Jeju Province, officially Jeju Self-Governing Province, is one of
the nine provinces of South Korea. The province is situated on and
conterminous with the nation's largest island of Jeju
(Hangul: 제주도; RR: Jejudo; Korean
pronunciation: [tɕe.dʑu.do]), formerly transliterated as Cheju,
Cheju Do, etc., or known as Quelpart to Europeans. The island lies in
the Korea Strait, southwest of South Jeolla Province, of which it was
a part before it became a separate province in 1946. Its capital is
Jeju Self-Governing Province has independent visa policy which varies
from that of the Republic of Korea mainland. So, all ordinary passport
holders excluding those from Afghanistan, Cuba, Ghana, Iraq, Kosovo,
Libya, Macedonia, Nigeria, Palestine,
Syria can stay
visa-free 30 days in Jeju Self-Governing Province, even if they
normally require a visa for Republic of Korea mainland. Domestic
flight does not require anything of identification, but exceptively,
all people who try to enter the mainland of
South Korea from Jeju
Self-Governing Province must bring ID Card such as National ID Card,
Jeju S.A.P. Resident Card  , South Korean
Drivers Licence issued
by National Police Agency or Jeju Municipal Police Agency or passport
with proper visa or visa-free passport or passport with valid United
1.1 Early history
1.2 Modern history
1.2.1 Japanese occupation
1.2.2 Jeju Uprising, 1948
2 Administrative divisions
3 Society and culture
3.1.1 Influx of Chinese tourists and developers
3.1.2 Jeju Naval Base
5.1 International competition
7 Myths and legends
9.1 Tourist attractions
9.2 Visa policy
11 Sister provinces
12 See also
13 Notes and references
14 External links
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2008)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
According to legend, three demi-gods emerged from Samsung which is
said to have been on the northern slopes of Mt. Halla and became the
progenitors of the Jeju people who founded the Kingdom of Tamna.
It has also been claimed that three brothers—including Ko-hu—who
were the 15th descendants of Koulla, one of the Progenitors of the
Jeju people, were received by the court of Silla, at which time[when?]
Tamna was officially recognized, while the official
government posts of Commander, Prince and Governor were conferred by
the court upon the three. However, there is no concrete evidence of
when the "Three Names" (Samseong-Ko, Yang and Pu) appeared nor for the
exact date of when Ko-hu and his brothers were received by Silla. It
may be supposed that the "Three Names" Founding Period occurred during
the Three Kingdoms (Goguryeo,
Baekje and Silla) Period on the mainland
Taejo, founder of Goryeo, attempted to establish the same relationship
Tamna had had with Silla.
Tamna refused to
accept this position and the
Goryeo court dispatched troops to force
Tamna to submit. Ko ja-gyeon, chief of Tamna, submitted to
938 and sent his son, Prince Mallo, to Goryeo's court as a de facto
hostage. In 1105 (King Sukjong's 10th year), the
abolished the name Takna which had been used up to this time and, from
that year on, the island was known as "Tamna-gun" (district) and
Goryeo officials were sent to handle the affairs of the island.
Tamna-country was changed to Tamna-county in 1153 during the reign of
King Uijong and Choi Cheok-kyeong was posted as Tamna-Myeong or Chief
of Tamna. During the reign of Gojong of Goryeo,
Tamna was renamed
"Jeju" which means "province across the sea".:93
In 1271, General
Kim Tong-jeong escaped with what remained of his
Sambyeolcho force from Jindo and built the Hangpadu Fortress at
Kwiil-chon from where they continued their fight against the combined
Korean government-Mongolian army but within two years, faced by an
enemy army of over 10,000 troops, the
Sambyeolcho was annihilated.
Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), Jeju islanders were treated as
foreigners and Jeju was considered as a place for horse breeding and
exile for political prisoners.:95 In the 17th Century, Injo of
Joseon issued an edict prohibiting islanders from travelling to the
Korean mainland.:95 Consequently, Jeju islanders staged several
major uprisings, including the Kang Je Geom Rebellion (1862), Bang
Seong Chil Rebellion (1898), and the Lee Jae Su Rebellion
Japan annexed Korea, including Jeju, inaugurating a period of
hardship and deprivation for the islanders, many of whom were
compelled to travel to the mainland or
Japan for work.:99 Residents
of Jeju were active in the
Korean independence movement
Korean independence movement during the
period of Japanese rule.:100 On Jeju, the peak of resistance came
in 1931–32 when haenyeo ("sea women") from six eastern villages
launched a protest against the Japanese-controlled Divers
Association.:101 Before it was brutally crushed, the protests
spread and eventually 17,000 people participated, with over 100
arrested in Korea's largest protest movement ever led by women and
Jeju Uprising, 1948
Main article: Jeju Uprising
On April 3, 1948, against a background of an ongoing ideological
struggle for control of Korea and a variety of grievances held by
islanders against the local authorities, the many communist
sympathizers on the island attacked police stations and government
offices. The brutal and often indiscriminate suppression of the
leftist rebellion resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of both
villagers and communist radicals and the imprisonment of thousands
more in internment camps.
