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Jean-Paul Marat
Jean-Paul Marat
(French: [ʒɑ̃pɔl maʁa]; 24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist, physician, and scientist[1] who became best known for his role as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution. His journalism became renowned for its fierce tone, uncompromising stance towards the new leaders and institutions of the revolution, and advocacy of basic human rights for the poorest members of society, yet calling for prisoners of the Revolution to be killed before they could be freed in what became known as the September Massacres.[2] He was one of the most radical voices of the French Revolution. He became a vigorous defender of the sans-culottes, publishing his views in pamphlets, placards and newspapers, notably his periodical L'Ami du peuple (Friend of the People), which helped make him their unofficial link with the radical, republican Jacobin
Jacobin
group that came to power after June 1793. Marat was assassinated by Charlotte Corday, a Girondin
Girondin
sympathizer, while taking a medicinal bath for his debilitating skin condition. In death, Marat became an icon to the Jacobins as a revolutionary martyr, as portrayed in Jacques-Louis David's famous painting, The Death of Marat. For this assassination, Corday was executed four days later, on 17 July 1793.

Contents

1 Early life, education and writings 2 Scientific writing

2.1 Recherches Physiques sur le Feu 2.2 Découvertes sur la Lumière 2.3 Recherches Physiques sur L'Électricité

3 Other pre-Revolutionary writing 4 L'Ami du peuple 5 The National Convention 6 Death

6.1 Memory in the Revolution 6.2 Skin disease 6.3 Tub

7 Works 8 Notes 9 See also 10 References

Early life, education and writings[edit] Jean-Paul Marat
Jean-Paul Marat
was born in Boudry
Boudry
in the Prussian Principality of Neuchâtel, now part of Switzerland, on 24 May 1743.[3] He was the second of nine children born to Jean Mara (Giovanni Mara), a native of Cagliari, Sardinia, and Louise Cabrol, a French Huguenot
Huguenot
from Castres. His father was a Mercedarian
Mercedarian
"commendator" and religious refugee who converted to Calvinism in Geneva. At the age of sixteen, Marat left home in search of new opportunities, aware of the limited opportunities for outsiders. His highly educated father had been turned down for several college (secondary) teaching posts. His first stop was with the wealthy Nairac family in Bordeaux. After two years there he moved on to Paris where he studied medicine without gaining any formal qualifications. Moving to London in 1765, for fear of being "drawn into dissipation," he set himself up informally as a doctor, befriended the Royal Academician artist Angelica Kauffman, and began to mix with Italian artists and architects in the coffee houses around Soho. Highly ambitious, but without patronage or qualifications, he set about inserting himself into the intellectual scene with works on philosophy ("A philosophical Essay on Man," published 1773) and political theory ("Chains of Slavery," published 1774).[4] Voltaire's sharp critique of "De l'Homme" (an augmented translation, published 1775–76), partly in defence of his protégé Helvétius, reinforced Marat's growing sense of a widening gulf between the philosophes, grouped around Voltaire
Voltaire
on one hand, and their "opponents," loosely grouped around Rousseau
Rousseau
on the other.[4] Around 1770, Marat moved to Newcastle upon Tyne. His first political work, Chains of Slavery, inspired by the extra-parliamentary activities of the disenfranchised MP, and later Mayor of London, John Wilkes, was most probably compiled in the central library there. By Marat's own colourful account, he lived on black coffee for three months, during its composition, sleeping only two hours a night, and then, after finishing, sleeping soundly for thirteen days in a row.[5] He gave it the subtitle, "A work in which the clandestine and villainous attempts of Princes to ruin Liberty are pointed out, and the dreadful scenes of Despotism disclosed." It earned him honorary membership of the patriotic societies of Berwick-upon-Tweed, Carlisle and Newcastle. The Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society Library[6] possesses a copy, and Tyne and Wear Archives Service
Tyne and Wear Archives Service
holds three presented to the various Newcastle guilds. A published essay on curing a friend of gleets (gonorrhoea) probably helped to secure his medical referees for an MD from the University of St Andrews in June 1775.[7] On his return to London, he published Enquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of a Singular Disease of the Eyes. In 1776, Marat moved to Paris following a brief stopover in Geneva
Geneva
