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Coordinates: 32°16′20.21″N 35°53′29.03″E / 32.2722806°N 35.8913972°E / 32.2722806; 35.8913972

Jerash جرش Gerasa (Ancient Greek)

City

The Roman city of Gerasa and the modern Jerash
Jerash
(in the background).

Nickname(s): Pompeii
Pompeii
of the East, The city of 1000 columns

Jerash

Coordinates: 32°16′20.21″N 35°53′29.03″E / 32.2722806°N 35.8913972°E / 32.2722806; 35.8913972

Country Jordan

Province Jerash
Jerash
Governorate

Founded 7500 – 5500 BC.

Municipality established 1910

Government

 • Type Municipality

Elevation 600 m (1,968 ft)

Population (2015)[1]

 • Total city (50,745), Municipality (237.000 est)

Time zone GMT +2

 • Summer (DST) +3 (UTC)

Area code(s) +(962)2

Website http://www.jerash.gov.jo

The Oval Forum and Cardo
Cardo
Maximus in ancient Jerash

Colonnaded Street

Jerash
Jerash
(Arabic: جرش, Ancient Greek: Γέρασα), is the capital and the largest city of Jerash
Jerash
Governorate, Jordan, with a population of 50,745 as of 2015. Located 48 kilometres (30 mi) north of the capital of Jordan, Amman. The history of the city is a blend of the Greco-Roman world
Greco-Roman world
of the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and the ancient traditions of the Arab Orient.[2] The name of the city reflects this interaction. The earliest Arab/Semitic inhabitants, who lived in the area during the pre-classical period of the 1st millennium BCE, named their village Garshu. The Romans later Hellenized the former Arabic
Arabic
name of Garshu into Gerasa. Later, the name transformed into the Arabic
Arabic
Jerash.[3][2] The city flourished until the mid-eighth century CE, when the 749 Galilee earthquake destroyed large parts of it, while subsequent earthquakes (847 Damascus
Damascus
earthquake) contributed to additional destruction. However, In the early 12th century, by the year 1120, Zahir ad-Din Toghtekin, atabeg of Damascus
Damascus
ordered a garrison of forty men stationed in Jerash
Jerash
to convert the Temple of Artemis
Artemis
into a fortress. It was captured in 1121 by Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, and utterly destroyed.[4][5] Then, the Crusaders immediately abandoned Jerash
Jerash
and withdrew to Sakib
Sakib
(Seecip); the eastern border of the settlement.[6][7] Jerash
Jerash
was then deserted until it reappeared by the beginning of the Ottoman rule in the early 16th century. In the census of 1596, it had a population of 12 Muslim
Muslim
households.[8] However, the archaeologists have found a small Mamluk hamlet in the Northwest Quarter[9] which indicates that Jerash
Jerash
was resettled before the Ottoman era. The excavations conducted since 2011 have shed light on the Middle Islamic period as recent discoveries have uncovered a large concentration of Middle Islamic/Mamluk structures and pottery.[10] In 1806, the German traveler, Ulrich Jasper Seetzen, came across and wrote about the ruins he recognized.[11] The ancient city has been gradually revealed through a series of excavations which commenced in 1925, and continue to this day.[12]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Neolithic
Neolithic
age 1.2 Bronze age 1.3 Hellenistic period 1.4 Roman period 1.5 Byzantine period 1.6 Early Muslim
Muslim
period 1.7 Crusade period 1.8 Mid to Late Muslim
Muslim
period