While claims have been made that the U.S. government oversaw and
supported "anti-communist" activities administratively if not openly
in the field, validation remains to be made. It is a fact the US was
heavily involved in counter-insurgence operations across Korea at this
time leading up to the
Korean War and UN involvement. Similarly,
the Northwest Youth League, a Korean government sponsored watchdog
group made up of refugees who had fled North Korea, actively repressed
any and all "communist sympathizers" with a campaign of shooting on
sight anyone entering or leaving the president's "enemy zone" and
using open, armed violence and what would be labeled today as
terrorist activities. This led to the deaths of hundreds of islanders,
with many other islanders being raped and tortured. Intolerance by
mainland Korean officials of islanders in general at the time,
government- and organization-sponsored isolation of the island and a
rumored cover-up of evidence linking the rebellion's suppressors with
foreign powers and people who have gone unprosecuted is believed to be
the primary cause of public ignorance, hedging on denial, over the
April 3, 1948 genocide on Cheju-do. A documentary by the BBC and
PBS, Korea: The Unknown War and many activities and publications,
including Sun-i Samch'on by Hyun Ki Young, by organizations and
persons from within Cheju-do and around the world continue to attempt
shedding the light on this event. The Uprising has become a symbol of
Jeju's Independence from Korean Peninsula.
The provincial administrative building was burned to the ground in
September 1948 and a new building was completed in 1-do, 2-dong in
Becoming The World Heritage
Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes
Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes unanimously at the 31st World
Heritage Committee June 27, 2007, was inscribed on the World Natural
In 1273, the Mongolian
Yuan Dynasty established a military governor on
the island, and for nearly a hundred years the island was effectively
under the complete control of these governors.
During the Joseon Dynasty, all of the administrative rights and
systems of Jeju island, which had maintained some independence until
this time, were absorbed into the centralized form of government
established by Joseon.
In 1402, the titles of Commander and Prince were abolished. In 1416,
the island was divided into three major administrative districts: The
area lying generally north of Mt. Halla was headed by a 'Moksa' or
county magistrate, while the eastern area of Jeongui-county (today's
Seongeup Folk village) and the south western area of Daejeong-county
(today's Moseulpo, Daejeong-eup and Mt. Sanbang) were each headed by a
Hyeon-gam (also county magistrate).
In August 1864, both Jeongui and Daejeong hyeons were removed from the
control of the 'moksa' north of the mountain in today's
and were renamed 'Gun" (county) and came under the direct control of
the Gwanchalsa (governor) of Jeolla province. Because of strife
between these 'Guns' and the Jeju 'moksa', the system was abolished in
January, 1880 and the two 'Guns' reverted again to 'hyeon'.
In 1895, Jeju-mok was redesignated as Jeju-Bu with a governor
(Gwanchalsa) and Vice-governor (Chamsagwan) and a police agency was
newly established, while in both Jeongui and Daejeong the offices of
'Gunsu' (county chief) were re-established. The very next year, the
office of 'Gunsu' was abolished and the old system was restored.
Then in 1906, abolishing the Moksa system altogether, the Gunsu or
County chief system was adopted. In 1910, Jeongui and Daejeong were
included in Jeju gun while Chuja-myeon was placed under the
jurisdiction of Wando-gun, part of South Jeolla province.
Japan annexed Korea in 1910. In 1915 the gun or county system which
had been adopted in 1906 was abolished and Jeju island was designated
as part of the 'island' system and called Jeju myeon under South
Jeolla province. In 1931, Jeju-myeon was raised to the status of
Jeju-eup or 'township' which gave the island one township (today's
Jeju-si area) and 12 'myeon'.
On September 1, 1955, Jeju Township was elevated to city status with
40 administrative wards which on January 1, 1962, were reduced to 14
wards. On July 8, 1956, Seogwi, Daejeong and Hallim-myeons were raised
to the status of townships while the southwestern portion of Hallim
Township was separated and newly designated as the Hankyeong district
(myeon) which gave the province one city, two counties, three
townships and 10 myeon or districts with 14 wards in Jeju City. May
23, 1979 saw the restructuring of the
Jeju-si wards and the addition
of three more, giving 17 wards.
In March, 1980, the construction of a new provincial office was
started in Yeon-dong of
Jeju-si and in December of that year the four
myeon of Aewol, Gujwa, Namwon and Seongsan were elevated to the status
of townships giving the administrative area one city, two counties,
seven townships, six districts and, within Jeju-si, 17 wards.
