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Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(French: [ʒɑ̃lyk ɡɔdaʁ]; born 3 December 1930) is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s French New Wave film movement.[1] Like his New Wave contemporaries, Godard criticized mainstream French cinema's "Tradition of Quality",[1] which "emphasized craft over innovation, privileged established directors over new directors, and preferred the great works of the past to experimentation."[2] As a result of such argument, he and like-minded critics started to make their own films.[1] Many of Godard's films challenge the conventions of traditional Hollywood
Hollywood
in addition to French cinema.[3] In 1964, Godard described his and his colleagues' impact: "We barged into the cinema like cavemen into the Versailles
Versailles
of Louis XV."[4] He is often considered the most radical French filmmaker of the 1960s and 1970s;[5] his approach in film conventions, politics and philosophies made him arguably the most influential director of the French New Wave. Along with showing knowledge of film history through homages and references, several of his films expressed his political views; he was an avid reader of existential and Marxist philosophy.[5][6] Since the New Wave, his politics have been much less radical and his recent films are about representation and human conflict from a humanist, and a Marxist perspective.[5] In a 2002 Sight & Sound poll, Godard ranked third in the critics' top-ten directors of all time (which was put together by assembling the directors of the individual films for which the critics voted).[7] He is said to have "created one of the largest bodies of critical analysis of any filmmaker since the mid-twentieth century."[8] He and his work have been central to narrative theory and have "challenged both commercial narrative cinema norms and film criticism's vocabulary."[9] In 2010, Godard was awarded an Academy Honorary Award, but did not attend the award ceremony.[10] Godard's films have inspired many directors including Martin Scorsese, Quentin Tarantino, Brian De Palma, Steven Soderbergh, D. A. Pennebaker,[11] Robert Altman, Jim Jarmusch, Wong Kar-wai, Wim Wenders,[12] Bernardo Bertolucci,[13] and Pier Paolo Pasolini.[13] From his father, he is the cousin of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, former President of Peru.[14] He has been married twice, to actresses Anna Karina and Anne Wiazemsky, both of whom starred in several of his films. His collaborations with Karina—which included such critically acclaimed films as Bande à part (1964) and Pierrot le Fou (1965)—was called "arguably the most influential body of work in the history of cinema" by Filmmaker magazine.[15]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career (1950–59)

2.1 Film criticism 2.2 Filmmaking

3 New Wave period (1960–68)

3.1 Films

3.1.1 Breathless 3.1.2 The Little Soldier 3.1.3 My Life to Live 3.1.4 Les Carabiniers and Contempt 3.1.5 Anouchka Films 3.1.6 Week End

