Johanna Maria Lind (6 October 1820 – 2 November 1887), better
known as Jenny Lind, was a Swedish opera singer, often known as the
"Swedish Nightingale". One of the most highly regarded singers of the
19th century, she performed in soprano roles in opera in Sweden and
across Europe, and undertook an extraordinarily popular concert tour
of America beginning in 1850. She was a member of the Royal Swedish
Academy of Music from 1840.
Lind became famous after her performance in
Der Freischütz in Sweden
in 1838. Within a few years, she had suffered vocal damage, but the
singing teacher Manuel García saved her voice. She was in great
demand in opera roles throughout Sweden and northern Europe during the
1840s, and was closely associated with Felix Mendelssohn. After two
acclaimed seasons in London, she announced her retirement from opera
at the age of 29.
In 1850, Lind went to America at the invitation of the showman P. T.
Barnum. She gave 93 large-scale concerts for him and then continued to
tour under her own management. She earned more than $350,000 from
these concerts, donating the proceeds to charities, principally the
endowment of free schools in Sweden. With her new husband, Otto
Goldschmidt, she returned to Europe in 1852 where she had three
children and gave occasional concerts over the next two decades,
settling in England in 1855. From 1882, for some years, she was a
professor of singing at the
Royal College of Music
Royal College of Music in London.
1 Life and career
1.1 Early life
1.2 German and British success
1.3 Lind and Mendelssohn
1.4 American tour
1.5 Later years
2 Critical reputation
4 See also
6 Further reading
7 External links
Life and career
Lind as Amina in La sonnambula
Born in Klara, in central Stockholm, Lind was the illegitimate
daughter of Niclas Jonas Lind (1798–1858), a bookkeeper, and
Anne-Marie Fellborg (1793–1856), a schoolteacher. Lind's mother
had divorced her first husband for adultery but, for religious
reasons, refused to remarry until after his death in 1834. Lind's
parents married when she was 14.
Lind's mother ran a day school for girls out of her home. When Lind
was about 9, her singing was overheard by the maid of Mademoiselle
Lundberg, the principal dancer at the Royal Swedish Opera. The
maid, astounded by Lind's extraordinary voice, returned the next day
with Lundberg, who arranged an audition and helped her gain admission
to the acting school of the Royal Dramatic Theatre, where she studied
with Karl Magnus Craelius, the singing master at the theatre.
Lind began to sing onstage when she was 10. She had a vocal crisis at
the age of 12 and had to stop singing for a time, but she
recovered. Her first great role was Agathe in Weber's Der
Freischütz in 1838 at the Royal Swedish Opera. At 20, she was a
member of the
Royal Swedish Academy of Music
Royal Swedish Academy of Music and court singer to the
King of Sweden and Norway. Her voice became seriously damaged by
overuse and untrained singing technique, but her career was saved by
the singing teacher Manuel García with whom she studied in Paris from
1841 to 1843. He insisted that she should not sing at all for three
months, to allow her vocal cords to recover, before he started to
teach her a healthy and secure vocal technique.
After Lind had been with García for a year, the composer Giacomo
Meyerbeer, an early and faithful admirer of her talent, arranged an
audition for her at the Opéra in Paris, but she was rejected. The
biographer Francis Rogers concludes that Lind strongly resented the
rebuff: when she became an international star, she always refused
invitations to sing at the Paris Opéra. Lind returned to the Royal
Swedish Opera, greatly improved as a singer by García's training. She
toured Denmark where, in 1843,
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen met and fell in
love with her. Although the two became good friends, she did not
reciprocate his romantic feelings. She is believed to have inspired
three of his fairy tales: "Beneath the Pillar", "The Angel" and "The
Nightingale". He wrote, "No book or personality whatever has
exerted a more ennobling influence on me, as a poet, than Jenny Lind.
For me she opened the sanctuary of art." The biographer Carol Rosen
believes that after Lind rejected Andersen as a suitor, he portrayed
The Snow Queen
The Snow Queen with a heart of ice.