to visit his family. Here his growing reputation as a highly effective doctor, along with the patronage of the Marquis de l'Aubespine, the husband of one of his patients, secured his appointment, in June 1777, as physician to the bodyguard of the comte d'Artois, Louis XVI's youngest brother who was to become king Charles X in 1824.[8] The position paid 2,000 livres a year plus allowances. Scientific writing[edit] Marat was soon in great demand as a court doctor among the aristocracy and he used his new-found wealth to set up a laboratory in the marquise de l'Aubespine's house. Soon he was publishing works on fire and heat, electricity and light. He published, first, a summary of his scientific views and discoveries in Découvertes de M. Marat sur le feu, l'électricité et la lumière (Mr Marat's Discoveries on Fire, Electricity and Light) in 1779. He then went on to publish three much more detailed and extensive works, expanding on each of his areas of research. His method was to describe in detail the meticulous series of experiments he had undertaken on a problem, seeking to explore and then exclude all possible conclusions but the one he reached. Recherches Physiques sur le Feu[edit] The first of Marat's large-scale publications detailing his experiments and drawing conclusions from them was Recherches Physiques sur le Feu (Research into the Physics of Fire), which was published in 1780 with the approval of the official censors.[9] This describes 166 experiments conducted to demonstrate that fire was not, as was widely held, a material element but an "igneous fluid." He asked the Academy of Sciences to appraise his work, and it appointed a commission to do so, which reported in April 1779. The report avoided endorsing Marat's conclusions but did speak of his "new, precise and well-executed experiments, appropriately and ingeniously designed." Marat then published his work, with the claim that the Academy approved of its contents. Since the Academy had endorsed his methods but said nothing to agree with his conclusions, this claim drew the ire of Antoine Lavoisier, who demanded that the Academy repudiate it. When the Academy did so, this marked the beginning of worsening relations between Marat and many of its leading members. A number of them, including Lavoisier himself, as well as Condorcet and Laplace took a strong dislike to Marat. However, Lamarck and Lacépède wrote positively about Marat's experiments and conclusions.[10] Découvertes sur la Lumière[edit] In Marat's time, Newton's views on light and colour were regarded almost universally as definitive, yet Marat's explicit purpose in his second major work Découvertes sur la Lumière (Discoveries on Light) was to demonstrate that in certain key areas, Newton was wrong. The focus of Marat's work was the study of how light bends around objects, and his main argument was that while Newton held that white light was broken down into colours by refraction, the colours were actually caused by diffraction. When a beam of sunlight shone through an aperture, passed through a prism and projected colour onto a wall, the splitting of the light into colours took place not in the prism, as Newton maintained, but at the edges of the aperture itself.[11] Marat also sought to demonstrate that there are only three primary colours, rather than seven as Newton had argued.[12] Once again, Marat requested the Academy of Sciences review his work, and it set up a commission to do so. Over a period of seven months, from June 1779 to January 1780, Marat performed his experiments in the presence of the commissioners so that they could appraise his methods and conclusions. The drafting of their final report was assigned to Jean-Baptiste Le Roy. The report was finally produced after many delays in May 1780, and consisted of just three short paragraphs. Significantly, the report concluded that "these experiments are so very numerous...[but]...they do not appear to us to prove what the author believes they establish." The Academy declined to endorse Marat's work.[13] When it was published, Découvertes sur la lumière did not carry the royal approbation. According to the title page it was printed in London, meaning either that Marat could not get the official censor to approve it, or he did not want to spend the time and effort to do so. Recherches Physiques sur L'Électricité[edit] Marat's third major work, Recherches Physiques sur l'Électricité (Research on the Physics of Electricity), outlined 214 experiments. One of his major areas of interest was in electrical attraction and repulsion. Repulsion, he held, was not a basic force of nature. He addressed a number of other areas of enquiry in his work, concluding with a section on lightning rods which argued that those with pointed ends were more effective than those with blunt ends, and denouncing the idea of "earthquake rods" advocated by Pierre Bertholon de Saint-Lazare. This book was published with the censor's stamp of approval, but Marat did not seek the endorsement of the Academy of Sciences.[14] In April 1783,[15] he resigned his court appointment and devoted his energies full-time to scientific research. Apart from his major works, during this period Marat published shorter essays on the medical use of electricity (Mémoire sur l'électricité médicale (1783)) and on optics (Notions élémentaires d'optique (1784)). He published a well-received translation of Newton's Opticks