3.2 Politics

3.2.1 Vietnam War

3.3 Bertolt Brecht 3.4 Marxism

4 Revolutionary period (1968–79)

4.1 Films 4.2 Jean-Pierre Gorin 4.3 The Dziga Vertov
Dziga Vertov
group 4.4 Sonimage

5 1980–present 6 Personal life 7 Filmography 8 Collaboration with ECM Records 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life[edit] Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
was born on 3 December 1930[16] in the 7th arrondissement of Paris,[17] the son of Odile (née Monod) and Paul Godard, a Swiss physician.[18] His wealthy parents came from Protestant families of Franco–Swiss descent, and his mother was the daughter of Julien Monod, a founder of the Banque Paribas. She was the great-granddaughter of theologian Adolphe Monod. Relatives on his mother's side include also composer Jacques-Louis Monod, naturalist Théodore Monod
Théodore Monod
and pastor Frédéric Monod.[19][20] Four years after Jean-Luc's birth, his father moved the family to Switzerland. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Godard was in France
France
and returned to Switzerland with difficulty. He spent most of the war in Switzerland, although his family made clandestine trips to his grandfather's estate on the French side of Lake Geneva. Godard attended school in Nyon, Switzerland.[21] Not a frequent cinema-goer, he attributed his introduction to cinema to a reading of Malraux's essay Outline of a Psychology of Cinema, and his reading of La Revue du cinéma, which was relaunched in 1946.[22] In 1946, he went to study at the Lycée Buffon in Paris
Paris
and, through family connections, mixed with members of its cultural elite. He lodged with the writer Jean Schlumberger. Having failed his baccalaureate exam in 1948 he returned to Switzerland. He studied in Lausanne
Lausanne
and lived with his parents, whose marriage was breaking up. He spent time in Geneva
Geneva
also with a group that included another film fanatic, Roland Tolmatchoff, and the extreme rightist philosopher Jean Parvulesco. His older sister Rachel encouraged him to paint, which he did, in an abstract style. After time spent at a boarding school in Thonon
Thonon
to prepare for the retest, which he passed, he returned to Paris
Paris
in 1949.[23] He registered for a certificate in anthropology at the University of Paris
Paris
(Sorbonne), but did not attend class.[24] He got involved with the young group of film critics at the ciné-clubs that started the New Wave. Godard originally held only French citizenship, then in 1953, he became a citizen of Gland, canton of Vaud, Switzerland, possibly through simplified naturalisation through his Swiss father. Early career (1950–59)[edit] Film criticism[edit] In Paris, in the Latin Quarter just prior to 1950, ciné-clubs (film societies) were gaining prominence. Godard began attending these clubs - the Cinémathèque, the CCQL, Work and Culture ciné Club, and others - which became his regular haunts. The Cinémathèque had been founded by Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
and Georges Franju
Georges Franju
in 1936; Work and Culture was a workers' education group for which André Bazin
André Bazin
had organized wartime film screenings and discussions and which had become a model for the film clubs that had risen throughout France
France
after the Liberation; Ciné-Club du Quartier Latin
Quartier Latin
(CCQL), founded 1947-48, was animated and intellectually led by Maurice Schérer.[25] At these clubs he met fellow film enthusiasts including Jacques Rivette, Claude Chabrol, and François Truffaut.[26] Godard was part of a generation for whom cinema took on a special importance. He has said: "In the 1950s cinema was as important as bread—but it isn't the case any more. We thought cinema would assert itself as an instrument of knowledge, a microscope... a telescope.... At the Cinémathèque I discovered a world which nobody had spoken to me about. They'd told us about Goethe, but not Dreyer. ... We watched silent films in the era of talkies. We dreamed about film. We were like Christians in the catacombs."[27][28] His foray into films began in the field of criticism. Along with Maurice Schérer
Maurice Schérer
(writing under the to-be-famous pseudonym Éric Rohmer) and Rivette, he founded the short-lived film journal Gazette du cinéma, which saw publication of five issues in 1950.[29] When Bazin co-founded the influential critical magazine Cahiers du cinéma in 1951, Godard was the first of the younger critics from the CCQL/Cinémathèque group to be published—the January 1952 issue featured his review of an American melodrama directed by Rudolph Maté, No Sad Songs for Me. His "Defence and Illustration of Classical Découpage" published in September 1952, in which he attacks an earlier article by Bazin and defends the use of the shot-reverse shot technique, is one of his earliest important contributions to cinema.[30] Praising Otto Preminger
Otto Preminger
and "the greatest American artist—Howard Hawks", Godard raises their harsh melodramas above the more "formalistic and overtly artful films of Welles, De Sica and Wyler which Bazin endorsed".[31] At this point Godard's activities did not include making films—rather he watched films, and wrote about them, and helped others make films, notably Rohmer, with whom he worked on Présentation ou Charlotte et son steak.[32] Filmmaking[edit] Having left Paris
Paris
in the autumn of 1952, Godard returned to Switzerland and went to live with his mother in Lausanne. He became friendly with his mother's lover, Jean-Pierre Laubscher, who was a labourer on the Grande Dixence Dam. Through Laubscher he secured work himself as a construction worker at the Plaz Fleuri work site at the dam. He saw the possibility of making a documentary film about the dam and when his initial contract ended, in order to prolong his time at the dam, moved to the post of telephone switchboard operator. It was whilst on duty, in April 1954, that he put through a call to Laubscher that relayed the fact that Odile Monod, his mother, had died in a scooter accident. Thanks to Swiss friends who lent him a 35mm movie camera, he was able to shoot on 35mm film. He rewrote the commentary that Laubscher had written, and gave his film a rhyming title Opération béton (Operation concrete). The company that administered the dam bought the film and used it for publicity purposes.[33] As he continued to work for Cahiers, he made Une femme coquette (1955), in Geneva, a ten-minute short; and in January 1956 he returned to Paris. A plan for a feature film of Goethe's Elective Affinities proved too ambitious and came to nothing. Truffaut enlisted his help to work on an idea he had for a film based on the true-crime story of a petty criminal, Michel Portail, who had shot a motorcycle policeman and whose girlfriend had turned him in to the police. But Truffaut failed to interest any producers. Another project with Truffaut, a comedy about a country girl arriving in Paris, was also abandoned.[34] He worked with Rohmer on a planned series of short films centering on the lives of two young women, Charlotte and Véronique; and in the autumn of 1957, Pierre Braunberger produced the first film in the series, All the Boys Are Named Patrick, directed by Godard from Rohmer's script. Une histoire d'eau
Une histoire d'eau
(1958) was created largely out of unused footage shot by Truffaut. In 1958, Godard, with a cast that included Jean-Paul Belmondo
Jean-Paul Belmondo
and Anne Colette, made his last short before gaining international prominence as a filmmaker, Charlotte et son Jules, an homage to Jean Cocteau. The film was shot in Godard's hotel room on the rue de Rennes and apparently reflected something of the 'romantic austerity' of Godard's own life at this time. His Swiss friend Roland Tolmatchoff noted; "In Paris
Paris
he had a big Bogart poster on the wall and nothing else."[35] In December 1958, Godard reported from the Festival of Short Films in Tours
Tours
and praised the work of, and became friends with, Jacques Demy, Jacques Rozier, and Agnès Varda—he already knew Alain Resnais whose entry he also praised—but Godard now wanted to make a feature film. He travelled to the 1959 Cannes Film Festival and asked Truffaut to let him use the story on which they had collaborated in 1956, about the car thief Michel Portail. He sought money from the producer Georges de Beauregard whom he had met previously whilst working briefly in the publicity department of Twentieth Century Fox's Paris
Paris
office, and who was also at the Festival. Beauregard could offer his expertise, but was in debt from two productions based on Pierre Loti
Pierre Loti
stories and so financing came instead from a film distributor, René Pignières.[36] New Wave period (1960–68)[edit] Godard's most celebrated period as a director spans roughly from his first feature, Breathless (1960), through to Week End (1967). His work during this period focused on relatively conventional films that often refer to different aspects of film history. Although Godard's work during this time is considered groundbreaking in its own right, the period stands in contrast to that which immediately followed it, during which Godard ideologically denounced much of cinema's history as "bourgeois" and therefore without merit. Films[edit] Breathless[edit] Godard's Breathless (À bout de souffle, 1960), starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and Jean Seberg
Jean Seberg
distinctly expressed the French New Wave's style, and incorporated quotations from several elements of popular culture—specifically American film noir.[37] The film employed various techniques such as the innovative use of jump cuts (which were traditionally considered amateurish),[38] character asides, and breaking the eyeline match in continuity editing. From the beginning of his career, Godard included more film references into his movies than did any of his New Wave colleagues. In Breathless, his citations include a movie poster showing Humphrey Bogart—from The Harder They Fall, his last film[39] (whose expression the lead actor Jean-Paul Belmondo
Jean-Paul Belmondo
tries reverently to imitate)—visual quotations from films of Ingmar Bergman, Samuel Fuller, Fritz Lang, and others; and an onscreen dedication to Monogram Pictures,[40] an American B-movie
B-movie
studio. Quotations from, and references to literature include William Faulkner, Dylan Thomas, Louis Aragon, Rilke, Françoise Sagan, Maurice Sachs. The film also contains citations in images or on the soundtrack—Mozart, Picasso, J. S. Bach, Paul Klee, and Auguste Renoir. "This first-person cinema invoked not the director's experience but his presence".[41] Godard wanted to hire the American actress Jean Seberg, who was living in Paris
Paris
with her husband François Moreuil, an attorney, to play the American woman. Seberg had become famous in 1956 when Otto Preminger had chosen her to play Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
in his Saint Joan, and had then cast her in his acidulous 1958 adaptation of Bonjour Tristesse.[42] Her performance in this film had not been generally regarded as a success—the New York Times critic called her a "misplaced amateur"—but Truffaut and Godard disagreed. In the role of Michel Poiccard, Godard cast Belmondo, an actor he had already called, writing in Arts in 1958, "the Michel Simon
Michel Simon
and the Jules Berry of tomorrow."[43] The cameraman was Raoul Coutard, the producer Beauregard's choice. Godard wanted Breathless to be shot like a documentary, with a lightweight handheld camera and a minimum of added lighting and Coutard had had experience as a documentary cameraman while working for the French army's information service in Indochina during the French-Indochina War. Tracking shots were filmed by Coutard from a wheelchair pushed by Godard. Though he had prepared a traditional screenplay, he dispensed with it and Godard wrote the dialogue day by day as the production went ahead.[44] The film's importance was recognized immediately and in January 1960, Godard won the Jean Vigo Prize, awarded " to encourage an auteur of the future". One reviewer mentioned Alexandre Astruc's prophecy of the age of the caméra-stylo, the camera that a new generation would use with the efficacy with which a writer uses his pen—"here is in fact the first work authentically written with a caméra-stylo".[45]