In 1981, the development of the Jungmun Tourist Complex brought about
the unification of Seogwi township and Jungmun-myeon (district) into
one as Seogwipo-si consisting of 12 wards (dong) giving the province
two cities, two counties, six townships, five districts and 29 wards.
On October 1, 1983, Jeju-si's Samdo ward was divided into two wards to
give a total of 30 wards in the province.
Yongdam ward in
Jeju-si was restructured into Yongdam ward one and
Yongdam ward two on October 1, 1985. On April 1, 1986 Jocheon myeon
(district) was elevated to the status of Township and Yeonpyeong-ri
Gujwa township was raised to the status of Udo district (myeon). The
provincial area now administered 2 cities, 2 counties, 7 townships, 5
districts and 31 wards, the status of the province as of 3 December
Jeju Province was divided into two cities (si), Jeju and
Seogwipo, and two counties (gun), Bukjeju (North Jeju) and Namjeju
(South Jeju) respectively. The two cities were further divided into
thirty-one neighbourhoods (dong), while the two counties were divided
into seven towns (eup) and five districts (myeon). The seven towns and
five districts were in turn divided into 551 villages (ri).
In 2005, Jeju residents approved, by referendum, a proposal to merge
Bukjeju County into Jeju City, and
Namjeju County into
Effective 1 July 2006, the province was also renamed Jeju Special
Self-Governing Province with two nominal subdivisions,
Jeju City and
Seogwipo City. In addition to the changes in name, the province was
given extensive administrative powers that had previously been
reserved for the central government. This is part of plans to turn
Jeju into a "Free International City".
Jeju, on 1 July 2006, was made into the first and only Self-Governing
Province of South Korea
In Korean, do is the phonetic transcription of two distinct hanja
(Chinese characters) meaning "island" (島) and "province" (道).
However, Jejudo generally refers to the island, while
to the government administrative unit. The table below also includes
the name of Jeju City, the provincial capital.
Jeju Self-Governing Province
— Administrative City —
4 eup, 3 myeon, 19 haengjeong-dong
3 eup, 2 myeon, 12 haengjeong-dong
Rhododendron Weyrichii / Max
Provincial tree: Camphor Laurel (
Cinnamomum camphora siebold /
Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos quelpartensis)
Society and culture
Because of the relative isolation of the island, the people of Jeju
have developed a culture and language that are distinct from those of
mainland Korea. Jeju is home to thousands of local legends. Perhaps
the most distinct cultural artifact is the ubiquitous dol hareubang
("stone grandfather") carved from a block of basalt.
Another distinct aspect of Jeju is the matriarchal family structure,
found especially in Udo and Mara, but also present in the rest of the
province. The best-known example of this is found among the haenyeo
("sea women"), who were often the heads of families, because they
controlled the income. They earned their living from free diving,
often all year round in quite cold water, without scuba gear, in order
to harvest abalones, conches, and a myriad of other marine products.
It is thought that women are better at spending all day deep-water
diving because they resist cold better. In the early 1960s, 21% of
women on the island were free divers, providing 60% of the island's
fisheries revenue. However, because of rapid economic development
and modernization, as of 2014[update] only about 4,500 haenyeo, most
aged over 60, were still actively working.
Bangsatap are small, round towers made of many stones. There are many
Bangsataps and you can see them near the countryside in Jeju. People
usually pile up many stones, making a shape like a tower in order to
protect themselves from the bad luck in their village. They built
Bangsatap according to the theory of divination because they believe
that geography is very important in choosing the right place for them.
It is also a good example to demonstrate religious belief in Jeju
island because it is an object in which people put faith: people put a
rice paddle inside the Bangsatap to gather as much money as possible,
as well as an iron pot to overcome disaster and fight fire in their
village. Nobody knows that when the Bangsatap was built over the year
Influx of Chinese tourists and developers
In recent years, Jeju province has become a popular destination for
Chinese tourists and commercial developers. These Chinese are enticed
to travel to Jeju for a number of reasons, including the island’s
close proximity to
China (just a two-hour flight from Beijing),
Jeju’s policy of allowing foreigners to travel to Jeju without a
visa and the willingness of Jeju officials to grant Chinese
condominium owners permanent resident status. Because of these
attractive policies, the presence of Chinese citizens on Jeju has
increased dramatically. According to the New York Times, nearly half
of the 6.1 million Chinese tourists who visited
South Korea last year
visited Jeju, a fivefold increase from 2011. Additionally, Chinese
now own 2,050 acres (830 ha) on Jeju, up from just five acres in
While it may be beneficial to Jeju’s economy, this phenomenon has a
lot of Jeju residents worried. With the legacy of Japanese occupation
still fresh in their minds, some Jeju inhabitants fear their island
home is now turning into a "Chinese colony". These fears are
exacerbated by China's increased military activity in the East and
China Seas and South Korea’s growing economic reliance on
More day-to-day concerns include the fact that while the Chinese
certainly spend a lot of money on Jeju, much of the money is spent in
restaurants and hotels owned by Chinese, not by Jeju residents.