German and British success
Lind in the 1840s
In December 1844, through Meyerbeer's influence, Lind was engaged to
sing the title role in Bellini's opera Norma in Berlin. That led to
more engagements in opera houses throughout Germany and Austria, but
such was her success in Berlin that she continued there for four
months before she left for other cities. Among her admirers were
Hector Berlioz and, most importantly for her, Felix
Ignaz Moscheles wrote: "
Jenny Lind has fairly enchanted
me... her song with two concertante flutes is perhaps the most
incredible feat in the way of bravura singing that can possibly be
heard". That number, from Meyerbeer's Ein Feldlager in Schlesien
(The Camp of Silesia, 1844, a role written for Lind but not premiered
by her) became one of the songs most associated with Lind, and she was
called on to sing it wherever she performed in concert. Her
operatic repertoire comprised the title roles in Lucia di Lammermoor,
Maria di Rohan, Norma,
La sonnambula and
La vestale as well as Susanna
in The Marriage of Figaro, Adina in
L'elisir d'amore and Alice in
Robert le diable. About that time, she became known as "the Swedish
Nightingale". In December 1845, the day after her debut at the Leipzig
Gewandhaus under the baton of Mendelssohn, she sang without fee for a
charity concert in aid of the Orchestra Widows' Fund. Her devotion and
generosity to charitable causes remained a key aspect of her career
and greatly enhanced her international popularity even among the
At the Royal Swedish Opera, Lind had been friends with the tenor
Julius Günther. They sang together both in opera and on the concert
stage and became romantically linked by 1844. Their schedules
separated them, however, as Günther remained in
Stockholm and then
became a student of Garcia's in Paris in 1846–1847. After reuniting
in Sweden, according to Lind's 1891 Memoir, they became engaged to
marry in the spring of 1848, just before Lind returned to England.
However, the two broke off the engagement in October of the same
After a successful season in Vienna, where she was mobbed by admirers
and feted by the Imperial Family, Lind traveled to London and gave
her first performance there on 4 May 1847, when she appeared in an
Italian version of Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable. It was attended by
Queen Victoria; the next day,
The Times wrote:
We have had frequent experience of the excitement appertaining to
"first nights", but we may safely say, and our opinion will be backed
by several hundreds of Her Majesty's subjects, that we never witnessed
such a scene of enthusiasm as that displayed last night on the
occasion of Mademoiselle Jenny Lind's début as Alice in an Italian
version of Robert le Diable.
In July 1847, she starred in the world première of Verdi's opera I
masnadieri at Her Majesty's Theatre, under the baton of the
composer. During her two years on the operatic stage in London,
Lind appeared in most of the standard opera repertory. In early
1849, still in her twenties, Lind announced her permanent retirement
from opera. Her last opera performance was on 10 May 1849 in Robert le
Queen Victoria and other members of the Royal Family were
present. Lind's biographer Francis Rogers wrote, "The reasons for
her early retirement have been much discussed for nearly a century,
but remain today a matter of mystery. Many possible explanations have
been advanced, but not one of them has been verified".
Lind and Mendelssohn
Jenny Lind Token ND issued c. 1850 for her US tour, obverse
Token with wrong year of birth, 1821, reverse
In London, Lind's close friendship with Mendelssohn continued. There
has been strong speculation that their relationship was more than
friendship. Papers confirming that were alleged to exist, but their
contents had not been made public. However, in 2013, George
Biddlecombe confirmed in the Journal of the Royal Musical Association
that "The Committee of the Mendelssohn Scholarship Foundation
possesses material indicating that Mendelssohn wrote passionate love
Jenny Lind entreating her to join him in an adulterous
relationship and threatening suicide as a means of exerting pressure
upon her, and that these letters were destroyed on being discovered
after her death".
Mendelssohn was present at Lind's London debut in Robert le Diable,
and his friend, the critic Henry Fothergill Chorley, who was with him,
wrote "I see as I write the smile with which Mendelssohn, whose
enjoyment of Mdlle. Lind's talent was unlimited, turned round and
looked at me, as if a load of anxiety had been taken off his mind. His
attachment to Mademoiselle Lind's genius as a singer was unbounded, as
was his desire for her success". Mendelssohn worked with Lind on
many occasions and wrote the beginnings of an opera, Lorelei, for her,
based on the legend of the
Lorelei Rhine maidens; the opera was
unfinished at his death. He included a high F sharp in his oratorio
Elijah ("Hear Ye Israel") with Lind's voice in mind.
Four months after her London debut, she was devastated by the
premature death of Mendelssohn in November 1847. She did not at first
feel able to sing the soprano part in Elijah, which he had written for
her. She finally did so at a performance in London's
Exeter Hall in
late 1848, which raised £1,000 to fund a musical scholarship as a
memorial to him; it was her first appearance in oratorio. The
original intention had been to found a school of music in
Mendelssohn's name in Leipzig, but there was not enough support in
Leipzig, and with the help of Sir George Smart,
Julius Benedict and
others, Lind eventually raised enough money to fund a scholarship "to
receive pupils of all nations and promote their musical training".
