint
Jerome, Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church
at the Christian Iconography
Iconography
web site Here Followeth the Life of Jerome
Jerome
from Caxton's translation of the Golden Legend Works of Saint
Saint
Jerome
Jerome
at Somni

Beati Hyeronimi Epistolarum liber, digitized codex (1464) Epistole de santo Geronimo traducte di latino, digitized codex (1475–1490) Hieronymi in Danielem, digitized codex (1490) Sancti Hieronymi ad Pammachium in duodecim prophetas, digitized codex (1470–1480)

Colonnade Statue in St Peter's Square

Latin
Latin
texts[edit]

Latin
Latin
Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Biblia Sacra

Chronological list of Jerome's Works with modern editions and translations cited Opera Omnia (Complete Works) from Migne edition (Patrologia Latina, 1844–1855) with analytical indexes, almost complete online edition Lewis E 82 Vitae patrum (Lives of the Fathers) at OPenn Lewis E 47 Bible
Bible
Commentary at OPenn

Facsimiles[edit]

Migne volume 23 part 1 (1883 edition) Migne volume 23 part 2 (1883 edition) Migne volume 24 (1845 edition) Migne volume 25 part 1 (1884 edition) Migne volume 25 part 2 (1884 edition) Migne volume 28 (1890 edition?) Migne volume 30 (1865 edition)

English translations[edit]

Jerome
Jerome
(1887). The pilgrimage of the holy Paula. Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society.  English translations of Biblical Prefaces, Commentary on Daniel, Chronicle, and Letter 120 (tertullian.org) Jerome's Letter to Pope
Pope
Damasus: Preface to the Gospels English translation of Jerome's De Viris Illustribus The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary Lives of Famous Men (CCEL) Apology Against Rufinus (CCEL) Letters, The Life of Paulus the First Hermit, The Life of S. Hilarion, The Life of Malchus, the Captive Monk, The Dialogue Against the Luciferians, The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary, Against Jovinianus, Against Vigilantius, To Pammachius
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against John of Jerusalem, Against the Pelagians, Prefaces (CCEL) Audiobook of some of the Letters

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 95147024 LCCN: n79124709 ISNI: 0000 0001 2321 3293 GND: 118550853 SELIBR: 189318 SUDOC: 027396436 BNF: cb119074986 (data) ULAN: 500060933 NLA: 36534521 NDL: 01023878 NKC: jn19981001563 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV10145 BNE: XX874

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