Similarly, some residents have expressed anger over Chinese owned
hotels and casinos popping up near schools. In a recent poll, 68%
of Jeju residents said the influx of Chinese tourists did not help
Jeju’s development. The sentiment among many Jeju residents that
the Chinese do not respect
South Korea or local customs has led to
frequent scuffles between locals and Chinese tourists in bars and
Jeju Naval Base
Further information: Jeju Naval Base
In June 2007, the South Korean government selected Gangjeong, a
village on the southern coast of the island, as the site of a
controversial $970 million naval base. Villagers have protested
and filed lawsuits to try to block construction and have widely
publicized their opposition.
Religion in Jeju (2005)
Not religious (49.8%)
According to the census of 2005, of the people of Jeju 32.7% follow
Buddhism and 17.5% follow
Protestantism and 7.2%
Catholicism). 49.8% of the population is mostly not religious or
follows indigenous religions.
Jeju-do served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup,
with matches hosted at Jeju World Cup Stadium.
Jeju City hosted the AIBA 2014 Women's World Boxing Championships at
the Halla Gymnasium.
Jeju United is the only professional sports club on Jeju-do. Jeju
United was runner-up in the
K League in 2010.
Jeju-do has a famous
high school football tournament which began in 1971.
Jeonbokjuk, abalone porridge
Jeju Island is the southernmost and largest island isolated from the
Korean peninsula. Due to its lack of fresh water, paddy farming is
only done on a small scale, with the cultivation of cereal crops such
as millet, barnyard millet, buckwheat, and barley being the main
feature of agriculture. Therefore, the traditional Jeju meal generally
consists of japgokbap which is a bowl of steamed multiple grains as a
main dish, with salted dried fish called jaban as banchan
(side dishes), and a soup based on doenjang (soybean paste) such as
baechuguk made with Napa cabbage, kongnipguk made with soybean leaves,
or muguk made with radish. Jeju dishes are made with simple
ingredients, and the taste is generally salty.
Raw seafood called hae is commonly consumed as a part of the meal. The
warm weather affects Jeju cuisine in that gimjang, preparing kimchi in
late autumn for winter consumption, is not necessary to Jeju, as it is
in the other provinces. Only a small amount of kimchi is pickled by
Jeju locals. Representative main dishes in Jeju cuisine are porridge
made with fish, seafood, seaweed, or mushrooms. Examples include
jeonbokjuk made with abalone, okdomjuk made with red tilefish,
gejuk made with crabs, gingijuk made with small crabs called bangge
(Helice tridens), maeyeoksae juk made with young miyeok (미역)
(wakame), and chogijuk made with shiitake.
Gamgyul is a type of orange similar to the
Mandarin orange or
tangerine, commonly harvested in Jeju island. Black pig is a delicacy
on the island as well. Black pigs are famous for their black hair and
their meat for its chewy texture. The meat is nutritious and does not
have the unique smell of pork. Black pigs' other notable features are
their long faces, narrow snouts and small ears that stand up. Horse
meat is also a delicacy of the island.
Myths and legends
In Jeju, a tale, myth, legend, folktale do not mean much to the old
man. There is the only word, yetmal (Hangul: 옛말, means ‘old
language’). This yetmal contains the whole meaning of the tale,
myth, legend, folktale. Moreover, it has a meaning of a proverb,
tabooed tale, or foreseeing tale. In Jeju, a Story divides into
‘myth’, ‘legend’, and ‘folktale’. These are all passed
down in the form of prosaic story and it has characteristics that
speaker and listener comes face to face and they share the story goes
on. And the story has a common character although all story contains
truth, but it is a fiction. This fictional story could be an oral
literature but in the eye of ideological aspect, the story also
becomes a philosophy. So, the story of
Jeju Province could be a dream
of jeju people, literature, and philosophy by the special condition
and the historical circumstance of Jeju island.
The characteristic of story of Jeju can be found from the nature
legend and historical legend. In the Ahunahopgol legend
(Hangul: 아흔아홉골 전설, means ’myth of 99 canyon’),
it shows the regret that it cannot produce the King or talented person
because of the nature of island. It expesses the geomatical destiny
perspective. The historical legends mostly talked about the very
strong man. The heroine man is usually set to the starving strong man.
The example is the malmurlee legend(Hangul: 말머리전설,
means ‘head of horse’). This kind of story shows the limit of the
people of Jeju. Although the heroine man is born to strong, they
cannot overcome the historical isolation.
