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JEJU ISLAND (Korean pronunciation: _Jejudo_; previously _Cheju-do_) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula , and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea . The island lies in the Korea Strait , south of South Jeolla Province . The island contains the natural World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes . Jejudo has a moderate climate; even in winter, the temperature rarely falls below 0 °C (32 °F).

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Historical names * 1.2 Jeju Uprising

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Formation * 2.2 Climate

* 3 Places of interest * 4 Utilities * 5 Transportation * 6 Cheju/ Jeju Naval Base * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

HISTORICAL NAMES

Historically, the island has been called by many different names including:

* Doi ( Hangul : 도이 , hanja: 島夷, literally "Island barbarian") * Dongyeongju ( Hangul : 동영주 ; hanja : 東瀛州) * Juho ( Hangul : 주호 , hanja: 州胡) * Tammora (탐모라, 耽牟羅) * Seomra (섭라, 涉羅) * Tangna (탁라, 乇羅) * Tamna (탐라, 耽羅) * Quelpart, Quelparte or Quelpaert Island
Island
* Joonwonhado (준원하도, 준원下島 meaning southern part of peninsula) * Taekseungnido ( Hangul : 택승리도 , meaning the peaceful hot island in Joseon) * Samdado ( Hangul : 삼다도 , meaning " Island
Island
of Three Abundances")

Before the Japanese annexation in 1910, the island was usually known as Quelpart to Europeans. The name apparently came from the first European ship to spot the island, the Dutch _Quelpaert_, which sighted it after being blown off course on its way to the Dutch trading base in Nagasaki , Japan
Japan
, from Taiwan
Taiwan
(then the Dutch colony of Formosa).

"According to Korean records, a fleet of seventy pirate craft attacked Quelpart Island
Island
and adjacent parts of the Korean peninsula in 1555."

When Korea was annexed by Japan
Japan
in 1910, Jeju then became known as Saishū, which is the Japanese reading of the hanja for Jeju.

Before 2000, when the Seoul government established the official Revised Romanization of Korean , Jejudo was spelled Cheju-do. Almost all written references to the island before that use that spelling.

JEJU UPRISING

Main article: Jeju uprising

From April 3, 1948 to May 1949, the South Korean government conducted an anticommunist campaign to suppress an attempted uprising on the island. The main cause for the rebellion was the election scheduled for May 10, 1948, designed by the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (UNTCOK) to create a new government for all of Korea. The elections were only planned for the south of the country, the half of the peninsula under UNTCOK control. Fearing that the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters for the South Korean Labor party (SKLP) reacted violently, attacking local police and rightist youth groups stationed on Jeju Island.

Atrocities were committed by both sides, but those by South Korean government forces are the best-documented. On one occasion, American soldiers discovered the bodies of 97 people who had been killed by government forces. On another, American soldiers encountered police who were executing 76 villagers.

Between 14,000 and 30,000 people died as a result of the rebellion, or up to 10% of the island’s total population. Some 40,000 others fled to Japan
Japan
to escape the fighting. In the decades after the uprising, memory of the event was suppressed by the government through strict punishment. However, in 2006, the Korean government apologized for its role in the killings and promised reparations. As of 2010, these had not been paid.

In 2008, bodies of victims of a massacre were discovered in a mass grave near Jeju International Airport .

GEOGRAPHY

*

Baengnokdam in Hallasan
Hallasan
*

Waves crashing on Jeju seashore *

Halla Mountain in Jeju

Jejudo is a volcanic island , dominated by Hallasan
Hallasan
: a volcano 1,950 metres (6,400 ft) high and the highest mountain in South Korea. The island measures approximately 73 kilometres (45 mi) across, east to west, and 41 kilometres (25 mi) from north to south.

The island was created by volcanic eruptions approximately 2 million years ago, during the Cenozoic era. The island consists chiefly of basalt and lava.

An area covering about 12% (224 square kilometres or 86 square miles) of Jejudo is known as _ Gotjawal Forest _. This area remained uncultivated until the 21st century, as its base of ʻAʻā lava made it difficult to develop for agriculture. Because this forest remained pristine for so long, it has a unique ecology.

