Jeremiah 36
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Jeremiah 36 is the thirty-sixth
chapter Chapter or Chapters may refer to: Books * Chapter (books), a main division of a piece of writing or document * Chapter book, a story book intended for intermediate readers, generally age 7–10 * Chapters (bookstore), Canadian big box bookstore b ...
of the Book of Jeremiah in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the books of and , the verse 10:11, and some single words). The authoritativ ...

Hebrew Bible
or the
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of the
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
. It is numbered as Jeremiah 43 in the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible and deuterocanonical books. The ...
. This book contains prophecies attributed to the
prophet In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involu ...
Jeremiah Jeremiah, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activ ...

Jeremiah
, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter records the burning of a scroll of Jeremiah's prophecy by King
Jehoiakim Jehoiakim, also sometimes spelled Jehoikim; la, Joakim was the eighteenth and antepenultimate king of Judah from 609 to 598 BC. He was the second son of king Josiah () and Zebidah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. His birth name was Eliakim.; ...
and the creation of another scroll by Baruch the scribe, acting on Jeremiah's instructions.


Text

The original text was written in
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
. This chapter is divided into 32 verses. Some scholars see a literary parallel with , contrasting the reactions of Josiah (tearing his clothes when hearing the reading of the scroll of God's word) and Jehoiakim (tearing Jeremiah's scroll, as an "act of defiance" against God).


Textual witnesses

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
are of the
Masoretic Text The Masoretic Text (MT or 𝕸; he, נוסח המסורה, Nusakh Ham'mas'sora) is the authoritative Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language ...
tradition, which includes the
Codex Cairensis The Codex Cairensis (also: ''Codex Prophetarum Cairensis'', ''Cairo Codex of the Prophets'') is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language famil ...
(895), the Petersburg Codex of the Prophets (916),
Aleppo Codex The Aleppo Codex ( he, כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא, romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as we ...
(10th century), Codex Leningradensis (1008). There is also a translation into
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
known as the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible and deuterocanonical books. The ...
(with a different chapter and verse numbering), made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible and deuterocanonical books. The ...
version include
Codex Vaticanus The Codex Vaticanus ( The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. B or 03 Gregory-Aland A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. Biblical manuscripts vary in size from tiny scrolls containing individua ...
(B; \mathfrakB; 4th century),
Codex Sinaiticus The Codex Sinaiticus (Shelfmarks and references: London, British Library, Add MS 43725; Biblical manuscript#Gregory-Aland, Gregory-Aland nº א [Aleph] or 01, [Biblical manuscript#Von Soden, Soden δ 2]), or "Sinai Bible", is one ...
(S; BHK: \mathfrakS; 4th century),
Codex Alexandrinus The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library, Royal MS 1. D. V-VIII; Biblical manuscript#Gregory-Aland, Gregory-Aland no. A or 02, Biblical manuscript#Von Soden, Soden δ 4) is a fifth-century Christian manuscript of a Greek Bible,The Greek V ...
(A; \mathfrakA; 5th century) and
Codex Marchalianus Codex Marchalianus designated by siglum Q is a 6th-century Greek language, Greek manuscript copy of the Greek language, Greek version of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh or Old Testament) known as the Septuagint. The text was written on vellum in Uncial ...
(Q; \mathfrakQ; 6th century).


Verse numbering

The order of chapters and verses of the Book of Jeremiah in the English Bibles, Masoretic Text (Hebrew), and
Vulgate The Vulgate (; also called , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, H ...
(Latin), in some places differs from that in the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible and deuterocanonical books. The ...
(LXX, the Greek Bible used in the
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a Communion (Christ ...
and others) according to Rahlfs or Brenton. The following table is taken with minor adjustments from ''Brenton's Septuagint'', page 971. The order of Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint/Scriptural Study (CATSS) based on ''Alfred Rahlfs' Septuaginta'' (1935), differs in some details from Joseph Ziegler's critical edition (1957) in ''Göttingen LXX''. ''Swete's Introduction'' mostly agrees with Rahlfs' edition (=CATSS).