Anna Karina, having rejected a role in Breathless, appeared in Godard's next film Le Petit Soldat, which concerned France's war in Algeria

The Little Soldier[edit] The following year Godard made Le Petit Soldat
Le Petit Soldat
(The Little Soldier), filmed on location in Geneva,[46] and dealing with the Algerian War of Independence. The film begins on 13 May 1958, the date of the attempted putsch in Algeria, and ends later the same month. In the film, Bruno Forestier a photojournalist who has links with a right wing paramilitary group working for the French government, is ordered to murder a professor accused of aiding the Algerian resistance. He is in love with Veronica Dreyer, a young woman who has worked with the Algerian fighters. He is captured by Algerian militants and tortured. His organisation captures and tortures her. The 'little soldier' was played by Michel Subor
Michel Subor
and Veronica Dreyer by Anna Karina—the first collaboration between Godard and the Danish-born—of Russian extraction—actress. Unlike Seberg, Karina had virtually no experience as an actress and Godard used her awkwardness as an element of her performance. He wrote the dialogue every day and, since it was filmed without direct sound and was dubbed, called dialogue to the actors. Forestier was a character close to Godard himself, an image-maker and intellectual, 'more or less my spokesman, but not totally' Godard told an interviewer.[47] The film, due to its political nature, implied that France
France
was involved in a dirty war, engaging in torture, and was banned by the French government until January 1963. Godard and Karina were a couple by the end of the shoot. She appeared again, along with Belmondo, in Godard's first color film, A Woman Is a Woman
A Woman Is a Woman
(1961), which was intended as a homage to the American musical. Adjustments that Godard made to the original version of the story gave it autobiographical resonances, 'specifically in regard to his relationship with Anna Karina'. The film revealed 'the confinement within the four walls of domestic life', and 'the emotional and artistic fault lines that threatened their relationship'.[48] My Life to Live[edit] Godard's next film, Vivre sa vie (My Life to Live) (1962), was one of his most popular among critics. Karina starred as Nana, an errant mother and aspiring actress whose financially strained circumstances lead her to the life of a streetwalker. It is an episodic account of her rationalizations to prove she is free, even though she is tethered at the end of her pimp's short leash. In one scene, within a cafe, she spreads her arms out and announces she is free to raise or lower them as she wishes. The film was a popular success and led to Columbia giving him a deal where he would be provided with $100,000 to make a movie, with complete artistic control.[49] Les Carabiniers and Contempt[edit] Les Carabiniers (1963) was about the horror of war and its inherent injustice. It was the influence and suggestion of Roberto Rossellini that led Godard to make this film which follows two peasants who join the army of a king, only to find futility in the whole thing as the king reveals the deception of war-administrating leaders. His most commercially successful film was Le Mépris (Contempt) (1963), starring Michel Piccoli
Michel Piccoli
and one of France's biggest female stars, Brigitte Bardot. A coproduction between Italy and France, Contempt became known as a pinnacle in cinematic modernism with its profound reflexivity. The film follows Paul (Piccoli), a screenwriter who is commissioned by the arrogant American movie producer Prokosch (Jack Palance) to rewrite the script for an adaptation of Homer's Odyssey, which the Austrian director Fritz Lang
Fritz Lang
has been filming. Lang's 'high culture' interpretation of the story is lost on Prokosch, whose character is a firm indictment of the commercial motion picture hierarchy. Another prominent theme is the inability to reconcile love and labor, which is illustrated by Paul's crumbling marriage to Camille (Bardot) during the course of shooting. Anouchka Films[edit] In 1964, Godard and Karina formed a production company, Anouchka Films. He directed Bande à part (Band of Outsiders), another collaboration between the two and described by Godard as "Alice in Wonderland meets Franz Kafka." It follows two young men, looking to score on a heist, who both fall in love with Karina, and quotes from several gangster film conventions. Une femme mariée
Une femme mariée
(A Married Woman) (1964) followed Band of Outsiders. It was a slow, deliberate, toned-down black-and-white picture without a real story. The film was shot in four weeks[50] and was "an explicitly and stringently modernist film". It showed Godard's "engagement with the most advanced thinking of the day, as expressed in the work of Claude Lévi-Strauss
Claude Lévi-Strauss
and Roland Barthes" and its fragmentation and abstraction reflected also "his loss of faith in the familiar Hollywood
Hollywood
styles."[51] Godard made the film while he acquired funding for Pierrot le fou
Pierrot le fou
(1965). In 1965, Godard directed Alphaville, a futuristic blend of science fiction, film noir, and satire. Eddie Constantine
Eddie Constantine
starred as Lemmy Caution, a detective who is sent into a city controlled by a giant computer named Alpha 60. His mission is to make contact with Professor von Braun (Howard Vernon), a famous scientist who has fallen mysteriously silent, and is believed to be suppressed by the computer. Pierrot le fou
Pierrot le fou
(1965) featured a complex storyline, distinctive personalities, and a violent ending. Gilles Jacob, an author, critic, and president of the Cannes Film Festival, called it both a "retrospective" and recapitulation in the way it played on so many of Godard's earlier characters and themes. With an extensive cast and variety of locations, the film was expensive enough to warrant significant problems with funding. Shot in color, it departed from Godard's minimalist works (typified by Breathless, Vivre sa vie, and Une femme mariée). He solicited the participation of Jean-Paul Belmondo, by then a famous actor, in order to guarantee the necessary amount of capital. Masculin, féminin
Masculin, féminin
(1966), based on two Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant
stories, La Femme de Paul and Le Signe, was a study of contemporary French youth and their involvement with cultural politics. An intertitle refers to the characters as "The children of Marx and Coca-Cola." Although Godard's cinema is sometimes thought to depict a wholly masculine point of view, Phillip John Usher has demonstrated how the film, by the way it connects images and disparate events, seems to blur gender lines.[52] Godard followed with Made in U.S.A (1966), whose source material was Richard Stark's The Jugger; and Two or Three Things I Know About Her (1967), in which Marina Vlady
Marina Vlady
portrays a woman leading a double life as housewife and prostitute. A Classic New Wave crime thriller, "Made in the U.S.A" is inspired by American Noir films. Anna Karina
Anna Karina
stars as the anti-hero searching for her murdered lover; the film includes a cameo by Marianne Faithfull. La Chinoise
La Chinoise
(1967) saw Godard at his most politically forthright so far. The film focused on a group of students and engaged with the ideas coming out of the student activist groups in contemporary France. Released just before the May 1968 events, the film is thought by some to foreshadow the student rebellions that took place. Week End[edit] That same year, Godard made a more colorful and political film, Week End. It follows a Parisian couple as they leave on a weekend trip across the French countryside to collect an inheritance. What ensues is a confrontation with the tragic flaws of the over-consuming bourgeoisie. The film contains some of the most written-about scenes in cinema's history. One of them, an eight-minute tracking shot of the couple stuck in an unremitting traffic jam as they leave the city, is cited as a new technique Godard used to deconstruct bourgeois trends.[53] Startlingly, a few shots contain extra footage from, as it were, before the beginning of the take (while the actors are preparing) and after the end of the take (while the actors are coming out of character). Week End's enigmatic and audacious end title sequence, which reads "End of Cinema", appropriately marked an end to the narrative and cinematic period in Godard's filmmaking career. Politics[edit] Politics are never far from the surface in Godard's films. One of his earliest features, Le Petit Soldat, which dealt with the Algerian War of Independence, was notable for its attempt to present the complexity of the dispute rather than pursue any specific ideological agenda. Along these lines, Les Carabiniers presents a fictional war that is initially romanticized in the way its characters approach their service, but becomes a stiff anti-war metonym. In addition to the international conflicts Godard sought an artistic response to, he was also very concerned with the social problems in France. The earliest and best example of this is Karina's potent portrayal of a prostitute in Vivre sa vie. In 1960s Paris, the political milieu was not overwhelmed by one specific movement. There was, however, a distinct post-war climate shaped by various international conflicts such as the colonialism in North Africa and Southeast Asia. Godard's Marxist disposition did not become abundantly explicit until La Chinoise
La Chinoise
and Week End, but is evident in several films—namely Pierrot and Une femme mariée. Godard has been accused by some of harboring anti-Semitic views: in 2010, in the lead-up to the presentation of Godard's honorary Oscar, a prominent article in the New York Times by Michael Cieply drew attention to the idea, which had been circulating through press in previous weeks, that Godard might be an anti-Semite, and thus undeserving of the accolade. Cieply makes reference to Richard Brody's book, Everything is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard, and alluded to a previous, longer article published by the Jewish Journal as lying near the origin of the debate.[54] The article also draws upon Brody's book, for example in the following quotation, which Godard made on television in 1981: "Moses is my principal enemy...Moses, when he received the commandments, he saw images and translated them. Then he brought the texts, he didn't show what he had seen. That's why the Jewish people are accursed."[55] Immediately after Cieply's article was published, Brody made a clear point of criticizing the "extremely selective and narrow use" of passages in his book, and noted that Godard's work has approached the Holocaust with "the greatest moral seriousness".[56] Indeed, his documentaries feature images from the Holocaust in a context suggesting he considers Nazism and the Holocaust as the nadir of human history. Godard's views become more complex regarding the State of Israel. In 1970, Godard traveled to the Middle East to make a pro-Palestinian film he didn't complete and whose footage eventually became part of the 1976 film Ici et ailleurs. In this film, Godard seems to view the Palestinian cause as one of many worldwide Leftist revolutionary movements. Elsewhere, Godard has explicitly identified himself as an anti-Zionist but has denied the accusations of anti-Semitism.[57] Vietnam War[edit] Godard produced several pieces that directly address the Vietnam War. Furthermore, there are two scenes in Pierrot le fou
Pierrot le fou
that tackle the issue. The first is a scene that takes place in the initial car ride between Ferdinand (Belmondo) and Marianne (Karina). Over the car radio, the two hear the message "garrison massacred by the Viet Cong who lost 115 men". Marianne responds with an extended musing on the way the radio dehumanizes the Northern Vietnamese combatants. In the same film, the lovers accost a group of American sailors along the course of their liberating crime spree. Their immediate reaction, expressed by Marianne, is "Damn Americans!", an obvious outlet of the frustration so many French communists felt towards American hegemony. Ferdinand then reconsiders, "That's OK, we’ll change our politics. We can put on a play. Maybe they’ll give us some dollars." Marianne is puzzled, but Ferdinand suggests that something the Americans would like would be the Vietnam War. The ensuing sequence is a makeshift play where Marianne dresses up as a stereotypical Vietnamese woman and Ferdinand as an American sailor. The scene ends on a brief shot revealing a chalk message left on the floor by the pair, "Long live Mao!" (Vive Mao!). Notably, he also participated in Loin du Vietnam (1967). An anti-war project, it consists of seven sketches directed by Godard (who used stock footage from La Chinoise), Claude Lelouch, Joris Ivens, William Klein, Chris Marker, Alain Resnais and Agnès Varda. Bertolt Brecht[edit] Godard's engagement with German poet and playwright Bertolt Brecht stems primarily from his attempt to transpose Brecht's theory of epic theatre and its prospect of alienating the viewer (Verfremdungseffekt) through a radical separation of the elements of the medium (in Brecht's case theater, but in Godard's, film). Brecht's influence is keenly felt through much of Godard's work, particularly before 1980, when Godard used filmic expression for specific political ends. For example, Breathless' elliptical editing, which denies the viewer a fluid narrative typical of mainstream cinema, forces the viewers to take on more critical roles, connecting the pieces themselves and coming away with more investment in the work's content.