2 Climate 3 Archaeology

3.1 Greco-Roman period 3.2 Early Muslim
Muslim
period

4 Modern Jerash

4.1 Territorial expansion 4.2 Demographic

5 Culture and entertainment 6 Economy 7 Education 8 Tourism 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Neolithic
Neolithic
age[edit] Archaeologists have found ruins of settlements dating back to the Neolithic
Neolithic
Age. Moreover, in August 2015, an archaeological excavation team from the University of Jordan
Jordan
unearthed two human skulls that date back to the Neolithic
Neolithic
period (7500–5500 BC) at a site in Jerash, which forms solid evidence of inhabitance of Jordan
Jordan
in that period especially with the existence of 'Ain Ghazal
'Ain Ghazal
Neolithic settlement in Amman. The importance of the discovery lies in the rarity of the skulls, as archaeologists estimate that a maximum of 12 sites across the world contain similar human remains.[13] Bronze age[edit] Evidence of settlements dating to the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(3200 BC – 1200 BC) have been found in the region.[14][15][16] Hellenistic period[edit] Jerash
Jerash
is the site of the ruins of the Greco-Roman city of Gerasa, also referred to as Antioch on the Golden River. Ancient Greek inscriptions from the city support that the city was founded by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and his general Perdiccas, who allegedly settled aged Macedonian soldiers there during the spring of 331 BC, when he left Egypt and crossed Syria
Syria
en route to Mesopotamia. However, other sources, namely the city's former name of "Antioch on the Chrysorrhoas, point to a founding by Seleucid
Seleucid
King Antioch IV, while still others attribute the founding to Ptolemy II
Ptolemy II
of Egypt.[17] Roman period[edit] After the Roman conquest in 63 BC, Jerash
Jerash
and the land surrounding it were annexed to the Roman province
Roman province
of Syria, and later joined the Decapolis
Decapolis
league of cities. In AD 106, Jerash
Jerash
was absorbed into the Roman province
Roman province
of Arabia, which included the city of Philadelphia (modern day Amman). The Romans ensured security and peace in this area, which enabled its people to devote their efforts and time to economic development and encouraged civic building activity.[18] Jerash
Jerash
is considered one of the largest and most well-preserved sites of Roman architecture in the world outside Italy.[12] And is sometimes misleadingly referred to as the " Pompeii
Pompeii
of the Middle East" or of Asia, referring to its size, extent of excavation and level of preservation. Jerash
Jerash
was the birthplace of the mathematician Nicomachus of Gerasa (Greek: Νικόμαχος) (c. 60 – c. 120 AD).[19] In the second half of the 1st century AD, the city of Jerash
Jerash
achieved great prosperity. In AD 106, the Emperor Trajan
Trajan
constructed roads throughout the province, and more trade came to Jerash. The Emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
visited Jerash
Jerash
in AD 129–130. The triumphal arch (or Arch of Hadrian) was built to celebrate his visit.[17] Byzantine period[edit] The city finally reached a size of about 800,000 square meters within its walls.[20] The Persian invasion in AD 614 caused the rapid decline of Jerash. Beneath the foundations of a Byzantine church that was built in Jerash
Jerash
in AD 530 there was discovered a mosaic floor with ancient Greek and Hebrew-Aramaic inscriptions. The presence of the Hebrew-Aramaic script has led scholars to think that the place was formerly a synagogue, before being converted into a church.[21]

Hebrew-Aramaic mosaic found in foundation of Byzantine Church built in AD 530

Early Muslim
Muslim
period[edit] The city flourished during the Umayyad Caliphate. It had numerous shops and issued coins with the mint named "Jerash" in Arabic. It was also a center for ceramic manufacture; moulded ceramic lamps had Arabic
Arabic
inscriptions that showed the potter's name and Jerash
Jerash
as the place of manufacture. The large mosque and several churches that continued to be used as places of worship, indicated that during the Umayyad period Jerash
Jerash
had a sizable Muslim
Muslim
community that co-existed with the Christians.[22] In CE 749, a devastating earthquake destroyed much of Jerash
Jerash
and its surroundings. Crusade period[edit] In the early 12th century the Temple of Artemis
Artemis
was converted into a fortress by a garrison stationed in the area by the Zahir ad-Din Toghtekin, atabeg of Damascus. Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, captured and burned the fortress in CE 1121–1122. The inner faces of the temple walls still clearly show the effect of the great fire. Mid to Late Muslim
Muslim
period[edit] Small settlements continued in Jerash
Jerash
during the Mamluk Sultanate, and Ottoman periods. Patricullary in the Northwest Quarter and around the Temple of Zues, where several Middle Islamic/Mamluk domestic structures have now been excavated. Climate[edit]