Parashot

The ''
parashah The term ''parashah'' ( he, פָּרָשָׁה ''Pārāšâ'', "portion", Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian , Sephardi Hebrew, Sephardi , plural: ''parashot'' or ''parashiyot'', also called ''parsha'') formally means a section of a biblical book in the ...
'' sections listed here are based on the Aleppo Codex. Jeremiah 36 is a part of the "''Fifteenth prophecy (Jeremiah 36- 39)''" in the section of ''Prophecies interwoven with narratives about the prophet's life (
Jeremiah 26 Jeremiah 26 is the twenty-sixth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These t ...
Jeremiah 45, -45)''. : open ''parashah''; : closed ''parashah''. : 36:1-3 36:4-8 36:9-18 36:19-26 36:27-29 36:30-32


Verse 1

: '' In the fourth year of Jehoiakim son of Josiah, king of Judah, this word came to Jeremiah from the :'' * Cross reference: Jeremiah 25:1 * This chapter (as well as Jeremiah 35, chapter 35) is out of the chronological order of chapter Jeremiah 32, 32Jeremiah 34, -34 and Jeremiah 37, 37Jeremiah 44, -44, as it records the events during the fourth year of king Jehoiakim's reign (605/604 SM).


Verse 2

: [The Lord says to Jeremiah:] ''"Take a scroll of a book and write on it all the words that I have spoken to you against Israel, against Judah, and against all the nations, from the day I spoke to you, from the days of Josiah even to this day."'' * "Scroll of a book" (KJV: "roll of a book"): from Hebrew: מְגִלַּת־סֵפֶר, ''megillat-sefer''; according to R. Lansing Hicks, a theologian at Yale Divinity School, "the dimension and content of this 'roll of book' or 'scroll' has "received repeated attention", resulting in some efforts to reconstruct it, but "each of these efforts suffers by reason of its subjective approach."


Verse 5

New King James Version: :''And Jeremiah commanded Baruch, saying, “I am confined, I cannot go into the house of the Lord.'' The New International Version suggests instead: :''... "“I am restricted; I am not allowed to go to the Lord’s temple".'' Theologian Albert Barnes (theologian), Albert Barnes states that Jeremiah may have been "hindered, perhaps through fear of Jehoiakim"; A. W. Streane suggests Jeremiah "was hindered from addressing the people by ceremonial uncleanness". Benjamin Blayney suggests that, as he has before been tried in front of the princes in
Jeremiah 26 Jeremiah 26 is the twenty-sixth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These t ...
, Jeremiah had been put under some restraint, perhaps forbidden to enter the precincts of the Solomon's Temple, Temple".


Verse 9

:''Now it came to pass in the fifth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, in the ninth month, that they proclaimed a fast before the Lord to all the people in Jerusalem, and to all the people who came from the cities of Judah to Jerusalem.'' * "The fifth year...the ninth month": December 604 BCE. The fast is related to the fall of Ashkelon on the Philistine territory by the Babylonia army (probably in November 604 BC),''The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha'', Augmented Third Edition, New Revised Standard Version, Indexed. Michael D. Coogan, Marc Brettler, Carol A. Newsom, Editors. Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA; 2007. pp. 1136-1137 Hebrew Bible. as recorded in the Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle, which must cause terror in Judah, because they have allied themselves with Egypt since the death of Josiah in 609 BCE.


Verse 10

: ''Then read Baruch in the book the words of Jeremiah in the house of the , in the chamber of Gemariah the son of Shaphan the scribe, in the higher court, at the entry of the new gate of the 's house, in the ears of all the people.'' (KJV) * " Baruch" (ben Neriah): a scribe closely related to Jeremiah and the one transcribed Jeremiah's prophecies in the scrolls (#Verse 2, Jeremiah 36:2). His brother, Seriah, is a minister of king Zedekiah (; ). ''Bullae'' or seals belonging to Baruch and Seriah have been discovered. * "Gemariah the son of Shaphan the scribe": Shaphan the scribe (here and in Jeremiah 29#verse 3, Jeremiah 29:3) is assumed to be the same person reading to king Josiah the Book of Law discovered by Hilkiah the priest (2 Kings 22:3, ). This Gemariah is then the brother of Ahikam, who protected Jeremiah (Jeremiah 26:24) and the uncle of Gedaliah (), who treated Jeremiah favorably, therefore it is not peculiar that Gemariah allowed Baruch to use his room. In 1983 a bulla was discovered in the ruins of the City of David (Silwan), City of David with the inscription "belonging to Gemariah, son of Saphan", presumably the same person as in this verse.