[58] Godard also employs other devices, including asynchronous sound and alarming title frames, with perhaps his favorite being the character aside. In many of his most political pieces, specifically Week End, Pierrot le fou, and La Chinoise, characters address the audience with thoughts, feelings, and instructions. Marxism[edit] See also: Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in film A Marxist reading is possible with most if not all of Godard's early work. Godard's direct interaction with Marxism
Marxism
does not become explicitly apparent, however, until Week End, where the name Karl Marx is cited in conjunction with figures such as Jesus Christ. A constant refrain throughout Godard's cinematic period is that of the bourgeoisie's consumerism, the commodification of daily life and activity, and man's alienation—all central features of Marx's critique of capitalism. In an essay on Godard, philosopher and aesthetics scholar Jacques Rancière states, "When in Pierrot le fou, 1965, a film without a clear political message, Belmondo played on the word 'scandal' and the 'freedom' that the Scandal girdle supposedly offered women, the context of a Marxist critique of commodification, of pop art derision at consumerism, and of a feminist denunciation of women's false 'liberation', was enough to foster a dialectical reading of the joke and the whole story." The way Godard treated politics in his cinematic period was in the context of a joke, a piece of art, or a relationship, presented to be used as tools of reference, romanticizing the Marxist rhetoric, rather than being solely tools of education. Une femme mariée
Une femme mariée
is also structured around Marx's concept of commodity fetishism. Godard once said that it is "a film in which individuals are considered as things, in which chases in a taxi alternate with ethological interviews, in which the spectacle of life is intermingled with its analysis". He was very conscious of the way he wished to portray the human being. His efforts are overtly characteristic of Marx, who in his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 gives one of his most nuanced elaborations, analyzing how the worker is alienated from his product, the object of his productive activity. Georges Sadoul, in his short rumination on the film, describes it as a "sociological study of the alienation of the modern woman". Revolutionary period (1968–79)[edit] The period that spans from May 1968 indistinctly into the 1970s has been subject to an even larger volume of varying labeling. They include everything from his "militant" period, to his "radical" period, along with terms as specific as "Maoist" and vague as "political". The period saw Godard align himself with a specific revolution and employ a consistent revolutionary rhetoric. Films[edit] Amid the upheavals of the late 1960s, Godard became passionate about "making political films politically." Though many of his films from 1968 to 1972 are feature-length films, they are low budget and challenge the notion of what a film can be. In addition to abandoning mainstream filmmaking, Godard also tried to escape the cult of personality that had formed around him. He worked anonymously in collaboration with other filmmakers, most notably Jean-Pierre Gorin, with whom he formed the Dziga-Vertov cinema collective. During this period, Godard made films in England, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Palestine, and America, as well as France. He and Gorin toured with their work, attempting to create discussion, mainly on college campuses. This period came to a climax with the big budget production Tout va bien, which starred Yves Montand
Yves Montand
and Jane Fonda. Owing to a motorcycle accident that severely incapacitated Godard, Gorin ended up directing this most celebrated of their work together almost single-handedly. As a companion piece to Tout va bien, the pair made Letter to Jane, a 50-minute "examination of a still" showing Jane Fonda visiting with the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
during the Vietnam War. The film is a deconstruction of Western imperialist ideology. This was the last film that Godard and Gorin made together. In 1978 Godard was commissioned by the Mozambican government to make a short film. During this time his experience with Kodak
Kodak
film led him to criticize the film stock as "inherently racist" since it did not reflect the variety, nuance or complexity in dark brown or dark skin. This was because Kodak
Kodak
Shirley cards
Shirley cards
were only made for Caucasian subjects, a problem that was not rectified until 1995.[59] Following this important collaboration, Godard met his life partner Anne-Marie Miéville. The two set up a production company, SonImage, in Switzerland and together they made two feature films, Number Two and Comment ca va. They also produced two series for French television, Six fois deux and France/tour/détour/deux enfants. Since Godard returned to mainstream filmmaking in 1980, Anne-Marie Miéville has remained an important collaborator. Jean-Pierre Gorin[edit] After the events of May 1968, when the city of Paris
Paris
saw total upheaval in response to the "authoritarian de Gaulle", and Godard's professional objective was reconsidered, he began to collaborate with like-minded individuals in the filmmaking arena. The most notable of these collaborations was with a young Maoist student, Jean-Pierre Gorin, who displayed a passion for cinema that grabbed Godard's attention. Between 1968 and 1973, Godard and Gorin collaborated to make a total of five films with strong Maoist messages. The most prominent film from the collaboration was Tout va bien, which starred Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