The forest is the main source of groundwater and thus the main water source for the half million people of the island, because rainwater penetrates directly into the aquifer through the cracks of the ʻAʻā lava under the forest. Gotjawal forest is considered an internationally important wetland under the Ramsar Convention by some researchers because it is the habitat of unique species of plants and is the main source of water for the residents, although to date it has not been declared a Ramsar site.

FORMATION

* About 2 million years ago, the island of Jeju was formed through volcanic activity. * About 1.2 million years ago, a magma chamber formed under the sea floor and began to erupt. * About 700 thousand years ago, the island had been formed through volcanic activity. Volcanic activity then stopped for approximately 100 thousand years. * About 300 thousand years ago, volcanic activity restarted along the coastline. * About 100 thousand years ago, volcanic activity formed Halla Mountain. * About 25 thousand years ago, lateral eruptions around Halla Mountain left multiple oreum (smaller 'parasitic' cones on the flanks of the primary cone). * Volcanic activity stopped and prolonged weathering and erosion helped shape the island.

CLIMATE

Jeju has a humid subtropical climate , making it warmer than that of the rest of South Korea . Four distinct seasons are experienced on Jeju; winters are cool and dry while summers are hot, humid, and sometimes rainy.

In January 2016, a cold wave affected the region. Snow and frigid weather forced the cancellation of 1,200 flights on Jejudo, stranding approximately 90,300 passengers.

CLIMATE DATA FOR JEJU CITY, JEJUDO (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 9.4 (48.9) 12.8 (55) 17.5 (63.5) 21.6 (70.9) 24.8 (76.6) 29.0 (84.2) 29.8 (85.6) 25.8 (78.4) 21.3 (70.3) 16.0 (60.8) 11.0 (51.8) 18.9 (66)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 5.7 (42.3) 6.4 (43.5) 9.4 (48.9) 13.8 (56.8) 17.8 (64) 21.5 (70.7) 25.8 (78.4) 26.8 (80.2) 23.0 (73.4) 18.2 (64.8) 12.8 (55) 8.1 (46.6) 15.8 (60.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 3.2 (37.8) 3.6 (38.5) 6.1 (43) 10.2 (50.4) 14.4 (57.9) 18.7 (65.7) 23.3 (73.9) 24.3 (75.7) 20.4 (68.7) 15.1 (59.2) 9.8 (49.6) 5.3 (41.5) 12.9 (55.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 65.2 (2.567) 62.6 (2.465) 88.6 (3.488) 89.6 (3.528) 96.4 (3.795) 181.4 (7.142) 239.9 (9.445) 262.5 (10.335) 221.6 (8.724) 80.3 (3.161) 61.9 (2.437) 47.7 (1.878) 1,497.6 (58.961)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 12.6 10.3 11.2 10.0 10.4 11.8 12.5 13.5 10.8 7.0 9.3 10.8 130.2

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 65.3 64.9 64.9 66.5 70.4 76.8 78.3 76.5 73.7 66.9 65.1 65.1 69.6

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 70.4 105.4 158.9 194.4 211.9 170.9 195.6 195.6 161.7 178.5 126.0 84.8 1,854.1

Source: Korea Meteorological Administration

CLIMATE DATA FOR SEOGWIPO-SI, JEJUDO (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 10.7 (51.3) 11.6 (52.9) 14.4 (57.9) 18.5 (65.3) 22.0 (71.6) 24.6 (76.3) 28.3 (82.9) 30.1 (86.2) 27.4 (81.3) 23.4 (74.1) 18.2 (64.8) 13.2 (55.8) 20.2 (68.4)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 7.8 (46) 10.6 (51.1) 14.8 (58.6) 18.6 (65.5) 21.7 (71.1) 25.6 (78.1) 27.1 (80.8) 23.9 (75) 19.3 (66.7) 14.1 (57.4) 9.3 (48.7) 16.6 (61.9)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 3.6 (38.5) 4.4 (39.9) 7.1 (44.8) 11.3 (52.3) 15.3 (59.5) 19.2 (66.6) 23.5 (74.3) 24.6 (76.3) 21.1 (70) 15.9 (60.6) 10.6 (51.1) 5.9 (42.6) 13.5 (56.3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 61.0 (2.402) 77.1 (3.035) 131.2 (5.165) 174.9 (6.886) 205.8 (8.102) 276.9 (10.902) 309.8 (12.197) 291.6 (11.48) 196.6 (7.74) 81.6 (3.213) 71.4 (2.811) 45.1 (1.776) 1,923 (75.709)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 10.3 9.5 11.0 10.5 10.7 12.9 14.3 14.2 10.3 6.1 7.4 8.1 125.3

