JEAN OMER MARIE GABRIEL MONNET (French: ; 9 November 1888 – 16
March 1979) was a French political economist and diplomat. An
influential supporter of European unity , he is considered as one of
the founding fathers of the
* 1 Early years * 2 World War I * 3 Inter-war years * 4 World War II * 5 The Monnet Plan * 6 Common Market * 7 Private life * 8 Legacy * 9 The Jean Monnet House * 10 See also * 11 Bibliography * 12 References * 13 External links
Monnet was born in
Cognac , a commune in the department of Charente
in France, into a family of cognac merchants. At the age of sixteen,
he abandoned his university entrance examinations part way through and
moved to the United Kingdom , where he spent several years in London
with Mr. Chaplin, an agent of his father's company. Subsequently, he
traveled widely – to
WORLD WAR I
Monnet firmly believed that the only path to an Allied victory lay in combining the war efforts of Britain and France, and he reflected on a concept that would coordinate war resources. In 1914, young Monnet was allowed to meet French Premier René Viviani on this issue and he managed to convince the French government to agree with him, in principle. However, during the first two years of the war, Monnet did not have much success pressing for a better organization of the allied economic cooperation. It was not until two years later that stronger combines like the Wheat Executive (end of 1916) and the Allied Maritime Transport Council (end of 1917) were set into motion, adding to the overall war effort.
At the Paris Peace Conference , Monnet was an assistant to the French minister of commerce and industry, Etienne Clémentel, who proposed a "new economic order" based on European cooperation. The scheme was officially rejected by the Allies in April 1919.
Due to his contributions to the war effort, Monnet, at the age of
thirty-one, was named Deputy Secretary General of the League of
Nations by French premier
Georges Clemenceau and British statesman
Soon disillusioned with the League because of its laborious and
unanimous decision-making processes, Monnet resigned in 1923 and
devoted himself to managing the family business, which was
experiencing difficulties. In 1925, Monnet moved to America to accept
a partnership in Blair & Co., a New York bank which merged with Bank
of America in 1929, forming Bancamerica-Blair Corporation which was
owned by Transamerica Corporation. He returned to international
politics and, as an international financier, proved to be instrumental
to the economic recovery of several Central and Eastern European
nations. He helped stabilise the Polish złoty in 1927 and the
Romanian leu in 1928. In November 1932, the Chinese Minister of
In 1935, when Monnet was still in Shanghai, he became a business partner of George Murnane (a former colleague of Monnet at Transamerica ) in Monnet, Murnane "> French conclude agreement on lend-lease and reverse lend-lease. Jean Monnet, representative of the French Provisional Government signs agreements. Left to right: Henri Bonnet , French Ambassador, Joseph C. Grew , Undersecretary of State and Jean Monnet.
Following World War II,
In 1945, Monnet proposed the Monnet Plan, also known as the "Theory of l'Engrenage" (not to be confused with the Schuman plan ). It included taking control of the remaining German coal-producing areas and redirecting the production away from the German industry and into the French, thus permanently weakening Germany and raising the French economy considerably above its pre-war levels. The plan was adopted by Charles de Gaulle in early 1946.
Later that year, Monnet successfully negotiated the Blum–Byrnes
agreement with the United States, which cleared
When tensions between
Through the consolidation of basic production and the institution of a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and the other countries that join, this proposal represents the first concrete step towards a European federation, imperative for the preservation of peace.
When Germany agreed to join the European Coal and Steel Community
according to the Schuman Plan in 1951, the ongoing dismantling of
German industry was halted and some of the restrictions on German
industrial output were lifted.
West Germany joined the ECSC,
He was the first to be bestowed Honorary Citizen of Europe by the European Council of the European Union, for extraordinary work to promote European cooperation on April 2nd, 1976. Following this he also was the person alive displayed on a German stamp, that was not a German head of state.