Opticks
(1787), which was still in print until recently, and later a collection of essays on his experimental findings, including a study on the effect of light on soap bubbles in his Mémoires académiques, ou nouvelles découvertes sur la lumière ("Academic memoirs, or new discoveries on light," 1788). Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
visited him on several occasions and Goethe described his rejection by the Academy as a glaring example of scientific despotism. Other pre-Revolutionary writing[edit] In 1782, Marat published his "favourite work," a Plan de législation criminelle. It was a polemic for penal reform, inspired by Rousseau and Cesare Beccaria, which had been entered into a competition announced by the Berne economic society in February 1777 and backed by Frederick the Great and Voltaire. Marat's entry contained many radical ideas, including the argument that society should provide fundamental (natural) needs, such as food and shelter, if it expected all its citizens to follow its (civil) laws, that the king was no more than the "first magistrate" of his people, that there should be a common death penalty regardless of class, and that each town should have a dedicated "avocat des pauvres" and set up independent criminal tribunals with twelve-man juries to ensure a fair trial. L'Ami du peuple[edit] On the eve of the French Revolution, Marat placed his career as a scientist and doctor behind him and took up his pen on behalf of the Third Estate. In 1788, when the Assembly of Notables advised Louis XVI to assemble of the Estates-General for the first time in 175 years, Marat devoted himself entirely to politics. In January 1789, he published his Offrande à la Patrie ("Offering to the Nation") which touched on some of the same points as the Abbé Sieyès' famous "Qu'est-ce que le Tiers État?" ("What is the Third Estate?"). This was followed by a "Supplément de l'Offrande" in March, followed in July by La Constitution, ou Projet de déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen, intended to influence the drafting of France's new constitution, then being debated in the National Assembly. On 12 September 1789, Marat began his own newspaper, entitled Publiciste parisien, before changing its name four days later to L'Ami du peuple ("The People's friend"). From this position, he often attacked the most influential and powerful groups in Paris, including the Commune, the Constituent Assembly, the ministers, and the Châtelet. In January 1790, he moved to the radical Cordeliers section, then under the leadership of the lawyer Danton, was nearly arrested for his aggressive attacks against Jacques Necker, Louis XVI's popular Finance Minister, and was forced to flee to London. In May, he returned to Paris to continue publication of L'Ami du peuple and briefly ran a second newspaper in June 1790 called Le Junius français named after the notorious English polemicist Junius. Marat faced the problem of counterfeiters distributing falsified versions of L'Ami du peuple, which led him to call for police intervention, which resulted in the suppression of the fraudulent issues, leaving Marat the continuing sole author of L'Ami de peuple. During this period, Marat made regular attacks on the more conservative revolutionary leaders. In a pamphlet from 26 July 1790, entitled "C'en est fait de nous" ("We're done for!"), he warned against counter-revolutionaries, advising, "five or six hundred heads cut off would have assured your repose, freedom and happiness."[16] Between 1790 and 1792, Marat was often forced into hiding, sometimes in the Paris sewers, where he almost certainly aggravated his debilitating chronic skin disease (possibly dermatitis herpetiformis).[17] In January 1792, he married the 26-year-old Simonne Evrard[18] in a common-law ceremony on his return from exile in London, having previously expressed his love for her. She was the sister-in-law of his typographer, Jean-Antoine Corne, and had lent him money and sheltered him on several occasions. Marat only emerged publicly on the 10 August insurrection, when the Tuileries Palace
Tuileries Palace
was invaded and the royal family forced to shelter within the Legislative Assembly. The spark for this uprising was the Brunswick Manifesto, which called for the crushing of the Revolution and helped to inflame popular outrage in Paris. Marat was a leading proponent of the September Massacres
September Massacres
(2-7 Sep 1792), which took place out of a fear that foreign and royalist armies would attack Paris and that the inmates of the city's prisons would be freed and join them. He called on draftees to kill the prisoners before they could be freed.[19] The action was undertaken by mobs of National Guardsmen and some fédérés[20] and, by 6 September, half the prison population of Paris had been summarily executed: some 1200 to 1400 prisoners. Of these, 233 were nonjuring Catholic priests; most of the remainder were common criminals.[21] No one was prosecuted for the killings.[22] The National Convention[edit] Main article: National Convention

