JOHANNA MARIA LIND (6 October 1820 – 2 November 1887), better known
as JENNY LIND, was a Swedish opera singer , often known as the
"SWEDISH NIGHTINGALE". One of the most highly regarded singers of the
19th century, she performed in soprano roles in opera in Sweden and
across Europe, and undertook an extraordinarily popular concert tour
of America beginning in 1850. She was a member of the Royal Swedish
Academy of Music from 1840.
Lind became famous after her performance in
Der Freischütz in Sweden
in 1838. Within a few years, she had suffered vocal damage, but the
singing teacher Manuel García saved her voice. She was in great
demand in opera roles throughout Sweden and northern Europe during the
1840s, and was closely associated with
Felix Mendelssohn . After two
acclaimed seasons in London, she announced her retirement from opera
at the age of 29.
In 1850, Lind went to America at the invitation of the showman P. T.
Barnum . She gave 93 large-scale concerts for him and then continued
to tour under her own management. She earned more than $350,000 from
these concerts, donating the proceeds to charities, principally the
endowment of free schools in Sweden. With her new husband, Otto
Goldschmidt , she returned to Europe in 1852 where she had three
children and gave occasional concerts over the next two decades,
settling in England in 1855. From 1882, for some years, she was a
professor of singing at the
Royal College of Music
Royal College of Music in London.
* 1 Life and career
* 1.1 Early years
* 1.2 German and British success
* 1.3 Lind and Mendelssohn
* 1.4 American tour
* 1.5 Later years
* 2 Reputation, legacy and memorials
* 2.1 Critical reputation
* 2.2 Memorials
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 Further reading
* 6 External links
LIFE AND CAREER
Lind as Amina in
Born in Klara , in central Stockholm, Lind was the illegitimate
daughter of Niclas Jonas Lind (1798–1858), a bookkeeper, and
Anne-Marie Fellborg (1793–1856), a schoolteacher. Lind's mother had
divorced her first husband for adultery but, for religious reasons,
refused to remarry until after his death in 1834. Lind's parents
married when she was fourteen.
Lind's mother ran a day school for girls out of her home. When Lind
was about nine years old, her singing was overheard by the maid of
Mademoiselle Lundberg, the principal dancer at the Royal Swedish Opera
. The maid, astounded by Lind's extraordinary voice, returned the
next day with Lundberg, who arranged an audition and helped her gain
admission to the acting school of the
Royal Dramatic Theatre , where
she studied with Karl Magnus Craelius, the singing master at the
Lind began to sing onstage when she was ten. She had a vocal crisis
at the age of 12 and had to stop singing for a time, but recovered.
Her first great role was Agathe in Weber 's
Der Freischütz in 1838 at
the Royal Swedish Opera. At age 20 she was a member of the Royal
Swedish Academy of Music and court singer to the King of Sweden and
Norway. Her voice became seriously damaged by overuse and untrained
singing technique, but her career was saved by the singing teacher
Manuel García , with whom she studied in Paris from 1841 to 1843. So
damaged was her voice that he insisted that she should not sing at all
for three months, to allow her vocal cords to recover, before he
started to teach her a secure vocal technique.
After Lind had been with García for a year, the composer Giacomo
Meyerbeer , an early and faithful admirer of her talent, arranged an
audition for her at the Opéra in Paris, but she was rejected. The
biographer Francis Rogers concludes that Lind strongly resented the
rebuff: when she became an international star, she always refused
invitations to sing at the Paris Opéra. Lind returned to the Royal
Swedish Opera, greatly improved as a singer by García's training. She
toured Denmark where, in 1843,
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen met and fell in
love with her. Although the two became good friends, she did not
reciprocate his romantic feelings. She is believed to have inspired
three of his fairy tales : "Beneath the Pillar", "The Angel " and "The
Nightingale ". He wrote, "No book or personality whatever has exerted
a more ennobling influence on me, as a poet, than Jenny Lind. For me
she opened the sanctuary of art." The biographer Carol Rosen believes
that after Lind rejected Andersen as a suitor, he portrayed her as The
Snow Queen with a heart of ice.