and Yves Montand, at the time very big stars. Jean-Pierre Gorin now teaches the study of film at the University of California, San Diego. The Dziga Vertov
Dziga Vertov
group[edit] The small group of Maoists that Godard had brought together, which included Gorin, adopted the name Dziga Vertov
Dziga Vertov
Group. Godard had a specific interest in Vertov, a Soviet filmmaker—whose adopted name is derived from the verb to spin or rotate[60] and is best remembered for Man with the Movie Camera
Man with the Movie Camera
(1929) and a contemporary of both the great Soviet montage theorists, most notably Sergei Eisenstein, and Russian constructivist and avant-garde artists such as Alexander Rodchenko and Vladimir Tatlin. Part of Godard's political shift after May 1968 was toward a proactive participation in the class struggle. Sonimage[edit] In 1972, Godard and Swiss filmmaker Anne-Marie Miéville started the alternative video production and distribution company Sonimage, based in Grenoble.[61] Under Sonimage, Godard produced both Numéro Deux (1975) and "Sauve qui peut (la vie)" (1980). In 1976, Godard and Miéville, his wife,[62] collaborated on a series of innovative video works for European broadcast television called "Six fois deux/Sur et sous la communication" (1976)[63] and "France/tour/détour/deux/enfants" (1978). 1980–present[edit] Godard's return to somewhat more traditional fiction was marked with Sauve qui peut (la vie)
Sauve qui peut (la vie)
(1980), the first of a series of more mainstream films marked by autobiographical currents: for example Passion (1982), Lettre à Freddy Buache (1982), Prénom Carmen
Prénom Carmen
(1984), and Grandeur et décadence d'un petit commerce de cinéma (1986). There was, though, another flurry of controversy with Je vous salue, Marie (1985), which was condemned by the Catholic Church for alleged heresy, and also with King Lear (1987), an essay on William Shakespeare and language. Also completed in 1987 was a segment in the film ARIA which was based loosely from the plot of Armide; it is set in a gym and uses several arias by Jean-Baptiste Lully
Jean-Baptiste Lully
from his famous Armide. His later films have been marked by great formal beauty and frequently a sense of requiem—Nouvelle Vague (New Wave, 1990), the autobiographical JLG/JLG, autoportrait de décembre (JLG/JLG: Self-Portrait in December, 1995), and For Ever Mozart (1996). Allemagne année 90 neuf zéro (Germany Year 90 Nine Zero, 1991) was a quasi-sequel to Alphaville but done with an elegiac tone and focus on the inevitable decay of age. Between 1988 and 1998 he produced perhaps the most important work of his career in the multi-part series Histoire(s) du cinéma, a monumental project which combined all the innovations of his video work with a passionate engagement in the issues of twentieth-century history and the history of film itself. In 2001, In Praise of Love (Éloge de l'amour) was released. The film is notable for its use of both film and video—the first half captured in 35-mm black and white, the latter half shot in color on DV—and subsequently transferred to film for editing. The blending of film and video recalls the statement from Sauve Qui Peut, in which the tension between film and video evokes the struggle between Cain and Abel. The film is also noted for containing themes of aging, love, separation, and rediscovery as it follows the young artist Edgar in his contemplation of a new work on the four stages of love. In Notre musique
Notre musique
(2004), Godard turned his focus to war, specifically, the war in Sarajevo, but with attention to all war, including the American Civil War, the war between the US and Native Americans, and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The film is structured into three Dantean kingdoms: Hell, Purgatory and Paradise. Godard's fascination with paradox is a constant in the film. It opens with a long, ponderous montage of war images that occasionally lapses into the comic; Paradise is shown as a lush wooded beach patrolled by US Marines. Godard's film, Film Socialisme (2010), premiered in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival.[64][65] It was released theatrically in France
France
in May 2010. Godard was rumored to be considering directing a film adaptation of Daniel Mendelsohn's The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million, an award-winning book about the Holocaust.[66] In 2013, Godard released the short Les trois désastres (The Three Disasters) as part of the omnibus film 3X3D with filmmakers Peter Greenaway
Peter Greenaway
and Edgar Pera.[67] 3X3D premiered at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival.[68] His 2014 film Goodbye to Language, shot in 3-D,[69][70] revolves around a couple who cannot communicate with each other until their pet dog acts as an interpreter for them. The film was selected to compete for the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
in the main competition section at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival, where it won the Jury Prize.[71] In 2015 J. Hoberman reported that Godard is working on a new film.[72] Initially titled Tentative de bleu,[73] in December 2016 Wild Bunch co-chief Vincent Maraval stated that Godard had been shooting Image et Parole for almost two years "in various Arab countries, including Tunisia" and that is an examination of the modern Arab World.[74] Personal life[edit] Godard has been married twice, to two of his leading women: Anna Karina (1961–1965)[75] and Anne Wiazemsky
Anne Wiazemsky
(1967–1979).[76] Beginning in 1970, he collaborated personally and professionally with Anne-Marie Miéville. His relationship with Karina in particular produced some of his most critically acclaimed films,[77] and their relationship was widely publicized; The Independent
The Independent
described them as "one of the most celebrated pairings of the 1960s."[77] A writer for Filmmaker magazine called their collaborations "arguably the most influential body of work in the history of cinema."[15] Karina has said they no longer speak to each other.[78] In 2017, Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
directed a film about Godard, Redoubtable, based on the memoir, One Year After (2015), by Wiazemsky.[76] It centers on his life in the late 1960s, when he and Wiazemsky made films together. The film premiered at the Cannes Film Festival this year.[79] Filmography[edit] Main article: Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
filmography Feature films