The first recipient of the Mendelssohn Scholarship was the 14-year-old
Arthur Sullivan, whom Lind encouraged in his career.
Jenny Lind tour of America, 1850–52
In 1849, Lind was approached by the American showman
P. T. Barnum
P. T. Barnum with
a proposal to tour throughout the United States for more than a year.
Realising that it would yield large sums for her favoured charities,
particularly the endowment of free schools in her native Sweden, Lind
agreed. Her financial demands were stringent, but Barnum met them, and
in 1850, they reached agreement.
Together with a supporting baritone, Giovanni Belletti, and her London
colleague, Julius Benedict, as pianist, arranger and conductor, Lind
sailed to America in September 1850. Barnum's advance publicity made
her a celebrity even before she arrived in the US, and she received a
wild reception on arriving in New York. Tickets for some of her
concerts were in such demand that Barnum sold them by auction. The
enthusiasm of the public was so strong that the American press coined
the term "Lind mania".
Autograph of Lind after her marriage to Otto Goldschmidt
After New York, Lind's party toured the east coast of America, with
continued success, and later took in Cuba, the Southern US and Canada.
By early 1851, Lind had become uncomfortable with Barnum's relentless
marketing of the tour, and she invoked a contractual right to sever
her ties with him; they parted amicably. She continued the tour for
nearly a year, under her own management, until May 1852. Benedict left
the party in 1851 to return to England, and Lind invited Otto
Goldschmidt to replace him as pianist and conductor. Lind and
Goldschmidt were married on February 5, 1852, near the end of the
tour, in Boston. She took the name "Jenny Lind-Goldschmidt", both
privately and professionally.
Details of the later concerts under her own management are scarce,
but it is known that under Barnum's management Lind gave 93 concerts
in America for which she earned about $350,000, and he netted at least
$500,000 ($9.97 million and $14.2 million, as of 2015,
respectively). She donated her profits to her chosen charities,
including some US charities. The tour is a plot point in the
1980 musical Barnum and the 2017 film The Greatest Showman, both of
which include a fictionalized relationship between Lind and Barnum
with "romantic undertones".
Lind in her retirement
Lind and Goldschmidt returned to Europe together in May 1852. They
lived first in Dresden, Germany, and, from 1855, in England for the
rest of their lives. They had three children: Otto, born September
1853 in Germany, Jenny, born March 1857 in England, and Ernest, born
January 1861 in England.
Although she refused all requests to appear in opera after her return
to Europe, Lind continued to perform in the concert hall. In 1856, at
the invitation of the
Philharmonic Society conducted by William
Sterndale Bennett, she sang the chief soprano part in the first
English performance of the cantata
Paradise and the Peri
Paradise and the Peri by Robert
Schumann. In 1866, she gave a concert with
Arthur Sullivan at St
The Times reported, "there is magic still in that
voice... the most perfect singing – perfect alike in expression and
in vocalization.... Nothing more engaging, nothing more earnest,
nothing more dramatic can be imagined.". At Düsseldorf in January
1870, she sang in "Ruth", an oratorio composed by her husband. When
Goldschmidt formed the
Bach Choir in 1875, Lind trained the soprano
choristers for the first English performance of Bach's B minor Mass,
in April 1876, and performed in the mass. Her concerts decreased
in frequency until she retired from singing in 1883.
In 1879–1887, Lind worked with
Frederick Niecks on his biography of
Frédéric Chopin. In 1882, she was appointed professor of singing
at the newly founded Royal College of Music. She believed in an
all-round musical training for her pupils, insisting that, in addition
to their vocal studies, they were instructed in solfège, piano,
harmony, diction, deportment and at least one foreign language.
She lived her final years at Wynd's Point, Herefordshire, on the
Malvern Hills near the British Camp. Her last public appearance was at
a charity concert at Royal Malvern Spa in 1883. She died, at 67, at
Wynd's Point on 2 November 1887 and was buried in the Great Malvern
Cemetery to the music of Chopin's Funeral March. She bequeathed a
considerable part of her wealth to help poor Protestant students in
Sweden receive an education.