GERMAN AND BRITISH SUCCESS
Lind in the 1840s
In December 1844, through Meyerbeer's influence, Lind was engaged to
sing the title role in Bellini 's opera Norma in Berlin. This led to
more engagements in opera houses throughout Germany and Austria,
although such was her success in Berlin that she continued there for
four months before leaving for other cities. Among her admirers were
Robert Schumann ,
Hector Berlioz and, most importantly for her, Felix
Ignaz Moscheles wrote: "
Jenny Lind has fairly enchanted
me ... her song with two concertante flutes is perhaps the most
incredible feat in the way of bravura singing that can possibly be
heard". This number, from Meyerbeer's
Ein Feldlager in Schlesien (The
Camp of Silesia, 1844; a role written for Lind but not premiered by
her) became one of the songs most associated with Lind, and she was
called on to sing it wherever she performed in concert. Her operatic
repertoire comprised the title roles in
Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor , Maria di
Rohan , Norma,
La sonnambula and
La vestale , as well as Susanna in
The Marriage of Figaro , Adina in L\'elisir d\'amore and Alice in
Robert le diable . About this time she became known as "the Swedish
Nightingale ". In December 1845, the day after her debut at the
Leipzig Gewandhaus under the baton of Mendelssohn, she sang without
fee for a charity concert in aid of the Orchestra Widows' Fund. Her
devotion and generosity to charitable causes remained a key aspect of
her career and greatly enhanced her international popularity even
among the unmusical.
At the Royal Swedish Opera, Lind had been friends with the tenor
Julius Günther . They sang together both in opera and on the concert
stage, becoming romantically linked by 1844. Their schedules separated
them, however, as Günther remained in
Stockholm and then became a
student of Garcia's in Paris in 1846–1847. Reunited after this in
Sweden, according to Lind's 1891 Memoir, they became engaged to marry
in the spring of 1848 just before Lind returned to England. However,
the two broke off the engagement in October of the same year.
After a successful season in Vienna, where she was mobbed by admirers
and feted by the Imperial Family, Lind traveled to London and gave
her first performance there on 4 May 1847 when she appeared in an
Italian version of Meyerbeer's
Robert le Diable . This was attended by
Queen Victoria ; the next day,
The Times wrote: We have had frequent
experience of the excitement appertaining to "first nights", but we
may safely say, and our opinion will be backed by several hundreds of
Her Majesty's subjects, that we never witnessed such a scene of
enthusiasm as that displayed last night on the occasion of
Mademoiselle Jenny Lind's début as Alice in an Italian version of
Robert le Diable.
In July 1847, she starred in the world première of Verdi 's opera I
masnadieri at Her Majesty\'s Theatre 's, under the baton of the
composer. During her two years on the operatic stage in London, Lind
appeared in most of the standard opera repertory. Early in 1849,
still in her twenties, Lind announced her permanent retirement from
opera. Her last opera performance was on 10 May 1849 in Robert le
Queen Victoria and other members of the Royal Family were
present. Lind's biographer Francis Rogers has written, "The reasons
for her early retirement have been much discussed for nearly a
century, but remain today a matter of mystery. Many possible
explanations have been advanced, but not one of them has been
LIND AND MENDELSSOHN
Jenny Lind Token ND issued about 1850 for her USA tour, obverse
Jenny Lind USA Token with her wrong(?) year of birth 1821,
In London, Lind's close friendship with Mendelssohn continued. There
has been strong speculation that their relationship was more than
friendship. Papers confirming this were alleged to exist, although
their contents had not been made public. However, in 2013 George
Biddlecombe confirmed in the Journal of the Royal Musical Association
that "The Committee of the Mendelssohn Scholarship Foundation
possesses material indicating that Mendelssohn wrote passionate love
Jenny Lind entreating her to join him in an adulterous
relationship and threatening suicide as a means of exerting pressure
upon her, and that these letters were destroyed on being discovered
after her death."
Mendelssohn was present at Lind's London debut in Robert le Diable,
and his friend, the critic H. F. Chorley , who was with him, wrote "I
see as I write the smile with which Mendelssohn, whose enjoyment of
Mdlle. Lind's talent was unlimited, turned round and looked at me, as
if a load of anxiety had been taken off his mind. His attachment to
Mademoiselle Lind's genius as a singer was unbounded, as was his
desire for her success". Mendelssohn worked with Lind on many
occasions and wrote the beginnings of an opera, Lorelei, for her,
based on the legend of the
Lorelei Rhine maidens; the opera was
unfinished at his death. He included a high F sharp in his oratorio
Elijah ("Hear Ye Israel") with Lind's voice in mind.