Main article: European Economic Community
In 1955, Monnet founded the Action Committee for the United States of
Europe in order to revive European construction following the failure
European Defense Community (EDC). It brought political parties
and European trade unions together to become a driving force behind
the initiatives which laid the foundation for the
On 6 December 1963, Monnet was presented with the Presidential Medal
of Freedom , with
Memory plaque set up by the
In August 1929, during a dinner party in Paris, the 41-year-old Monnet met 22-year-old Italian painter Silvia Giannini (born in Bondini in 1907), who had recently married Francisco Giannini, an employee of Monnet when he was a representative in Italy. In April 1931, Silvia gave birth to a daughter, Anna, whose legal father was Giannini.
Since divorce wasn't allowed in most European countries, Silvia and
The idea for the Moscow marriage came from Dr. Ludwik Rajchman, whom Monnet had met during his time at the League of Nations (Rajchman was connected to the Soviet Ambassador to China, Bogomolov). It seems that the American and French ambassadors in Moscow, William Bullitt and Charles Aiphand, also played a role.
The custody of Anna was a problem; in 1935 Silvia took refuge with
Anna in the Soviet consulate in Shanghai, where they were living at
the time, because Francisco Giannini was trying to obtain custody of
the child. The legal battle was decided in favour of Silvia in 1937 in
New York, but the ruling wasn't recognized by some other countries. In
1941 Monnet and Silvia had another daughter, Marianne. The Monnet
family returned to
Several other European universities honour Monnet and his
University of Limerick , Ireland, has a lecture
theatre named after him, and British educational institutions which
honour Monnet include the
In April 2011, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Paris, a new documentary, _"Jean Monnet: Father of Europe"_ was produced. The documentary includes interviews with colleagues of Monnet such as Georges Berthoin (fr), Max Kohnstamm and Jacques-René Rabier, as well as former member of the European Court of Justice David A.O. Edward of the United Kingdom.
THE JEAN MONNET HOUSE
The Jean Monnet House is located in Houjarray, Yvelines, 80
kilometers (50 miles) outside of Paris. This old farm became Jean
Monnet’s property in 1945, upon his return to France. It is even
* Fransen, Frederic J. (2001). _The Supranational Politics of Jean Monnet_. Praeger . ISBN 978-0-313-31829-0 . * Lacouture, Jean. _De Gaulle: The Rebel 1890–1944_ (1984; English ed. 1991), ISBN 978-0-841-90927-4 * Jean Monnet: _Memoirs_, London 1978. * Jean Monnet: _The First Statesman of Interdependence_ by Francois Duchene (1994); ISBN 0-393-03497-6 * Christophe Le Dréau, « Quelle Europe ? Les projets d’Union franco-britannique (1938–1940) », dans Actes du Colloque RICHIE de mars 2005, Quelle(s) Europe(s) ? Nouvelles approaches en histoire de l'intégration européenne, Bruxelles, Peter Lang, 2006. * "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe" documentary by Don C. Smith, Denver, Colorado, 2011. * Wells, Sherill Brown. _Jean Monnet: Unconventional Statesman_ (Lynne Rienner Publishers; 2011) 279 pages; a political biography
* ^ Denver, Educational Technology, Sturm College of Law,
University of. "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe - Sturm College of Law".
_www.law.du.edu_. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
* ^ Times obituary
* ^ MacMillan, Margaret. "Paris 1919". Random House, 2002, p. 183
* ^ "Le Cercle member: Jean Monnet". Retrieved 3 May 2015.
* ^ ""Europe\'s founder" Jean Monnet" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
* ^ 2003, Charles D. Ellis, James R. Vertin, 'Wall Street People:
True Stories of the Great Barons of Finance', Volume 2, p. 28-30
(biography of Andre Meyer)
* ^ Monnet, Jean (1 January 1976), _Memoires_, Paris: Arthème
Fayard, pp. 20–21, ISBN 2-213-00402-1
* ^ Lacouture 1991, pp219-23
* ^ Lacouture 1991, pp236-7
* ^ "Le Comité français de la libération nationale".
_Digithèque MJP_. Retrieved 2015-06-09.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Mr Jean Monnet", _The Times_, 16 November 1979
* ^ Irwin M. Wall (1991). _The United States and the Making of
Postwar France, 1945–1954_. Cambridge U.P. p. 55.
* ^ Amos Yoder, _"The