"Marat's Triumph": a popular engraving of Marat borne away by a joyous crowd following his acquittal.

Marat was elected to the National Convention
National Convention
in September 1792 as one of 26 Paris deputies, although he belonged to no party. When France was declared a Republic on 22 September, Marat renamed his L'Ami du peuple as Le Journal de la République française ("Journal of the French Republic"). His stance during the trial of the deposed king Louis XVI was unique. He declared it unfair to accuse Louis of anything before his acceptance of the French Constitution of 1791, and although implacably, he said, believing that the monarch's death would be good for the people, defended Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, the King's counsel, as a "sage et respectable vieillard" ("wise and respected old man"). On 21 January 1793, Louis XVI was guillotined, which caused political turmoil. From January to May, Marat fought bitterly with the Girondins, whom he believed to be covert enemies of republicanism. Marat’s hatred of the Girondins
Girondins
became increasingly heated which led him to call for the use of violent tactics against them. The Girondins fought back and demanded that Marat be tried before the Revolutionary Tribunal. After attempting to avoid arrest for several days Marat was finally imprisoned. On 24 April, he was brought before the Tribunal on the charges that he had printed in his paper statements calling for widespread murder as well as the suspension of the Convention. Marat decisively defended his actions, stating that he had no evil intentions directed against the Convention. Marat was acquitted of all charges to the riotous celebrations of his supporters. Death[edit] See also: Charlotte Corday The fall of the Girondins
Girondins
on 2 June, helped by the actions of François Hanriot, the new leader of the National Guard, was one of Marat's last achievements. Forced to retire from the Convention as a result of his worsening skin disease, he continued to work from home, where he soaked in a medicinal bath. Now that the Montagnards no longer needed his support in the struggle against the Girondins, Robespierre and other leading Montagnards began to separate themselves from him, while the Convention largely ignored his letters.

The assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday
on 13 July 1793

Marat was in his bathtub on 13 July, when a young woman from Caen, Charlotte Corday, appeared at his flat, claiming to have vital information on the activities of the escaped Girondins
Girondins
who had fled to Normandy. Despite his wife Simonne's protests, Marat asked for her to enter and gave her an audience by his bath, over which a board had been laid to serve as a writing desk. Their interview lasted around fifteen minutes. He asked her what was happening in Caen
Caen
and she explained, reciting a list of the offending deputies. After he had finished writing out the list, Corday claimed that he told her, "Their heads will fall within a fortnight," a statement she later changed at her trial to, "Soon I shall have them all guillotined in Paris." This was unlikely since Marat did not have the power to have anyone guillotined. At that moment, Corday rose from her chair, drawing out from her corset a five-inch kitchen knife, which she had bought earlier that day, and brought it down hard into Marat’s chest, where it pierced just under his right clavicle, opening the carotid artery, close to the heart. The massive bleeding was fatal within seconds. Slumping backwards, Marat cried out his last words to Simonne, "Aidez-moi, ma chère amie!" (" Help me, my dear friend!") and died. Corday was a Girondin
Girondin
sympathiser who came from an impoverished royalist family; her brothers were émigrés who had left to join the exiled royal princes. From her own account, and those of witnesses, it is clear that she had been inspired by Girondin
Girondin
speeches to a hatred of the Montagnards and their excesses, symbolised most powerfully in the character of Marat.[23] The Book of Days claims the motive was to "avenge the death of her friend Barboroux." Marat's assassination contributed to the mounting suspicion which fed the Terror during which thousands of the Jacobins' adversaries – both royalists and Girondins
Girondins
– were executed on charges of treason. Charlotte Corday was guillotined on 17 July 1793 for the murder. During her four-day trial, she testified that she had carried out the assassination alone, saying "I killed one man to save 100,000." Memory in the Revolution[edit]