Four months after her London debut, she was devastated by the
premature death of Mendelssohn in November 1847. She did not at first
feel able to sing the soprano part in Elijah, which he had written for
her. She finally did so at a performance in London's
Exeter Hall in
late 1848, which raised £1,000 to fund a musical scholarship as a
memorial to him; it was her first appearance in oratorio. The
original intention had been to found a school of music in
Mendelssohn's name in Leipzig, but there was not enough support for
that in Leipzig, and with the help of Sir George Smart , Julius
Benedict and others, Lind eventually raised enough money to fund a
scholarship "to receive pupils of all nations and promote their
musical training". The first recipient of the Mendelssohn Scholarship
was the 14-year-old
Arthur Sullivan , whom Lind encouraged in his
Jenny Lind tour of America, 1850–52 Castle
Garden , New York, venue of Lind's first American concerts
In 1849, Lind was approached by the American showman
P.T. Barnum with
a proposal to tour throughout the United States for more than a year.
Realising that this would yield large sums for her favoured charities,
particularly the endowment of free schools in her native Sweden, Lind
agreed. Her financial demands were stringent, but Barnum met them, and
in 1850 they reached agreement.
Together with a supporting baritone , Giovanni Belletti, and her
Julius Benedict as pianist, arranger and conductor,
Lind sailed to America in September 1850. Barnum's advance publicity
made her a celebrity even before she arrived in the U.S., and she
received a wild reception on arriving in New York. Tickets for some of
her concerts were in such demand that Barnum sold them by auction. The
enthusiasm of the public was so strong that the American press coined
the term "Lind mania". Autograph of Lind after her marriage to
After New York, Lind's party toured the east coast of America, with
continued success, and later took in Cuba, the southern states of the
U.S., and Canada. By early 1851, Lind had become uncomfortable with
Barnum's relentless marketing of the tour, and she invoked a
contractual right to sever her ties with him; they parted amicably.
She continued the tour for nearly a year, under her own management,
until May 1852. Benedict left the party in 1851 to return to England,
and Lind invited
Otto Goldschmidt to replace him as pianist and
conductor. Lind and Goldschmidt were married on February 5, 1852,
near the end of the tour, in Boston. She took the name "Jenny
Lind-Goldschmidt" both privately and professionally.
Details of the later concerts under her own management are scarce,
but it is known that under Barnum's management Lind gave 93 concerts
in America; for these, she earned about $350,000, and he netted at
least $500,000 ($9.97 million and $14.2 million, as of 2015,
respectively). She donated her profits to her chosen charities,
including some U.S. charities.
Lind in her retirement
Lind and Goldschmidt returned to Europe together in May 1852. They
lived first in
Dresden , Germany, and, from 1855, in England for the
rest of their lives. They had three children: Otto, born September
1853 in Germany, Jenny, born March 1857 in England, and Ernest, born
January 1861 in England.
Although she refused all requests to appear in opera after her return
to Europe, Lind continued to perform in the concert hall. In 1856, at
the invitation of the
Philharmonic Society conducted by William
Sterndale Bennett she sang the chief soprano part in the first English
performance of the cantata
Paradise and the Peri by
Robert Schumann .
In 1866, she gave a concert with
Arthur Sullivan at St James\'s Hall .
The Times reported, "there is magic still in that voice ... the most
perfect singing – perfect alike in expression and in vocalization.
... Nothing more engaging, nothing more earnest, nothing more dramatic
can be imagined." At Düsseldorf in January 1870, she sang in "Ruth",
an oratorio composed by her husband. When Goldschmidt formed the Bach
Choir in 1875, Lind trained the soprano choristers for the first
English performance of Bach's B minor Mass , in April 1876, and
performed in the mass. Her concerts decreased in frequency until she
retired from singing in 1883.
In 1879–1887 Lind worked with
Frederick Niecks on his biography of
Chopin. In 1882, she was appointed professor of singing at the newly
Royal College of Music
Royal College of Music . She believed in an all-round musical
training for her pupils, insisting that, in addition to their vocal
studies, they were instructed in solfège , piano, harmony, diction,
deportment and at least one foreign language.
She lived her final years at Wynd's Point,
Herefordshire , on the
Malvern Hills near the
British Camp . Her last public appearance was
at a charity concert at Royal Malvern Spa in 1883. She died, aged 67,
at Wynd's Point on 2 November 1887 and was buried in the Great Malvern
Cemetery to the music of Chopin's Funeral March . She bequeathed a
considerable part of her wealth to help poor Protestant students in
Sweden receive an education.