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 62.8 62.1 62.4 64.5 69.9 78.2 84.1 79.0 72.5 63.9 63.2 62.2 68.7

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 152.2 152.6 174.0 190.9 199.0 144.2 142.1 184.2 176.1 207.1 170.5 161.8 2,054.7

Source: Korea Meteorological Administration

CLIMATE DATA FOR SEONGSAN-EUP, JEJUDO (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 9.0 (48.2) 10.2 (50.4) 13.4 (56.1) 17.8 (64) 21.6 (70.9) 24.2 (75.6) 27.9 (82.2) 29.5 (85.1) 26.5 (79.7) 22.0 (71.6) 16.6 (61.9) 11.4 (52.5) 19.2 (66.6)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 5.4 (41.7) 6.2 (43.2) 9.3 (48.7) 13.6 (56.5) 17.5 (63.5) 20.8 (69.4) 24.9 (76.8) 26.3 (79.3) 23.1 (73.6) 18.0 (64.4) 12.5 (54.5) 7.6 (45.7) 15.4 (59.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 2.4 (36.3) 5.2 (41.4) 9.2 (48.6) 13.5 (56.3) 17.6 (63.7) 22.4 (72.3) 23.6 (74.5) 20.2 (68.4) 14.2 (57.6) 8.4 (47.1) 3.9 (39) 11.9 (53.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 83.2 (3.276) 69.7 (2.744) 142.2 (5.598) 150.1 (5.909) 177.7 (6.996) 223.7 (8.807) 283.2 (11.15) 360.6 (14.197) 228.4 (8.992) 90.8 (3.575) 85.1 (3.35) 72.0 (2.835) 1,966.8 (77.433)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 11.1 9.1 10.9 9.1 9.4 12.4 13.0 13.6 9.8 5.8 7.7 8.9 120.8

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 67.5 65.1 65.0 66.7 71.4 81.1 84.4 80.6 75.3 68.4 67.8 67.6 71.7

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 122.5 146.9 170.1 192.9 205.3 145.6 157.4 173.4 157.2 187.8 155.5 130.3 1,944.7

Source: Korea Meteorological Administration

CLIMATE DATA FOR GOSAN-RI, JEJUDO (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.6 (47.5) 9.4 (48.9) 12.3 (54.1) 16.5 (61.7) 20.0 (68) 23.4 (74.1) 27.3 (81.1) 29.1 (84.4) 26.0 (78.8) 21.2 (70.2) 16.2 (61.2) 11.2 (52.2) 18.4 (65.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 6.2 (43.2) 6.7 (44.1) 9.3 (48.7) 13.3 (55.9) 16.8 (62.2) 20.6 (69.1) 24.7 (76.5) 26.2 (79.2) 23.1 (73.6) 18.3 (64.9) 13.3 (55.9) 8.6 (47.5) 15.6 (60.1)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 3.8 (38.8) 4.2 (39.6) 6.5 (43.7) 10.4 (50.7) 14.2 (57.6) 18.3 (64.9) 22.7 (72.9) 23.9 (75) 20.6 (69.1) 15.7 (60.3) 10.7 (51.3) 6.1 (43) 13.1 (55.6)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 43.9 (1.728) 46.9 (1.846) 75.8 (2.984) 86.4 (3.402) 110.2 (4.339) 148.7 (5.854) 178.0 (7.008) 201.8 (7.945) 116.2 (4.575) 45.7 (1.799) 57.4 (2.26) 31.7 (1.248) 1,142.8 (44.992)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 11.4 9.1 10.9 9.3 10.1 11.8 11.9 13.4 9.3 6.1 8.0 9.7 121

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 67.0 68.4 69.5 73.2 79.5 85.1 88.4 83.2 77.2 69.0 67.1 66.0 74.5

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 90.9 126.5 167.0 196.3 201.6 158.0 176.6 215.5 187.8 207.2 153.6 108.4 1,989.2