The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
by Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis David
(1793)

Marat's assassination led to his apotheosis (glorification to a divine level). The painter Jacques-Louis David, a member of one of the two "Great Committees" (the Committee of General Security), was asked to organise a grand funeral.[24] David was also asked to paint Marat's death, and took up the task of immortalising him in the painting The Death of Marat. The extreme decomposition of Marat's body made any realistic depiction impossible, and David's work beautified the skin that was discoloured and scabbed from his chronic skin disease in an attempt to create antique virtue. The resulting painting is thus not an accurate representation of Marat's death.[25] As a result of this work, David was later criticised as glorifying the Jacobin's death. The entire National Convention
National Convention
attended Marat's funeral, and he was buried under a weeping willow in the garden of the former Club des Cordeliers
Cordeliers
(former Couvent des Cordeliers).[26] After Marat’s death, he was viewed by many as a martyr for the revolution, and was immortalized in various ways in order to preserve the values he stood for. His heart was embalmed separately and placed in an urn in an altar erected to his memory at the Cordeliers
Cordeliers
in order to inspire speeches that were similar in style to Marat’s eloquent journalism.[27] On his tomb, the inscription on a plaque read, "Unité, Indivisibilité de la République, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité ou la mort." His remains were transferred to the Panthéon on 25 November 1793 and his near messianic role in the Revolution was confirmed with the elegy: Like Jesus, Marat loved ardently the people, and only them. Like Jesus, Marat hated kings, nobles, priests, rogues and, like Jesus, he never stopped fighting against these plagues of the people. The eulogy was given by the Marquis de Sade, delegate of the Section Piques and an ally of Marat's faction in the National Convention.[28] On 19 November, the port city of Le Havre-de-Grâce changed its name to Le Havre-de-Marat and then Le Havre-Marat.[29] When the Jacobins started their dechristianisation campaign to set up the Cult of Reason of Hébert and Chaumette and Cult of the Supreme Being
Cult of the Supreme Being
of Robespierre, Marat was made a quasi-saint, and his bust often replaced crucifixes in the former churches of Paris.[30] After the Thermidorian Reaction, Marat's memory became tarnished. On 13 January 1795, Le Havre-Marat became simply Le Havre, the name it bears today. In February, his coffin was removed from the Panthéon and his busts and sculptures were destroyed. The 4 February 1795 (16 Pluviôse) issue of Le Moniteur Universel reported how, two days earlier, "his busts had been knocked off their pedestals in several theatres and that some children had carried one of these busts about the streets, insulting it [before] dumping it in the rue Montmartre sewer to shouts of 'Marat, voilà ton Panthéon!' [Marat, here is your Panthéon][31] His final resting place is the cemetery of the church of Saint-Étienne-du-Mont.[32] A bronze sculpture of Marat was removed from Parc des Buttes Chaumont and was melted down, during the Nazi
Nazi
occupation of Paris.[33] His memory lived on in the Soviet Union. Marat became a common name, and Marat Fjord
Marat Fjord
in Severnaya Zemlya
Severnaya Zemlya
was named after him. Russian battleship Petropavlovsk (Russian: Петропавловск) was renamed Marat in 1921.[34] A street in the centre of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was named after Marat (Russian: Улица Марата) on 3 January 1921, shortly after the Bolsheviks took over the city.[35] Skin disease[edit] Described during his time as a man "short in stature, deformed in person, and hideous in face,"[36] Marat has long been noted for physical irregularities. The nature of Marat's debilitating skin disease, in particular, has been an object of ongoing medical interest. Dr. Josef E. Jelinek noted that his skin disease was intensely itchy, blistering, began in the perianal region, and was associated with weight loss leading to emaciation. He was sick with it for the three years prior to his assassination, and spent most of this time in his bathtub. There were various minerals and medicines that were present in his bath while he soaked to help ease the pain caused by the disease. The bandana that is seen wrapped around his head was soaked in vinegar to reduce the severity of his discomfort.[37] Jelinek's diagnosis is dermatitis herpetiformis.[17] Tub[edit] After Marat's death, his wife may have sold his bathtub to her journalist neighbour, as it was included in an inventory of his possessions. The royalist de Saint-Hilaire bought the tub, taking it to Sarzeau, Morbihan in Brittany. His daughter, Capriole de Saint-Hilaire inherited it when he died in 1805 and she passed it on to the Sarzeau
Sarzeau
curé when she died in 1862. A journalist for Le Figaro tracked down the tub in 1885. The curé then discovered that selling the tub could earn money for the parish, yet the Musée Carnavalet turned it down because of its lack of provenance as well as its high price. The curé approached Madame Tussaud's waxworks, who agreed to purchase Marat's bathtub for 100,000 francs, but the curé's acceptance was lost in the mail. After rejecting other offers, including one from Phineas Barnum, the curé sold the tub for 5,000 francs to the Musée Grévin, where it remains today.[38] The tub was in the shape of an old-fashioned high-buttoned shoe and had a copper lining.[37] Works[edit]