REPUTATION, LEGACY AND MEMORIALS
Sheet music cover
There are no recordings of Lind's voice. She is believed to have made
an early phonograph recording for
Thomas Edison , but in the words of
the critic Philip L. Miller, "Even had the fabled Edison cylinder
survived, it would have been too primitive, and she too long retired,
to tell us much". The biographer Francis Rogers concludes that
although Lind was much admired by Meyerbeer, Mendelssohn, the
Schumanns, Berlioz and others, "In voice and in dramatic talent she
was undoubtedly inferior to her predecessors, Malibran and Pasta , and
to her contemporaries, Sontag and Grisi ." He notes that because of
her expert promoters, including Barnum, "almost all that was written
about her was undoubtedly biased by an almost overwhelming propaganda
in her favor, bought and paid for". Rogers says of Mendelssohn and
Lind's other admirers, that their tastes were "essentially Teutonic"
and, except for Meyerbeer, they were not expert in Italian opera,
Lind's early specialty. He quotes a critic of the
New York Herald
New York Herald ,
who noted "little deficiencies in execution, in ascending the scale,
which even enthusiasm cannot deprive of their sharpness". The
American press agreed that Lind's presentation was more typical of
Germanic "cold, untouching, icy purity of tone and style", rather than
the passionate expression necessary for Italian opera, and the Herald
wrote that her style was "suited to please the people of our cold
climate. She will have triumphs here that would never attend her
progress through France or Italy".
The critic H. F. Chorley, who admired Lind, described her voice as
having "two octaves in compass – from D to D – having a higher
possible note or two, available on rare occasions; and that the lower
half of the register and the upper one were of two distinct qualities.
The former was not strong – veiled, if not husky; and apt to be out
of tune. The latter was rich, brilliant and powerful – finest in its
highest portions." Chorley praised her breath management, her use of
pianissimo, her taste in ornament and her intelligent use of technique
to conceal the differences between her upper and lower registers. He
thought her "execution was great" and that she was a "skilled and
careful musician", but felt that "many of her effects on the stage
appeared overcalculated" and that singing in foreign languages impeded
her ability to give expression to the text. He felt, however, that her
concert singing was more admirable than her operatic performances,
although he praised some of her roles. Chorley judged her finest
work to be in the German repertoire, citing Mozart, Haydn and
Mendelssohn's Elijah as best suited to her. Miller concluded that
although connoisseurs of the voice preferred other singers, her wider
appeal to the public at large was not merely a legend created by
Barnum, but was a mixture of "a uniquely pure (some called it
celestial) quality in her voice, consistent with her well-known
generosity and charity."
Under the name "Jenny Lind-Goldschmidt", she is commemorated in
Poets\' Corner ,
Westminster Abbey , London. Among those present at
the memorial's unveiling ceremony on 20 April 1894 were Goldschmidt,
members of the Royal Family, Sullivan, Sir
George Grove and
representatives of some of the charities supported by Lind. There is
also a plaque commemorating Lind in The Boltons,
Kensington , London
and a blue plaque at 189 Old Brompton Road, London, SW7, which was
erected in 1909.
Lind has been commemorated in music, on screen, and even on
banknotes. Both the 1996 and 2006 issues of the Swedish 50-krona
banknote bear a portrait of Lind on the front. Many artistic works
have honoured or featured her. Anton Wallerstein composed the "Jenny
Lind Polka" around 1850. In the 1930 Hollywood film A Lady\'s Morals
Grace Moore starred as Lind, with
Wallace Beery as Barnum. In 1941
Ilse Werner starred as Lind in the German-language musical biography
film The Swedish Nightingale . In 2001, a semi-biographical film, Hans
Christian Andersen: My Life as a Fairytale , featured Flora Montgomery
as Lind. In 2005,
Elvis Costello announced that he was writing an
opera about Lind, called The Secret Arias with some lyrics by
Andersen. A 2010
BBC television documentary "Chopin – The Women
Behind the Music" includes discussion of Chopin's last years, during
which Lind "so affected" the composer.