Climate data for Jerash, Jordan
Jordan
(648M)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 12.9 (55.2) 14.3 (57.7) 17.2 (63) 22.2 (72) 27.3 (81.1) 30.2 (86.4) 31.3 (88.3) 31.4 (88.5) 30.0 (86) 26.7 (80.1) 21 (70) 14.7 (58.5) 23.3 (73.9)

Average low °C (°F) 4.1 (39.4) 4.8 (40.6) 6.6 (43.9) 10.1 (50.2) 14 (57) 16.9 (62.4) 18.7 (65.7) 19.1 (66.4) 17.2 (63) 14 (57) 9.5 (49.1) 5.6 (42.1) 11.72 (53.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 92 (3.62) 91 (3.58) 66 (2.6) 19 (0.75) 5 (0.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7 (0.28) 38 (1.5) 75 (2.95) 393 (15.47)

Source: climate Data[23]

Archaeology[edit] Excavation and restoration of Jerash
Jerash
has been almost continuous since the 1920s. Greco-Roman period[edit]

Map of the Decapolis
Decapolis
showing the location of Gerasa (Jerash)

The Jerash
Jerash
nymphaeum.

Remains in the Greco-Roman Jerash
Jerash
include:

Numerous Corinthium columns The Tetrapylon of Jerash Hadrian's Arch The circus/hippodrome The two large temples (dedicated to Zeus
Zeus
and Artemis) The nearly unique oval Forum, which is surrounded by a fine colonnade, The long colonnaded street or cardo Two theatres (the Large South Theatre and smaller North Theatre) Two communal baths, and a scattering of small temples A large Nymphaeum
Nymphaeum
fed by an aqueduct An almost complete circuit of city walls A water powered saw mill for cutting stone Two large bridges across the nearby river.

Most of these monuments were built by donations of the city's wealthy citizens. The south theatre has a focus in the centre of the pit in front of the stage, marked by a distinct stone, and from which normal speaking can be heard easily throughout the auditorium. From AD 350, a large Christian community lived in Jerash, and between AD 400–600, more than thirteen churches were built, many with superb mosaic floors. A cathedral was built in the 4th century. An ancient synagogue with detailed mosaics, including the story of Noah, was found beneath a church. The use of water power to saw wood or stone is well known in the Greek and Roman world, the invention in Greece occurring in the 3rd century BC. They converted rotary movement from the mill to linear motion using a crankshaft and good examples are known from Hierapolis and Ephesus
Ephesus
to the north. The mill is well described in the visitors centre, and is situated near the Temple of Artemis. Early Muslim
Muslim
period[edit]

Umayyad Mosques Umayyad Houses

Modern Jerash[edit]

A sidewalk at the downtown.

The Arch of Hadrian
Hadrian
was built to honour the visit of Emperor Hadrian to Gerasa in 129/130 AD.