A Philosophical Essay on Man (1773) (in English) The Chains of Slavery (1774) (in English) An Essay on Gleets &c.(1775) (in English) Enquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of a Singular Disease of the Eyes (1776) (in English) De l'Homme (1776) (translation of his 1773 English work) Découvertes de M. Marat sur le feu, l'électricité et la lumière (1779) Plan de Législation Criminelle (1780) Recherches physiques sur le feu (1780) Découvertes de M. Marat sur la lumière, constatées par une suite d'expériences nouvelles (1780) Recherches physiques sur l'électricité, &c (1782) Mémoire sur l'électricité médicale (1783) Notions élémentaires d'optique (1784) Lettres de l'observateur Bon Sens à M. de M sur la fatale catastrophe des infortunés Pilatre de Rozier et Ronzain, les aéronautes et l'aérostation (1785) Observations de M. l'amateur Avec à M. l'abbé Sans . . . &c., (1785) Éloge de Montesquieu
Montesquieu
(1785) (provincial Academy competition entry first published 1883 by M. de Bresetz) Optique de Newton (1787) Mémoires académiques (1788) Offrande à la Patrie (1789)(pamphlet) Constitution, ou projet de déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen (1789) (pamphlet) Les Charlatans modernes, ou lettres sur le charlatanisme académique (L'Ami du Peuple, 1791) (pamphlet) Les chaînes de l'Esclavage (1792) (translation of his 1774 English work) Les Aventures du jeune comte Potowski (unpublished manuscript first published in 1847 by Paul Lacroix) Lettres polonaises (unpublished manuscript first printed in English in 1905; recently translated into French but authenticity disputed) La Correspondance de Marat (published in 1908 by Charles Vellay)

Notes[edit]