Source: Korea Meteorological Administration

CLIMATE DATA FOR WITSE OREUM, JEJUDO (2003–2009, ELEVATION 1,672M)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −1.6 (29.1) 0.9 (33.6) 3.4 (38.1) 10.0 (50) 14.9 (58.8) 18.1 (64.6) 20.3 (68.5) 20.6 (69.1) 18.1 (64.6) 13.2 (55.8) 6.8 (44.2) 0.0 (32) 10.4 (50.7)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −5.9 (21.4) −3.5 (25.7) −0.8 (30.6) 5.2 (41.4) 10.3 (50.5) 14.0 (57.2) 17.4 (63.3) 17.4 (63.3) 14.2 (57.6) 8.2 (46.8) 2.2 (36) −3.5 (25.7) 6.4 (43.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −9.1 (15.6) −7.5 (18.5) −5.1 (22.8) 0.7 (33.3) 5.7 (42.3) 10.4 (50.7) 14.7 (58.5) 14.5 (58.1) 11.0 (51.8) 4.3 (39.7) −0.9 (30.4) −6.6 (20.1) 2.7 (36.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 46.9 (1.846) 128.0 (5.039) 301.2 (11.858) 426.1 (16.776) 653.1 (25.713) 651.9 (25.665) 742.3 (29.224) 836.4 (32.929) 526.7 (20.736) 126.5 (4.98) 165.8 (6.528) 64.6 (2.543) 4,669.4 (183.835)

Source: Jeju Regional Meteorological Administration

PLACES OF INTEREST

Seongsan Ilchulbong or "Sunrise Peak"

* Manjanggul Lava Tube, 8 km long with a 1 km publicly accessible portion * Seongsan Ilchulbong or "Sunrise Peak," a volcanic tuff cone and crater * Mount Hallasan
Hallasan
, the island's central dominant peak * Seongeup Folk Village * Jeju Teddy Bear Museum * Jeju Loveland , a sex themed sculpture park * O\'Sulloc Tea Museum .

UTILITIES

The island's power-grid is connected to mainland plants by the HVDC Haenam–Cheju , and electricity is also provided by generators located on the island. As of 2001, there were four power plants on Jeju, with more under planning and construction. The most notable of these are the gas-fired generators of Jeju Thermal Power Plant, located in Jeju City. The present-day generators of this plant were constructed from 1982 onwards, replacing earlier structures that dated from 1968. As elsewhere in Korea, the power supply is overseen by the Korea Electric Power Corporation , or KEPCO.

In February 2012, the governor of the state of Hawaii
Hawaii
(USA), Neil Abercrombie, and the director of the Electricity Market and Smart Grid Division at the Korea Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Choi Kyu-Chong, signed a letter of intent to share information about Smart Grid technology. The Jeju Smart Grid was initially installed in 6,000 homes in Gujwa-eup and is being expanded. South Korea is using the pilot program of the Smart Grid on Jejudo as the testing ground in order to implement a nationwide Smart Grid by 2030.

TRANSPORTATION

As of 2012, the Seoul – Jeju City air route is by a significant margin the world\'s busiest , with 10,156,000 passengers flown between the two cities that year.

CHEJU/JEJU NAVAL BASE

Main article: Jeju Naval Base

In 1993 the Republic of Korea
Republic of Korea
(ROK) began planning a naval base on Jejudo (Jeju) Island, and in 2007, construction began in the village of Gangjeong, with planned completion by 2011. The base was planned to accommodate 20 warships, three submarines and two 150,000-ton cruise ships , as a private-military complex port, similar to those in Sydney and Hawaii
Hawaii
. Jeju residents, environmentalists, and opposition parties opposed the base, causing delays in the construction schedule. The base was completed in 2016 and the official name is the _Jeju Civilian-Military Complex Port_. Activists opposed to the plan claim environmental hazards will damage the “ Island
Island
of Peace” designated as such by the government.