The myth of Seolmundae Halmang is well known in Jeju. According to
this myth, Seolmundae Halmang (Grandmother Seolmundae) could reach
Seongsan Ilchulbong to Guan Tal island at Aewol in a single
stride, and with two strides to Mount Halla. She was very strong, had
500 children, and built Mount Halla with seven scoops of earth. One
day, Seolmundae Halmang was making soup for her sons while they were
out hunting. While they were gone, she fell into the pot and drowned.
On their return, they hungrily ate the soup, without knowing that it
contained their mother. However, the youngest son knew. He told the
truth to the rest of the sons, and the whole family cried, and
eventually turned into 500 stones.
The Jeju economy has traditionally been supported by primary industry,
agriculture and fishing, but tourism has taken a more and more
important role as the island receives ten million visitors per
year. These are mostly Korean mainlanders but through the opening
of the 2010 decade hundreds of thousands of Chinese tourists have been
arriving and the number is increasing.
In 2006, the
GDP of the province was projected at 8.5 trillion won
(about US$8.5 billion), approximately 15 million won per capita. The
provincial government's budget for 2006 was projected at 1.1 trillion
won, an increase of 10% over 2005.
Jeju is also a home for key functions of Daum Communications, a
leading Korean internet site, and sole owner of
Lycos until August,
Jeju is also famous for hosting many conferences and international
meetings, including the World Scout Conference in July 2008. Jeju has
its own international convention center called ICC Jeju. The
ASEAN-KOREA Commemorative Summit 2009 was held at ICC Jeju.
In 2010, the South Korean central government tasked
Jeju Island to
develop itself as an international Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing,
Exhibitions destination, and since then, the island has hosted a
number of notable events such as the 10,000-pax
China Baozhen Group
incentive and 8,000-pax Amway (South) Korea incentive. In 2010, the
destination welcomed 67 events, enabling it to reach 27th spot
globally and seventh in Asia in the UIA ranking of global meetings
Jeju Stone Statue Park Statue.
Rapeseed fields in Jeju Island
Tourism commands a large fraction of Jeju's economy. Jeju's temperate
climate, natural scenery, and beaches make it a popular tourist
destination for South Koreans as well as visitors from other parts of
East Asia. The most popular tourist spots on the island are
Cheonjeyeon and Cheonjiyeon waterfalls, Mount Halla, Hyeobje cave, and
Hyeongje island. There is a variety of leisure sports that tourists
can take part in Jeju including golf, horse riding, hunting, fishing,
mountain climbing, etc. Depending on the season, Jeju hosts many
festivals for tourists including a penguin swimming contest in winter,
cherry blossom festival in spring, the midsummer night beach festival
in summer, and
Jeju horse festival in autumn, among others. For most
tourists, traffic to and from the island is mainly taken through Jeju
International Airport and transport within the island by rental cars.
Some local products are popular with tourists, including Jeju's
special tile fish and mandarin oranges, as well as souvenirs and
Jeju was chosen as one of the New 7 Wonders of Nature through the New
7 Wonders of Nature campaign by the New7Wonders Foundation. The
campaign saw hundreds of millions of votes and the top seven wonders
were announced on 11/11/11.
Museums on the island include Nexon Computer Museum.
Cheonjiyeon Waterfall in Jeju
See also: Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes
Hallim Park is one of the oldest and most popular tourist
attractions on Jeju. It is on the west coast.
There is an annual fire festival on the island that stems from a
custom of removing harmful insects and old grass in villages in
winter. The fire festival is held on the fifteenth day of the first
lunar month. Dal-gip (to pile up much wood) is burned when the moon
rises while praying for good harvests and making good wishes. Jeju
traditional food is eaten at the site of the festival. This festival
was held 13 times until 2009. The "Jeju Jeongwol Daeboreum Fire
Festival" started in 1997 and become a leading festival of Jeju. This
takes place in Saebyeol Oreum in Bongseong ri, Aewol Eup. It takes up
to 25 minutes to reach it from
Jeju International Airport
Jeju International Airport by car. Jeju
citizens do their utmost to prepare the Fire Festival so as to pass
down, develop and ultimately develop branding for the unique folk
culture resources of Jeju.
Saebyeol oreum has a characteristic of a complex volcano. It has a
horseshoe shaped crater that is both very wide and slightly split. It
rises high with the little peaks making an oval from the south peak to
northwest. The scale is above sea level 519.3 meters (1,704 ft),
height of 119 m (390 ft), circumference of 2,713 m
(8,901 ft), area of 522,216 m2 (0.201629 sq mi).
Saebyeol oreum is the middle size among the 360 oreums in Jeju island.
It is named after the saying "it brightens like a star".
Olle is a word in the local dialect that refers to the paths
between houses and public roads.