Sheet music cover
There are no recordings of Lind's voice. She is believed to have made
an early phonograph recording for Thomas Edison, but in the words of
the critic Philip L. Miller, "Even had the fabled Edison cylinder
survived, it would have been too primitive, and she too long retired,
to tell us much". The biographer Francis Rogers concludes that
although Lind was much admired by Meyerbeer, Mendelssohn, the
Schumanns, Berlioz and others, "In voice and in dramatic talent she
was undoubtedly inferior to her predecessors, Malibran and Pasta, and
to her contemporaries, Sontag and Grisi." He notes that because of
her expert promoters, including Barnum, "almost all that was written
about her was undoubtedly biased by an almost overwhelming propaganda
in her favor, bought and paid for". Rogers says of Mendelssohn and
Lind's other admirers that their tastes were "essentially Teutonic"
and, except for Meyerbeer, they were not expert in Italian opera,
Lind's early specialty. He quotes a critic of the New York Herald, who
noted "little deficiencies in execution, in ascending the scale, which
even enthusiasm cannot deprive of their sharpness". The American
press agreed that Lind's presentation was more typical of Germanic
"cold, untouching, icy purity of tone and style", rather than the
passionate expression necessary for Italian opera, and the Herald
wrote that her style was "suited to please the people of our cold
climate. She will have triumphs here that would never attend her
progress through France or Italy".
The critic H. F. Chorley, who admired Lind, described her voice as
having "two octaves in compass – from D to D – having a higher
possible note or two, available on rare occasions;[n 1] and that the
lower half of the register and the upper one were of two distinct
qualities. The former was not strong – veiled, if not husky; and apt
to be out of tune. The latter was rich, brilliant and powerful –
finest in its highest portions." Chorley praised her breath
management, her use of pianissimo, her taste in ornament and her
intelligent use of technique to conceal the differences between her
upper and lower registers. He thought her "execution was great" and
that she was a "skilled and careful musician" but felt that "many of
her effects on the stage appeared overcalculated" and that singing in
foreign languages impeded her ability to give expression to the text.
He felt, however, that her concert singing was more admirable than her
operatic performances, but he praised some of her roles.[n 2]
Chorley judged her finest work to be in the German repertoire, citing
Mozart, Haydn and Mendelssohn's Elijah as best suited to her.
Miller concluded that although connoisseurs of the voice preferred
other singers, her wider appeal to the public at large was not merely
a legend created by Barnum but was a mixture of "a uniquely pure (some
called it celestial) quality in her voice, consistent with her
well-known generosity and charity".
Memorial in Westminster Abbey
Lind is commemorated in Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey, London under
the name "Jenny Lind-Goldschmidt". Among those present at the
memorial's unveiling ceremony on 20 April 1894 were Goldschmidt,
members of the Royal Family, Sullivan, Sir
George Grove and
representatives of some of the charities supported by Lind. There
is also a plaque commemorating Lind in The Boltons, Kensington,
London and a blue plaque at 189 Old Brompton Road, London, SW7,
which was erected in 1909.
Lind has been commemorated in music, on screen and even on banknotes.
Both the 1996 and 2006 issues of the Swedish 50-krona banknote bear a
portrait of Lind on the front. Many artistic works have honoured or
featured her. Anton Wallerstein composed the "
Jenny Lind Polka" around
1850. In the 1930 Hollywood film A Lady's Morals, Grace Moore
starred as Lind, with
Wallace Beery as Barnum. In 1941 Ilse Werner
starred as Lind in the German-language musical biography film The
Swedish Nightingale. In 2001, a semibiographical film, Hans Christian
Andersen: My Life as a Fairytale, featured
Flora Montgomery as Lind.
Elvis Costello announced that he was writing an opera about
Lind, called The Secret Arias with some lyrics by Andersen. A 2010
BBC television documentary "Chopin – The Women Behind the Music"
includes discussion of Chopin's last years, during which Lind "so
affected" the composer.
Lind standing at a keyboard
Many places and objects have been named for Lind, including Jenny Lind
Island in Canada, the
Jenny Lind locomotive
Jenny Lind locomotive and a clipper ship, the
USS Nightingale. An Australian schooner was named
Jenny Lind in her
honour. In 1857, it was wrecked in a creek on the
the creek was accordingly named
Jenny Lind Creek.
In Britain, Goldschmidt's endowment of an infirmary for children in
her memory in
Norwich is perpetuated in its present form as the Jenny
Lind Children's Hospital of the Norfolk and
Hospital. There is a
Jenny Lind Park in the same city. A
chapel is named for Lind at the
University of Worcester
University of Worcester City
Campus and in Andover, Illinois. A hotel and pub is named
after her in the Old Town of Hastings, East Sussex. Hereford
County Hospital has a psychiatric ward named for Jenny Lind. A
Glasgow is named after her.