SEE ALSO

* South Korea portal * Islands portal * Geography portal

* Jeju language * Jeju Province * Jeju Uprising * Jeju City * Jeju International Airport * Alddreu Airfield * Jeju black cattle , indigenous cattle breed * Jeju horse , indigenous horse breed

REFERENCES

* ^ "Unesco names World Heritage sites". BBC News . June 28, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2010. * ^ "The Island
Island
of Quelpart". JSTOR 198722 . Missing or empty url= (help ) * ^ "Quelpart Island
Island
and Its People". JSTOR 208503 . Missing or empty url= (help ) * ^ "The Queen of Quelparte". * ^ "The Name of Quelpaert Island". * ^ "Jeju Island
Island
Facts". * ^ Sansom, George (1961). _A History of Japan, 1334–1615_. Stanford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 0804705259 . * ^ Hugh Deane (1999). _The Korean War, 1945-1953_. China Books&Periodicals, Inc. pp. 54–58. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Merrill, John (1980). "Cheju-do Rebellion". _The Journal of Korean Studies_: 139–197. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Deane, Hugh (1999). _The Korean War 1945-1953_. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals Inc. pp. 54–58. ISBN 0-8351-2644-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kim, Hun Joon (2014). _The Massacre at Mt. Halla: Sixty Years of Truth Seeking in South Korea_. Cornell University Press. pp. 13–41. ISBN 9780801452390 . * ^ Hideko takayama in tokyo (June 19, 2000). "Ghosts Of Cheju". newsweek . Retrieved 2009-03-30. * ^ O, John Kie-Chiang (1999). "Korean Politics: The Quest for Democratization and Economic Development". Cornell University Press. * ^ Song Jung Hee, Islanders still mourn April 3 massacre, _Jeju Weekly_, March 3, 2010 * ^ Map of Korea: Cheju Island
Island
The People's Korea. Accessed 8 July 2012 * ^ _A_ _B_ Woo, Kyung; Sohn, Young; Ahn, Ung; Spate, Andy (January 2013), "Geology of Jeju Island", _Jeju Island
Island
Geopark - A Volcanic Wonder of Korea_: 13–14, doi :10.1007/978-3-642-20564-4_5 * ^ Jeong, Gwang-jung, 2004, Gotjawal and the livelihood of Jeju's People, 2004, Jeju Educational College, V. 33, pp. 41–65. 정광중, 2004, 곶자왈과 제주인의 삶, 제주교육대학교 논문집. http://www.riss4u.net/link?id=A35499718, page 49 * ^ Yim, Eun-young, 2007, Bryophyte Flora of Dongbaek-dongsan, Jeju-do, Cheju National University, M.A. thesis. 임은영, 2007, 제주도 동백동산의 선태식물상, 제주대학교 석사학위논문. http://www.riss4u.net/link?id=U10812496_003 * ^ Jang, Yong-chang and Chanwon Lee, 2009, " Gotjawal Forest as an internationally important wetland," _Journal of Korean Wetlands Studies_, 2009, Vol 1. * ^ "Ramsar site list" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 14, 2009. Retrieved 2007-06-20. Accessed June 2009 * ^ "제주특별자치도 자연환경생태정보시스템". _nature.jeju.go.kr_. Archived from the original on 2016-07-12. Retrieved 2016-03-14. * ^ Ap, Tiffany (January 25, 2016). "Deaths, travel disruption as bitter cold grips Asia". CNN . Retrieved January 25, 2016. * ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 제주(184)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. * ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 서귀포(189)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. * ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 성산(188)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. * ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 고산(185)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. * ^ "제주도상세기후특성집(2010) 윗세오름(871)". Jeju Regional Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-11-30. * ^ "Jeju Thermal P/P". _Korea Midland Power website_. Archived from the original on June 16, 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2005. * ^ "Korea and Hawaii
Hawaii
join forces in Smart Grid venture". The Jeju Weekly. Feb 24, 2012. Retrieved Mar 5, 2012. * ^ http://www.amadeus.com/web/amadeus/en_1A-corporate/Amadeus-Home/News-and-events/News/2013_04_17_300-world-super-routes-attract/1319560217161-Page-AMAD_DetailPpal?assetid=1319526516400 2016-02-29, - Retrieved 2017-03-05 * ^ _Save Jeju Now_- Retrieved 2017-03-05 * ^ Cheju / Jeju Naval Base: GlobalSecurity.org- Retrieved 2017-03-05

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to Jeju at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates : 33°23′N 126°32′E / 33.38°N 126.53°E / 33.38; 126.53

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 255880237 * NDL : 00634900

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