The Jeju Olle Trail, called Jeju Olle Gil or simply "jejuolle" in
Korean, is a long-distance footpath on Jeju Island. The course, mostly
following the coastline, consists of 21 connected, numbered main
courses, 5 major spurs, and a short spur that connects to Jeju
Airport. The courses have an average length of 16 kilometers
(9.9 mi) and all together total 404 km (251 mi). The
exact length and locations change over time as trails are modified or
The courses pass through small villages, cross beaches, wind through
farms and orchards, twist through forests, climb oreums ("low
parasitic volcanoes"), and provide a good look at the lives of average
islanders and the unique natural beauty of Jeju Island.
Manjanggul is one of the longest lava tubes in the world. Manjang
Cave, at Donggimnyeong-ri, Gujwa-eup, North Jeju, 30 km
(19 mi) east of Jeju City, was designated as Natural Monument No.
98 on March 28, 1970. The annual temperature inside the cave ranges
from 11℃ to 21℃, thus facilitating a favorable environment
throughout the year.
The cave is academically significant as rare species live in the cave.
Created by spewing lava, "the lava turtle", "lava pillar", and
"wing-shaped wall" look like the work of the gods. It is considered to
be a world class tourist attraction.
The Geomunoreum lava tube system is the most impressive and
significant series of protected lava tube caves in the world and
includes a spectacular array of secondary carbonate speleothems
(stalactites and other formations). It overwhelms other lava tubes
with its abundance and diversity. The Geomunoreum lava tube system,
which is regarded as the finest such cave system in the world, has an
outstanding visual impact even for those experienced with such
phenomena. It displays the unique spectacle of multi-colored carbonate
decorations adorning the roofs and floors, and dark-colored lava
walls, partially covered by a mural of carbonate deposits.
In addition, lava tube caves are like those in limestone karst in
scale, shape and internal decoration, but completely different in
Lava tube caves
Lava tube caves are known from basaltic terrain in most of the
world's volcanic regions. The lava tube caves of the Geomunoreum
system are, however, regarded as internationally important due to
their length, massive volume, intricate passage configuration, well
preserved internal lava features, abundant and spectacular secondary
carbonate formations, ease of access, and their scientific and
educational values. Another feature making Geomunoreum globally
significant and distinctive is the presence of carbonate deposits and
formations. Very small deposits of calcite are common in lava tube
caves and are more significantly developed as speleothems in Duck
Creek cave in Utah, USA. However, in abundance, density and diversity
they are far less impressive than those of Yongcheongul and
Dangcheomuldonggul lava tubes in Jeju, and the scale of these
decorations within the lava caves of
Jeju Island far exceeds any other
comparable examples. The nomination is supported by the Commission on
Volcanic Caves of the
International Union of Speleology — the
world's most authoritative scientific body on volcanic caves — which
regards Jeju's lava caves as being of the highest international
ranking. Yongcheongul Lava Tube has been discovered subsequently and
is of equivalent value.
Sangumburi volcanic crater
Sangumburi Crater is the crater of an extinct volcano. Unlike its
brethren Halla-san and Songsan Ilch'ubong, this one exploded quickly
but did not spew much lava nor did it form much of a surrounding cone.
This phenomenon is called maru in Korean, and Sangumburi is the only
one of its kind in the country, making it Natural Monument #263. The
remaining crater is 100 m (330 ft) deep and an average of
350 m (1,150 ft)s across. Over 400 species of plants and
animals live inside the crater.
Visitors can walk around part of the rim (the rest is private property
and fenced off), but they cannot venture down inside the crater. A
well-paved path leads from the parking area to the viewing area, which
has a small pavilion and several vista points. Also on the grounds are
grave sites made in traditional Jeju fashion: a wide, trapezoidal
stone wall surrounding the burial mound. Several of the sites have
small stone figures that guard the mound from evil spirits. At the
park entrance are large rocks from the crater. During the eruption,
molten rock flew from the volcano into the air and cooled into many
Seongsan Ilchulbong, also called ‘Sunrise Peak’, is an archetypal
tuff cone formed by hydrovolcanic eruptions upon a shallow seabed
about 5,000 years ago. On the eastern seaboard of
Jeju Island and said
to resemble a gigantic ancient castle, this tuff cone is 182 meters
high, has a preserved bowl-like crater, and displays diverse inner
structures resulting from the sea cliff. These features are considered
to be of geologic worth, providing information on eruptive and
depositional processes of hydromagmatic volcanoes worldwide as well as
past volcanic activity of
Seongsan Ilchulbong itself.
Oedolgae is a 20-meter-tall pillar-shaped rock in Sammaebong,
Seogwipo. It was created 1.5 million years ago by a volcanic eruption.