^ Isaac Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology - Second Revised Edition, 1982, p. 334. ^ Clifford D. Conner, Jean-Paul Marat: Tribune of the French Revolution (2012) ch 4 ^ Belfort Bax 2008, p. 5. ^ a b de Cock, J. & Goetz, C., Œuvres de Jean-Paul Marat, 10 volumes, Éditions Pôle Nord, Brussels, 1995. ^ Les Chaines de l’Esclavage, 1793 (ed. Goetz et de Cock) p4167 (6). Numbers in brackets refer to the original version. ^ "Lit & Phil Home – Independent Library Newcastle". Litandphil.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2010.  ^ Conner 1999, p. 33. ^ Conner 1999, p. 35. ^ Conner 1999, p. 71. ^ Conner 1999, pp. 77–79. ^ Conner 1999, pp. 89–95. ^ Conner 1999, pp. 105–106. ^ Conner 1999, pp. 94–95. ^ Conner 1999, p. 132. ^ Conner 1999, p. 35. ^ Gregory Fremont-Barnes (2007). Encyclopedia of the age of political revolutions and new ideologies, 1760–1815: vol 1. Greenwood. pp. 1:450.  ^ a b Jelinek, J.E. (1979). "Jean-Paul Marat: The differential diagnosis of his skin disease". American Journal of Dermatopathology. 1 (3): 251–2. doi:10.1097/00000372-197900130-00010. PMID 396805.  ^ Belfort Bax 2008, p. 191. ^ Clifford D. Conner, Jean-Paul Marat: Tribune of the French Revolution (2012) ch 4 ^ François Furet and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989), pp. 521–22. ^ Gwynne Lewis (2002). The French Revolution: Rethinking the Debate. Routledge. p. 38.  ^ Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution: From its Origins to 1793 (1962), pp. 241–44, 269. ^ Andress 2005, p. 189. ^ Citizens, Simon Schama, Penguin 1989, p. 742. ^ " The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
- Jacques-Louis David". www.bc.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-04.  ^ Citizens, Simon Schama, Penguin 1989, p. 744. ^ Andress, 2005, p. 191. ^ At Home With The Marquis De Sade, Francine Du Plessix Gray, Random House,2013 ^ The French Revolution, David E. A. Coles, FriesenPress, 2014, p. 134. ^ Three Deaths and Enlightenment Thought: Hume, Johnson, Marat; Stephen Miller, Bucknell University Press, 2001, p. 125. ^ Buchez, Philippe-Joseph-Benjamin, Histoire Parlementaire de la Révolution française, ou Journal des Assemblées Nationales, depuis 1789 jusqu'en 1815, Vol. 36, Paulin, Paris, 1838, p. 230. ^ Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760–1815, Gregory Fremont-Barnes Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, p. 451. ^ "Where the Statues of Paris were sent to Die". messynessychic.com. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ McLaughlin, Stephen (2003). Russian & Soviet Battleships. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, p. 321. ^ (in Russian) Streets of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
– Marat Street ^ Adolphus, John. Biographical Anecdotes of the Founders of the French Republic. London: R. Phillips, 1799. p 232. ^ a b Stanley Loomis, Paris in the Terror; J.B. Lippincott Company, 1964), 42. ^ Ransom, Teresa, Madame Tussaud: A Life and a Time, (2003), pp. 252–253.

See also[edit]

Newtonianism

References[edit]

Andress, David (2005). The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France, New York: SFG Books. Belfort Bax, Ernest (1901). Jean-Paul Marat; The People's Friend, A Biographical Sketch. Vogt Press; Read Books (2008). ISBN 978-1-4437-2362-6.  Conner, Clifford D. (1999). Jean Paul Marat: scientist and revolutionary. Amherst, New York: Humanity Books. ISBN 9781573926072.  Furet, Francois, and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989) pp. 244–51. Gottschalk, Louis Reichenthal. Jean Paul Marat: a study in radicalism (University of Chicago Press, 1927) Schama, Simon. Citizens: A chronicle of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989)

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Marat, Jean Paul". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Conner, Clifford D. Jean-Paul Marat: Tribune of the French Revolution (2012) excerpt and text search Conner, Clifford D. Jean Paul Marat: Scientist and Revolutionary (2nd ed. 2012) online review from H-FRANCE 2013; excerpt and text search Fishman, W. J. "Jean-Paul Marat", History Today (1971) 21#5, pp. 329–337; his life before 1789 Furet, François and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1989), pp. 244–51 Gottschalk, Louis R. Jean Paul Marat – Study In Radicalism (1927) Palmer, R.R. Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution (1941) excerpt and text search 1989–1995: Jean-Paul Marat, Œuvres Politiques (ten volumes 1789–1793 – Text: 6.600 p. – Guide: 2.200 p.) 2001: Marat en famille – La saga des Mara(t) (2 volumes) – New approach of Marat's family. 2006: Plume de Marat – Plumes sur Marat (2 volumes) : Bibliography (3.000 references of books and articles of and on Marat) The Correspondance de Marat has been edited with notes by Charles Vellay (1908)

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Jean-Paul Marat
Jean-Paul Marat
in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Marat's (1784) Notions élémentaires d'optique - digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club
Jacobin Club
(11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 19680982 LCCN: n50040632 ISNI: 0000 0000 8098 250X GND: 118577441 SELIBR: 274509 SUDOC: 027007197 BNF: cb119143643 (data) BIBSYS: 90371248 ULAN: 500337698 HDS: 31228 NLA: 35327090 NKC: nlk20000083483 BNE: XX1354

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