Many places and objects have been named for Lind, including Jenny
Lind Island in Canada, the
Jenny Lind locomotive
Jenny Lind locomotive and a clipper ship ,
the USS Nightingale . An Australian schooner was named
Jenny Lind in
her honour. In 1857 it was wrecked in a creek on the
the creek was accordingly named
Jenny Lind Creek. Lind standing
at a keyboard
In Britain, Goldschmidt's endowment of an infirmary for children in
her memory in
Norwich is perpetuated in its present form as the Jenny
Lind Children's Hospital of the Norfolk and
Hospital . There is a
Jenny Lind Park in the same city. A chapel is
named for Lind at the
University of Worcester
University of Worcester City Campus and in
Andover, Illinois. A hotel and pub is named after her in the Old Town
East Sussex . Hereford County Hospital has a
psychiatric ward named for Jenny Lind. A district in
Glasgow is named
In the U.S., Lind is commemorated by street names in Fort Smith,
New Bedford, Massachusetts
New Bedford, Massachusetts ;
Taunton, Massachusetts ;
McKeesport, Pennsylvania ;
North Easton, Massachusetts ; North
Highlands, California and
Stanhope, New Jersey ; and in the name of
the gold-rush town of
Jenny Lind, California . An elementary school in
Minneapolis, Minnesota is named after her. She has been honoured
since 1948 by the Barnum Festival, which takes place each June and
Bridgeport, Connecticut . Through a national competition, the
festival selects a soprano as the
Jenny Lind winner. Her Swedish
counterpart, chosen by the
Royal Swedish Academy of Music and the
People's Parks and Community Centre in Stockholm, visits during the
festival, and the two perform several concerts together. In July, the
Jenny Lind winner traditionally travels to Sweden for a
similar joint concert tour.
A bronze statue of a seated
Jenny Lind by Erik Rafael-Rådberg,
dedicated in 1924, sits in the Framnäs section of
Stockholm (at 59°19′45″N 18°6′8″E / 59.32917°N
18.10222°E / 59.32917; 18.10222 ).
American Swedish Historical Museum
Jenny Lind private railroad car
Jenny Lind locomotive
Jenny Lind locomotive
Jenny Lind soup
Jenny Lind Tower
List of Swedes in music
* ^ Note, however, the discussion above, regarding Mendelssohn's
writing high F sharp specifically for her capabilities. Rogers quotes
Chorley as follows: "In a song from Beatrice di Tenda which she
adopted, there was a chromatic cadence, ascending to E in altissimo,
and descending to the note whence it had risen, which could not be
paragoned, of late days, as an evidence of mastery and
* ^ Chorley wrote of Lind's concerts: "The wild, queer, Northern
tunes brought here by her – her careful expression of some of
Mozart's great airs – her mastery over such a piece of execution as
"The Bird Song" in Haydn's Creation – and lastly, the grandeur of
inspiration with which the "Sanctus" of angels in Mendelssohn's Elijah
was led by her (the culminating point in the Oratorio) – are so many
things to leave on the mind of all who have heard them".
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M Rosen, "Lind, Jenny (1820–1887)"
* ^ A B C D E Mdlle. Jenny Lind,
The Illustrated London News
The Illustrated London News , 24
April 1847, p. 272
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Rogers, Francis. "Jenny Lind",
The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3 (July 1946), pp. 437–448
* ^ A B Hetsch, Gustav and Theodore Baker. "Hans Christian
Andersen\'s Interest in Music", The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 3
(July 1930), pp. 322–329 (subscription required)
* ^ Rogers, Francis. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Jul.,
1946), p. 439; Nelson, Lars P. "Jenny Lind", What Has Sweden Done for
the United States? (1903), p. 21
* ^ Holland, Henry Scott; William Rockstro; William Smyth; Otto
Goldschmidt, Memoir of Madame Jenny Lind-Goldschmidt her early
art-life and dramatic career 1820–1851, Volume 1, pp. 204 and
* ^ "
Her Majesty's Theatre – First Appearance of Mademoiselle
Jenny Lind, The Times, 5 May 1847, p. 5
* ^ "Her Majesty's Theatre", The Times, 23 July 1847, p. 5
* ^ "Her Majesty's Theatre", The Times, 11 May 1849, p. 8
* ^ Duchen, Jessica. "Conspiracy of Silence: Could the Release of
Secret Documents Shatter Felix Mendelssohn\'s Reputation?", published
The Independent , 12 January 2009. (Retrieved 4 August 2014)
* ^ Biddlecombe (2013), 83.