At the top of Oedolgae, there are pine trees growing naturally.
According to legend, an old woman became a rock after waiting for her
husband who went to sea to catch fish and didn’t return for a long
time. So people call it 'halmang bawi' meaning grandmother rock. On
the left side of Oedolgae, there is a rock called someri bawi. A large
grass area covers the rock, and the surrounding area is great for
fishing. Oedolgae is a popular tourist destination, particularly with
Mt. Halla is the mountain of one of the three gods. It stands at
the center of Jeju Island, spreading east and west. The east face is
steep, the north side is gentle, and the east and west form a flat,
wide highland. Mount Halla is a dormant volcano created by volcanic
activities during the quaternary period of the Cenozoic era. It is
primarily covered with basalt. On its top is a crater and Baeknok
Lake. This mountain is a home to alpine plants and houses as many as
1,800 species of flora. It also boasts luxuriant natural forests and
vast grasslands. In addition, precipitous cliffs and slopes and
unusual rock formations standing along valleys produce magnificent
scenic views. The community of azaleas adds to the beauty of Mount
Halla. Mount Halla's autumnal tints and snow-covered scenes have been
selected[by whom?] as the best of the best.
The 43-kilometer (27 mi) long Road 5.16 crossing the eastern
waist of the mountain from
Jeju City to
Seogwipo City is considered to
be one of the best tourist roads in Korea. Along this road, there are
many tourist attractions such as Sancheondan and Seongpanak. People
can enjoy the royal azalea blossoms in spring, lush, green woods in
summer, colorful foliage in fall, and a glistening landscape of snow
in winter. While enjoying the scenes, the road takes you to Seogwipo
City and brings a scenic view of many beaches.
The 37-kilometer-long (23 mi) Road 110 crossing the western waist
of the mountain from
Jeju-si to Jungmun runs through a high area that
is 1,100 meters (3,600 ft) high above sea level. It passes by
Eoseungsang Reservoir, which is a source of water for Jeju islanders.
The 99 Passes where, a legend says, neither a king nor a tiger are
born because it is one short to 100 passes. It also passes closely by
Youngsil Giam (Youngsil Grotesque Rocks). It is possible to climb up
to Wetse Oreum along Eorimok Trail and Youngsil Trail and to the top
along Seongpanak Trail and Kwaneumsa Temple Trail.
Udo, (also called U-island, since do means island) is on the northeast
of Seongsan-ri, 3.5 kilometres (2.2 miles) off the coast. This is the
largest of the islands included in Jeju-si. Udo, literally "Cow
Island" in Chinese, has this name because it looks like a cow lying
down. The whole of Udo is a lava plateau and a fertile flatland where
major agricultural products such as sweet potatoes, garlic, and
peanuts are produced. There is a parasitic cone, called shoi meori
oreum, in the southeast.
Jungmun Saekdal Beach
Jungmun Saekdal Beach is at the Saekdal-dong, Seogwipo-si. It is near
the hotel zone it has a convenient accessibility: Sinla Jeju hotel,
Lotte hotel, Jeju Hana hotel are around 2 kilometers near the beach.
Jungmun Saekdal Beach
Jungmun Saekdal Beach has a particular geographical feature. The beach
shore is faced to the north and the water level is steady knee height
until about 200 meters off the shore. There are lots of great and
small waves under the influences of the Maparam
(Hangul: 마파람, means the wind from the north in Korean) so
the beach is clouded by the people who came from many other regions to
enjoy surfing in summer.
All ordinary passport holders except the following can stay visa-free
30 days in Jeju Province, even if they normally require a visa for
Kosovo[not in citation given]
There are five local newspapers on Jeju Island: the Cheju Daily
News, Jeminilbo, Hallailbo, Seogwipo-News,
Jejumaeil. The Jeju Weekly is the only print English-language
newspaper on the island. JejuWorldWide.com is a daily online news
and events Web site which opened in early 2013.
TV and radio stations include Jeju Free International City
Broadcasting System (an affiliate of SBS), KBS Jeju, and Jeju MBC, and
Jeju's international sister provinces are also primarily islands (with
the exception of California):
– Hainan Province
– State of Hawaii
– Autonomous Region of Madeira
List of Korea-related topics
Subdivisions of South Korea
Geography of South Korea
Love Land, a sex-themed sculpture park on the island
Notes and references
Special Self-Governing Province". Retrieved 16 May 2012.
^ a b "Korea Visa & Passports - Official Korea Tourism
Organization". visitkorea.or.kr. Archived from the original on
^ a b c d e f g h Hilty, Anne (2011). Jeju Island: Reaching to the
Core of Beauty. Korea Essentials. 5. Republic of Korea: The Korea
Foundation. ISBN 9788991913837.