The oval Forum

Jerash
Jerash
has developed dramatically in the last century with the growing importance of the tourism industry in the city. Jerash
Jerash
is now the second-most popular tourist attraction in Jordan, closely behind the splendid ruins of Petra. On the western side of the city, which contained most of the representative buildings, the ruins have been carefully preserved and spared from encroachment, with the modern city sprawling to the east of the river which once divided ancient Jerash in two.[24] Territorial expansion[edit] Recently the city of Jerash
Jerash
has expanded to include many of the surrounding areas. Demographic[edit] Jerash
Jerash
has an ethnically diverse population. The vast majority are Arabs, though the population includes small numbers of Kurds, Circassians
Circassians
and Armenians. A majority is Muslim. According to the Jordan
Jordan
national census of 2004, the population of the city was 31,650 and was ranked as the 14th largest municipality in Jordan. According to the last national census in 2015, the population of the city was 50,745, while the population of the governorate was 237,059.[1] Jerash
Jerash
became a destination for many successive waves of foreign migrants. In 1885, the Ottoman authorities directed the Circassian immigrants who were mainly of peasant stock to settle in Jerash, and distributed arable land among them.[17] The new immigrants have been welcomed by the local people. Later, Jerash
Jerash
also witnessed waves of Palestinian refugees who flowed to the region in 1948 and 1967. The Palestinian refugees settled in two camps; Souf
Souf
camp near the town of Souf
Souf
and Gaza (Jerash) camp at Al Ḩaddādah village.[25][26] Culture and entertainment[edit] Since 1981, the old city of Jerash
Jerash
has hosted the Jerash
Jerash
Festival of Culture and Arts,[27] a three-week-long summer program of dance, music, and theatrical performances. The festival is frequently attended by members of the royal family of Jordan
Jordan
and is hailed as one of the largest cultural activities in the region. In addition performances of the Roman Army and Chariot Experience (RACE) were started at the hippodrome in Jerash. The show runs twice daily, at 11 am and at 2 pm, and at 10 am on Fridays, except Tuesdays. It features forty-five legionaries in full armour in a display of Roman army drill and battle tactics, ten gladiators fighting "to the death" and several Roman chariots competing in a classical seven-lap race around the ancient hippodrome. Economy[edit] Jerash's economy largely depends on commerce and tourism. Jerash
Jerash
is also a main source of the highly educated and skilled workforce in Jordan. The location of the city, being just half an hour ride from the largest three cities in Jordan
Jordan
(Amman, Zarqa
Zarqa
and Irbid), makes Jerash
Jerash
a good business location. Education[edit] Jerash
Jerash
has two universities; Jerash Private University
Jerash Private University
and Philadelphia University.[28] Tourism[edit] The number of tourists who visited the ancient city of Jerash
Jerash
reached 214,000 during 2005. The number of non-Jordanian tourists was 182,000 last year, and the sum of entry charges reached JD900,000.[29] The Jerash Festival of Culture and Arts is an annual celebration of Arabic and international culture during the summer months. Jerash
Jerash
is located 48 km north of the capital city of Amman. The festival site is located within the ancient ruins of Jerash, some of which date to the Roman age (63 BC).[30] Jerash
Jerash
Festival is a festival which features poetry recitals, theatrical performances, concerts and other forms of art.[31] In 2008, authorities launched Jordan
Jordan
Festival, a nationwide theme-oriented event under which Jerash
Jerash
Festival became a component.[32] However the government revived the Jerash
Jerash
Festival as the "substitute ( Jordan
Jordan
Festival) proved to be not up to the message intended from the festival." Gallery[edit]

Oval Forum

North Theater

The cardo maximus

The hippodrome

Enriched mouldings on the Temple of Artemis

Northern Tetrapylon, Jerash

North Tetrapylon, Jerash

View of Columns at Jerash

Ornamentation, Jerash

Inside Jerash

Jerash
Jerash
ornamentation

Jerash
Jerash
ornamentation

Inside Jerash

Inscriptions at Jerash

See also[edit]

Scythopolis (Beth-Shean) Exorcism of the Gerasene demoniac Amman

References[edit]