Verse 23

: ''And it happened, when Jehudi had read three or four columns, that the king cut it with the scribe’s knife and cast it into the fire that was on the hearth, until all the scroll was consumed in the fire that was on the hearth.'' * "Columns" (most English Bibles) or "leaves" (KJV) or "columns of scroll" (NIV): translated from Hebrew word ''delet'' which has the "sense of a column of writing." This Hebrew word is a hapax legomenon in the Masoretic text. Holladay notices from this verse that the scroll (KJV: "roll") containing Jeremiah's prophecies is thus "a fairly extensive collection, containing several multiples of three or four columns of writing." Hicks noted that many ancient Hebrew manuscripts found in Qumran Caves have 3 to 4 columns per sheet. For example, the Isaiah Scroll, Great Isaiah Scroll, 1QIsa, consists of 17 sheets, 10 have 3 columns per sheet and 5 have 4 columns, whereas 1QIsb has 4 columns per sheet uniformly, as well as some other manuscripts. As all ancient Hebrew manuscript sheets found to date are made of leather/vellum, instead of papyrus, it would be difficult to cut them - Sabda.org through with a "scribe's knife" (KJV: "penknife"). Therefore, Hicks concluded that the scroll was cut "sheet by sheet ''at the sutures''", and that some sheets have 4 columns and the others 3, just like 1QIsa. Additionally, Hicks studied the average number of lines per column and the average number of words per line in ancient Hebrew biblical manuscripts to estimate that the text in one of the columns of writing described in this verse would contain "a little bit more than one Masoretic chapter of Jeremiah," as his examples show variations between 1.25 and 1.75 chapter per column. Furthermore, with the data of the height-to-width ratio of a column (i.e., 2:1 in his study) and the interpretation of the grammar of the verbal sequence in the same verse, Hicks comes to an estimate that the scroll destroyed in the presence of king Jehoiakim "would have contained between 18-24 chapters of our Masoretic book of Jeremiah," which may form the major parts of the first 25 chapters in the current Masoretic version of the book.


Verse 26

: ''Then the king commanded Jerahmeel the king’s son, Seraiah son of Azriel, and Shelemiah son of Abdeel to seize Baruch the scribe and Jeremiah the prophet, but the Lord had hidden them.'' * "Jerahmeel the king's son" (KJV: "Jerahmeel the son of Hammelech"): an old Bulla (seal), bulla with the inscription "Jerahmeel the king's son" has been found and considered authentic.


Verse 30

: ''Therefore thus says the Lord concerning Jehoiakim king of Judah: He shall have none to sit on the throne of David, and his dead body shall be cast out to the heat by day and the frost by night.''
Jehoiakim Jehoiakim, also sometimes spelled Jehoikim; la, Joakim was the eighteenth and antepenultimate king of Judah from 609 to 598 BC. He was the second son of king Josiah () and Zebidah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. His birth name was Eliakim.; ...
's rejection to the words in the scroll results in the tragic end of the monarchy and his own life.


Verse 32

: ''Then Jeremiah took another scroll and gave it to Baruch the scribe, the son of Neriah, who wrote on it at the instruction of Jeremiah all the words of the book which Jehoiakim king of Judah had burned in the fire. And besides, there were added to them many similar words.'' Jeremiah used the destruction of the first scroll (KJV: "roll") as a symbol for Jehoiakim's later death (; ) and asked Baruch to wrote another roll with expanded contents of the first one. *"At the instruction of Jeremiah": or "from the mouth of Jeremiah".Note [h] on Jeremiah 36:32 in the New King James Version.


See also

*Related
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
part: 2 Kings 22, Jeremiah 25,
Jeremiah 26 Jeremiah 26 is the twenty-sixth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These t ...
, Jeremiah 29


References


Sources

* * * * *


External links


Jewish


Jeremiah 36 Hebrew with Parallel English


Christian


Jeremiah 36 English Translation with Parallel Latin Vulgate


Archeology


Six Biblical Signatures, Tsvi Schneider, BAR 17:04, Jul-Aug 1991. Center for Online Judaic Studies
- ''bullae'' seals bearing names mentioned in Jeremiah 36 {{DEFAULTSORT:Jeremiah 36 Book of Jeremiah chapters, 36