In the US, Lind is commemorated by street names in Fort Smith,
Arkansas; New Bedford, Massachusetts; Taunton, Massachusetts;
McKeesport, Pennsylvania; North Easton, Massachusetts; North
Highlands, California and Stanhope, New Jersey; and in the name of the
gold-rush town of Jenny Lind, California. An elementary school in
Minneapolis, Minnesota is named after her. She has been honoured
since 1948 by the Barnum Festival, which takes place each June and
July in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Through a national competition, the
festival selects a soprano as the
Jenny Lind winner. Her Swedish
counterpart, chosen by the
Royal Swedish Academy of Music
Royal Swedish Academy of Music and the
People's Parks and Community Centre in Stockholm, visits during the
festival, and the two perform several concerts together. In July, the
Jenny Lind winner traditionally travels to Sweden for a
similar joint concert tour.
A bronze statue of a seated
Jenny Lind by Erik Rafael-Rådberg,
dedicated in 1924, sits in the Framnäs section of
Stockholm (at 59°19′45″N 18°6′8″E / 59.32917°N
18.10222°E / 59.32917; 18.10222).
American Swedish Historical Museum
Jenny Lind private railroad car
Jenny Lind locomotive
Jenny Lind soup
Jenny Lind Tower
List of Swedes in music
^ Note, however, the discussion above, regarding Mendelssohn's writing
high F sharp specifically for her capabilities. Rogers quotes Chorley
as follows: "In a song from Beatrice di Tenda which she adopted, there
was a chromatic cadence, ascending to E in altissimo, and descending
to the note whence it had risen, which could not be paragoned, of late
days, as an evidence of mastery and accomplishment."
^ Chorley wrote of Lind's concerts: "The wild, queer, Northern tunes
brought here by her – her careful expression of some of Mozart's
great airs – her mastery over such a piece of execution as "The Bird
Song" in Haydn's Creation – and lastly, the grandeur of inspiration
with which the "Sanctus" of angels in Mendelssohn's Elijah was led by
her (the culminating point in the Oratorio) – are so many things to
leave on the mind of all who have heard them".
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rosen, "Lind, Jenny (1820–1887)"
^ a b c d e Mdlle. Jenny Lind, The Illustrated London News, 24 April
1847, p. 272
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rogers, Francis. "Jenny Lind", The
Musical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3 (July 1946), pp. 437–448
^ a b Hetsch, Gustav and Theodore Baker. "Hans Christian Andersen's
Interest in Music", The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 3 (July 1930),
pp. 322–329 (subscription required)
^ Rogers, Francis. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Jul., 1946),
p. 439; Nelson, Lars P. "Jenny Lind", What Has Sweden Done for the
United States? (1903), p. 21
^ Holland, Henry Scott; William Rockstro; William Smyth; Otto
Goldschmidt, Memoir of Madame Jenny Lind-Goldschmidt her early
art-life and dramatic career 1820–1851, Volume 1, pp. 204 and
Her Majesty's Theatre
Her Majesty's Theatre – First Appearance of Mademoiselle Jenny
Lind, The Times, 5 May 1847, p. 5
^ "Her Majesty's Theatre", The Times, 23 July 1847, p. 5
^ "Her Majesty's Theatre", The Times, 11 May 1849, p. 8
^ Duchen, Jessica. "Conspiracy of Silence: Could the Release of Secret
Documents Shatter Felix Mendelssohn's Reputation?", published in The
Independent, 12 January 2009. (Retrieved 4 August 2014)
^ Biddlecombe (2013), 83.
^ Chorley, p. 194
^ "Mendelssohn's 200th Birthday," Performance Today, 3 February 2009.
Hour 2, 36:00–42:00.
^ a b Sanders, L. G. D. "Jenny Lind, Sullivan and the Mendelssohn
Scholarship", The Musical Times, September 1956, pp. 466–467
^ Linkon, Sherry Lee. "Reading Lind Mania: Print Culture and the
Construction of Nineteenth-Century Audiences", Book History, Vol. 1
(1998), pp. 94–106 (subscription required)
^ "America", The Times, 28 June 1851, p. 5
^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project.
"Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of
Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
^ "Jenny Lind's Progress in America", The Observer, 6 October 1850, p.
^ Kellem, Betsy Golden. "The Greatest Showman: The True Story of P.T.