1960 Breathless 1960 Le Petit soldat 1961 A Woman Is a Woman 1962 My Life to Live 1963 Les Carabiniers 1963 Contempt 1964 Band of Outsiders 1964 A Married Woman 1965 Alphaville 1965 Pierrot le fou 1966 Masculin Féminin 1966 Made in U.S.A. 1967 Two or Three Things I Know About Her 1967 La Chinoise 1967 Week End 1968 A Film Like Any Other 1968 One Plus One 1969 Le Gai savoir 1969 British Sounds 1970 Wind from the East (Le Vent d'est) 1971 Struggles in Italy 1971 Vladimir et Rosa 1972 Tout va bien 1974 Here and Elsewhere 1975 Number Two 1976 How's It Going? 1980 Every Man for Himself 1982 Passion 1983 First Name: Carmen 1985 Hail Mary 1985 Détective 1987 King Lear 1987 Keep Your Right Up 1990 New Wave 1991 Germany Year 90 Nine Zero 1993 The Kids Play Russian 1993 Oh Woe Is Me 1994 JLG/JLG – Self-Portrait in December 1996 For Ever Mozart 2001 In Praise of Love 2004 Notre musique 2010 Film Socialisme 2014 Goodbye to Language

Collaboration with ECM Records[edit] Godard shares a friendship with Manfred Eicher, founder and head of the innovative German music label ECM Records.[80] The label has released the soundtracks of Nouvelle Vague (ECM NewSeries 1600-01) and Histoire(s) du cinéma
Histoire(s) du cinéma
(ECM NewSeries 1706) by Godard. This collaboration expanded over the years and led on the one hand into the contribution of several stills from Godard’s movies for album covers.[81] On the other hand, Eicher took over the musical direction of many of Godard’s films like Allemagne 90 neuf zéro, Hélas Pour Moi, JLG or For Ever Mozart. Tracks from ECM records have also been used in his films (for example Ketil Bjørnstad
Ketil Bjørnstad
and David Darling's album Epigraphs was extensively used in the soundtrack for In Praise of Love). Additionally Godard has released a collection of short films on the label with Anne-Marie Miéville called Four Short Films (ECM 5001).[82] Album covers with Godard's contribution include:[83]