^ Wheeler, Wolcott, "The 1948 Cheju-do Civil War", Korea WebWeekly,
archived from the original on 1999-10-12, retrieved 2014-04-21
^ "Doopedia(두산백과) : 제주 4.3 사건(The Jeju 4.3
^ "Dictionary of common current affair(시사상식사전) :
제주 4.3 사건(The Jeju 4.3 Affair)".
^ Eperjesi, John (Aug 14, 2011). "Jeju: From peace island to war
island". Asia Times. The Asia-Pacific Journal:
Japan Focus. Retrieved
^ "Cheju Consolidation Vote". Korea Times July 28, 2005. Archived from
the original on November 29, 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2005.
^ Ernest S Campbell, MD. "Acclimatization to Cold Water".
Scuba-doc.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
^ a b Choe Sang-Hun (29 March 2014). "Hardy Divers in Korea Strait,
'Sea Women' Are Dwindling". New York Times. Retrieved 31 March
^ "Jeju Cyber Samdakwan :: Diving into the sea out of Jeju".
English.jejusamda.com. 1970-01-01. Archived from the original on June
29, 2007. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
^ McConvey, Joel (2008-09-16). "Lady Good Divers BLOUIN ARTINFO".
Artinfo.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
Special Self-Governing Province". Bangsa tower(folk cultural
^ a b c Nam, In-Soo. "Chinese Wealth Transforms South Korea's Jeju
Island". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved
^ a b c d e f g h Sang-hun, Choe (2015-02-25). "South Korean Island
Grows Wary After Welcoming the Chinese". The New York Times.
ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
^ Song Sang-ho (August 7, 2011). "Controversy over Jeju naval base
mounts". Korea Herald.
Gloria Steinem (August 6, 2011). "The Arms Race intrudes on
Paradise". New York Times.
^ a b 2005 Census - Religion Results Archived 2015-09-04 at the
^ Paul Osborne. "
South Korea to host 2014 AIBA Women's Boxing World
Championships after Canada withdraw". insidethegames.biz - Olympic,
Paralympic and Commonwealth Games News.
^ "자반". Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved
2011-07-14. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "자반". Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved
2011-06-10. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "doopedia". encyber.com. Archived from the original on
^ "doopedia". encyber.com. [permanent dead link]
^ "doopedia". encyber.com. [permanent dead link]
^ "doopedia". encyber.com. [permanent dead link]
^ "<국어국문학자료사전>". www.terms.naver.com.
^ Lee, Hyeon-sook. "설문대 할망이 제주시인을 만났다".
^ Kim, Nam-jung. "설문대할망, 오돌또기 탐라에 얽힌
이야기 집대성". the kukminilbo. Archived from the original on
^ "Jeju Island: South Korea's volcanic holiday destination". CNN.
2014-04-17. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
^ "How Daum fell under Jeju's spell - JEJU WEEKLY".
^ "Little Jeju, big dreams". TTGmice. Archived from the original on 18
October 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
^ "Hallim Park". Retrieved 25 April 2016.
^ "제주올레". jejuolle.org.
^ "Take a unique 1-kilometer subterranean stroll - JEJU WEEKLY".
^ "넓고 넓은 신비의 화구, 끝없이 펼쳐진 대평원..
Special Self-Governing Province". English.tour2jeju.net.
^ "제주일보". Chejunews.co.kr. Archived from the original on
2006-03-22. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
^ "제주도민의 자존심 제민일보". Jemin.com. Retrieved
^ "서귀포신문 : 인터넷일간신문". Seogwipo.co.kr.
^ "Mass Media - Jeju
Special Self-Governing Province".
English.jeju.go.kr. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
^ "Don't let print pass you by". Jeju Weekly. Retrieved
^ Robert Neff (2013-01-01). "A New Year and a new newspaper". Jeju
World Wide. Retrieved 2013-08-25. [permanent dead link]
^ "ACR 42 Assembly Concurrent Resolution - CHAPTERED". ca.gov.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jeju-do.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Jeju.
Official Site of Korea
Jeju World Wide, a source of news and information for Jeju
Official provincial info site
Jeju at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
The Jeju Weekly newspaper
Jeju Island Global geopark
Jeju World Natural Heritage
Jeju Tour Information
Birds of Jeju
Jeju Peace Institute
Places adjacent to Jeju Province
South Jeolla Province
South Gyeongsang Province
Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan
Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
Special Self-Governing Province
Regions and administrative divisions of South Korea
Sudogwon (Capital area)
Special self-governing province
Special self-governing city
The Committee for the
Five Northern Korean Provinces
New 7 Wonders of Nature
Amazon rainforest and river
Hạ Long Bay
Iguazu / Iguaçu Falls
Puerto Princesa Underground River
Coordinates: 33°22′N 126°32′E / 33.367°N 126.533°E /