Barnum and Jenny Lind", Vanity Fair, 22 December 2017
^ First Philharmonic by Cyril Ehrlich p. 103
^ Review in
The Times Archived 11 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine.,
13 July 1866, accessed 22 December 2009
^ Elkin, p. 62
^ Lind apparently commissioned Félix Barrias's painting "La mort de
Chopin", 1885 (Czartoryski Museum, Krakow): see Icons of Europe's
essay, Why did Niecks write Chopin’s biography? submitted in
December 2004 to Chopin in the World
^ Lind-Goldschmidt, Jenny. "
Jenny Lind and the R. C. M.", The Musical
Times, November 1920, pp. 738–739 (subscription required)
^ a b Miller, Philip L. "Review", American Music, Vol. 1, No. 1
(Spring, 1983), pp. 78–80
^ a b Chorley, H. F., quoted in Rogers
Jenny Lind Memorial", The Times, 21 April 1894, p. 14
^ The plaque can be seen here
^ "Blue Plaques". English Heritage, accessed 16 June 2011
Jenny Lind Polka", British Library integrated catalogue, accessed
16 June 2011
^ The New York Times, "
A Lady's Morals a.k.a Jenny Lind" and Mordant
Hall, "The Swedish Nightingale," The New York Times, 8 November 1930.
^ Watson, Joanne. "The Secret Arias, Opera House, Copenhagen", The
Independent, 11 October 2005
^ Rhodes, James. "Chopin – The Women Behind The Music",
BBC Programme info, 15 October 2010
Jenny Lind Creek", Beachsafe, accessed 26 January 2011
Jenny Lind Children's Hospital", Norfolk and
Hospital, accessed 18 June 2011
Jenny Lind Park" Archived 5 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.,
Norwich City Council, accessed 18 June 2011
^ "Fundraising Campaign Launched for Stained Glass Window at Former
Hospital", University of Worcester, accessed 18 June 2011
Jenny Lind Chapel, Helios.augustana.edu, 4 January 2016
^ "A hot time in the Old Town", The
Jenny Lind Inn, accessed 18 June
^ "David Craig who left roadie job to become mental health nurse
retires", Hereford Times, 10 February 2011
Glasgow Population and Size",
Glasgow Guide Organisation, accessed
28 September 2016
Jenny Lind Elementary School", Minneapolis Public Schools, 29
^ "Lind-Goldschmidt, Jenny M.". Nordisk familjebok (Nordic Family
Book) (in Swedish). 37 (Supplement L-to-Parliamentary) (2nd ("Owl")
edition supplement ed.). Stockholm. 1925. p. 210. Retrieved 1
April 2014. En sittande bronsstaty öfver henne, mod. af E.
Rafael-Rådberg, aftäcktes 11 maj 1924 vid Framnäs på k.
Djurgården, Stockholm. (in Swedish)
^ "Portrait Bust of Paul Engdahl by Rafael Radberg", 1stDibs, accessed
1 April 2014
Biddlecombe, George (2013). "Secret Letters and a Missing Memorandum:
New Light on the Personal Relationship between
Felix Mendelssohn and
Jenny Lind", in Journal of the Royal Musical Association, Volume 138,
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Jenny Lind Sang Here. Boston: Houghton
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jenny Lind.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Ronald J. McNeill in Century Magazine "Notable Women: Jenny Lind"
Profile of and links to information about Jenny Lind, the Barnum's
American History Museum site
Currier & Ives print of the First Appearance of
Jenny Lind in
Profile of Lind at Scandinavian.wisc.edu
Jenny Lind Tower
Jenny Lind Tower on Cape Cod
Boyette, Patsy M. "
Jenny Lind Sang Under This Tree", Olde Kinston
Gazette, Kinstonpress.com (March 1999)
"Lind-Goldschmidt, Jenny". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American
"Lind, Jenny". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
Lind and Chopin at World of Opera website
Works by or about
Jenny Lind at Internet Archive
Jenny Lind: Her Life, Her Struggles and Her Triumphs by G. G.
Lind's Memoirs (1820–1851)
Biography by N. Parker Willis (1951)
P. T. Barnum
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Wild Men of Borneo
Zip the Pinhead
James "Grizzly" Adams
Barnum's American Museum
Barnum's Aquarial Gardens
Bridgeport half dollar
William C. Coup
The Herald of Freedom
The Mighty Barnum
"There's a sucker born every minute"
The Greatest Showman
The Greatest Show on Earth
ISNI: 0000 0000 7977 9109
BNF: cb12044512m (data)