^ a b https://www.citypopulation.de/Jordan-Cities.html ^ a b Bell, Brian (1994). Jordan. APA Publications (HK) Limited. p. 184.  ^ McEvedy, Colin (2011). Cities of the Classical World: An Atlas and Gazetteer of 120 Centres of Ancient Civilization. UK: Penguin. ISBN 0141967633.  ^ Boulanger, Robert (1965). The Middle East: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Iran. Paris: Hachette. pp. 541, 542.  ^ Heath, Ian (1980). A wargamers' guide to the Crusades. p. 133.  ^ Brooker, Colin H.; Knauf, Ernst Axel (1988). "Review of Crusader Institutions". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins (1953–). 104: 187.  ^ Schryver, James G (2010). Studies in the archaeology of the medieval Mediterranean. Leiden [Netherlands]; Boston: Brill. pp. 86. ISBN 9789004181755.  ^ Hütteroth, Wolf Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria
Syria
in the late 16th [sixteenth] century. Fränkische Geographische Ges. p. 164. ISBN 9783920405414.  ^ "Archaeologists studying a post-quake gap in Jerash
Jerash
history". Jordan Times. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 2017-06-07.  ^ Peterson, Alex. "Medieval Pottery from Jerash: The Middle Islamic Settlement". Gerasa/Jerash: From the Urban Periphery.  ^ Reisen, ed. Kruse, 4 vols, Berlin, 1854 ^ a b "Touristic Sites – Jerash". www.kinghussein.gov.jo.  ^ "Two human skulls dating back to Neolithic
Neolithic
period unearthed in Jerash". 15 August 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ McGovern, Patrick E.; Brown, Robin (1986). Late Bronze & Early Iron Ages of Central. UPenn Museum of Archaeology. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-934718-75-2.  ^ Nigro, Lorenzo (2008). An Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Fortified Town in North-Central Jordan. Preliminary Report of the First Season of Excavations (2005). Lorenzo Nigro. p. 52. ISBN 978-88-88438-05-4.  ^ Steiner, Margreet L.; Killebrew, Ann E. (2014). "Main Settlements of the North Jordan
Jordan
Uplands". The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000–332 BCE. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-166255-3.  ^ a b c " Jerash
Jerash
- A Brief History". المشرق. Retrieved 7 March 2018.  ^ Borgia, E. (2002). Jordan: Past and Present: Petra, Jerash, Amman. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ Taran, L. (1970). " Nicomachus of Gerasa". In Gillispie, Charles C. Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1st ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.  ^ Bryce, Trevor (2016). Atlas of the Ancient Near East: From Prehistoric Times to the Roman Imperial Period. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 9781317562092.  ^ Samuel Klein, Sefer ha-Yishuv, vol. 1, Jerusalem 1939, p. 34 and folio "chet" on pp. 40–41, and which inscription reads: שלום על כל ישראל אמן סלה פינחס בר ברוך יוסה בר שמואל וי(ו)דן בר חזקיה; Crowfoot-Hamilton, "The Discovery of a Synagogue at Jerash": PEF, Quarterly Statement, 1929; Sukenik, Note on the Aramaic; A. Barrois, Découverte d’une synagogue à Djérash, Rev. Bibl. 39 (1930), p. 261. pl. xi p. 259 (pl. ix) ^ Bisheh, Ghazi (2017). "Jarash (Gerasa) in Discover Islamic Art, Museum With No Frontiers, 2017". www.discoverislamicart.org.  ^ "CLIMATE: Jerash". Climate-Data. Retrieved 2017-07-19.  ^ "Jerash". Visit Jordan. Jordan
Jordan
Tourism Board. Retrieved 7 March 2018.  ^ " Jerash
Jerash
Refugee Camp" (in Arabic). UNRWA. Retrieved 7 March 2018.  ^ " Souf
Souf
Refugee Camp" (in Arabic). UNRWA. Retrieved 7 March 2018.  ^ Jerash
Jerash
Festival Of Culture & Arts مهرجان جرش للثقافة والفنون Archived 15 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Jerash
Jerash
Private University". Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ Jerash
Jerash
tourism figures reviewed. (5 January 2006). Info – Prod Research (Middle East). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/457494325 ^ Schneider, I., & SoKnmez, S. (1999). Exploring the touristic image of jordan. Tourism Management, 20, 539–542. ^ Jerash
Jerash
festival to be revived. (7 March 2011). Jordan
Jordan
Times. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/855638491 ^ Jerash
Jerash
festival, (19 June 2011). McClatchy – Tribune Business News. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/872459474

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jerash.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Jerash.

Brown, J., E. Meyers, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 678158 (Gerasa/Antiochia ad Chrysorhoam)". Pleiades. Retrieved 8 March 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

v t e

Decapolis
Decapolis
cities

Jordan

Philadelphia (Amman) Gerasa (Jerash) Gadara (Umm Qais) Capitolias
Capitolias
(Beit Ras) Raphana
Raphana
(Qweilbeh) Pella (Tabaqat Fahl)

Syria

Damascus
Damascus
(Dimashq) Cathana (Qanwat)

Israel

Hippos
Hippos
(Sussita) Scythop

.