* ^ Chorley, p. 194
* ^ "Mendelssohn\'s 200th Birthday," Performance Today, 3 February
2009. Hour 2, 36:00–42:00.
* ^ A B Sanders, L. G. D. "Jenny Lind, Sullivan and the Mendelssohn
Scholarship", The Musical Times, September 1956, pp. 466–467
* ^ Linkon, Sherry Lee. "Reading Lind Mania: Print Culture and the
Construction of Nineteenth-Century Audiences", Book History, Vol. 1
(1998), pp. 94–106 (subscription required)
* ^ "America", The Times, 28 June 1851, p. 5
* ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development
Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve
Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
* ^ "Jenny Lind's Progress in America", The Observer, 6 October
1850, p. 3
* ^ First Philharmonic by Cyril Ehrlich p. 103
* ^ Review in The Times, 13 July 1866, accessed 22 December 2009
* ^ Elkin, p. 62
* ^ Lind apparently commissioned Félix Barrias's painting "La mort
de Chopin", 1885 (Czartoryski Museum, Krakow): see Icons of Europe's
essay, Why did Niecks write Chopin’s biography? submitted in
December 2004 to Chopin in the World
* ^ Lind-Goldschmidt, Jenny. "
Jenny Lind and the R. C. M.", The
Musical Times, November 1920, pp. 738–739 (subscription required)
* ^ A B Miller, Philip L. "Review", American Music, Vol. 1, No. 1
(Spring, 1983), pp. 78–80
* ^ A B Chorley, H. F., quoted in Rogers
* ^ "
Jenny Lind Memorial", The Times, 21 April 1894, p. 14
* ^ The plaque can be seen here
* ^ "Blue Plaques". English Heritage, accessed 16 June 2011
* ^ "
Jenny Lind Polka", British Library integrated catalogue,
accessed 16 June 2011
* ^ The New York Times, "A Lady\'s Morals a.k.a Jenny Lind" and
Mordant Hall, "The Swedish Nightingale," The New York Times, 8
* ^ Watson, Joanne. "The Secret Arias, Opera House, Copenhagen",
The Independent , 11 October 2005
* ^ Rhodes, James. "Chopin – The Women Behind The Music", BBC
BBC Programme info, 15 October 2010
* ^ "
Jenny Lind Creek", Beachsafe, accessed 26 January 2011
* ^ "
Jenny Lind Children\'s Hospital", Norfolk and Norwich
University Hospital, accessed 18 June 2011
* ^ "
Jenny Lind Park",
Norwich City Council, accessed 18 June 2011
* ^ "Fundraising Campaign Launched for Stained Glass Window at
Former Hospital", University of Worcester, accessed 18 June 2011
Jenny Lind Chapel, Helios.augustana.edu, 4 January 2016
* ^ "A hot time in the Old Town", The
Jenny Lind Inn, accessed 18
* ^ "David Craig who left roadie job to become mental health nurse
retires", Hereford Times, 10 February 2011
* ^ "
Glasgow Population and Size",
Glasgow Guide Organisation,
accessed 28 September 2016
* ^ "
Jenny Lind Elementary School", Minneapolis Public Schools, 29
* ^ "Lind-Goldschmidt, Jenny M.". Nordisk familjebok (Nordic Family
Book) (in Swedish). 37 (Supplement L-to-Parliamentary) (2nd ("Owl")
edition supplement ed.). Stockholm. 1925. p. 210. Retrieved 1 April
2014. En sittande bronsstaty öfver henne, mod. af E. Rafael-Rådberg,
aftäcktes 11 maj 1924 vid Framnäs på k. Djurgården, Stockholm.
* ^ "Portrait Bust of Paul Engdahl by Rafael Radberg", 1stDibs,
accessed 1 April 2014
* Biddlecombe, George (2013). "Secret Letters and a Missing
Memorandum: New Light on the Personal Relationship between Felix
Mendelssohn and Jenny Lind", in Journal of the Royal Musical
Association, Volume 138, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 47–83.
* Brown, Clive (2003). A Portrait of Mendelssohn. New Haven and
London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09539-5 .
* Chorley, Henry F (1926). Ernest Newman, ed. Thirty Years' Musical
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OCLC 347491 .
* Elkins, Robert (1944). Queen's Hall 1893–1941. London: Ryder.
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* Goldschmidt, Otto; Scott Holland, Henry; Rockstro (eds), W. S.
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* Mercer-Taylor, Peter (2000). The Life of Mendelssohn. Cambridge:
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* Rosen, Carole (2004). Matthew, H. C. G.; Harrison, Brian, eds.
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Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
article LIND, JENNY .
Wikisource has original text related to this article: RONALD J.
MCNEILL IN CENTURY MAGAZINE "NOTABLE WOMEN: JENNY LIND"
* Bulman, Joan (1956). Jenny Lind: a biography. London: Barrie. OCLC
* Kielty, Bernadine (1959).
Jenny Lind Sang Here. Boston: Houghton
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to JENNY LIND .
* JennyLind.org website