Voci, works of Luciano Berio
Luciano Berio
played by Kim Kashkashian
Kim Kashkashian
(ECM 1735) Words of The Angel, by Trio Mediaeval
Trio Mediaeval
(ECM 1753) Morimur, by Christoph Poppen & The Hilliard Ensemble
Hilliard Ensemble
(ECM 1765) Songs of Debussy and Mozart, by Juliane Banse
Juliane Banse
& András Schiff (ECM 1772) Requiem for Larissa, by Valentin Silvestrov
Valentin Silvestrov
(ECM 1778) Soul of Things, by Tomasz Stanko
Tomasz Stanko
Quartet (ECM 1788) Suspended Night, by Tomasz Stanko
Tomasz Stanko
Quartet (ECM 1868) Asturiana: Songs from Spain and Argentina, by Kim Kashkashian
Kim Kashkashian
& Robert Levin (ECM 1975) Distances, by Norma Winstone, Glauco Venier & Klaus Gesing (ECM 2028) Live at Birdland, by Lee Konitz, Brad Mehldau, Charlie Haden
Charlie Haden
& Paul Motian
Paul Motian
(ECM 2162)

See also[edit]

Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
bibliography

References[edit]

^ a b c Grant 2007, Vol. 4, p. 235. ^ Grant 2007, Vol. 2, p. 259. ^ "Jean-Luc Godard". New Wave Film. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ Brody, Richard, Everything is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard, Henry Holy & Co., 2008, pg. 72 ^ a b c Grant 2007, Vol. 4, p. 126. ^ David Sterritt. "40 Years Ago, 'Breathless' Was Hyperactive Anarchy. Now It's Part of the Canon". Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ "BFI – Sight & Sound – Top Ten Poll 2002 Poll – The Critics' Top Ten Directors". Archived from the original on 23 June 2011.  ^ Grant 2007, Vol. 4, p. 238. ^ Grant 2007, Vol. 4, p. 202. ^ Freeman, Nate. "Godard Companion: Director Will Not Travel to Oscars for a 'Bit of Metal' The New York Observer". Observer.com. Retrieved 6 February 2012.  ^ "1 PM". Pennebaker Hegedus Films. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.  ^ BFI (4 September 2006). "Jean-Luc Godard: Biography". BFI. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011. He made an enormous impact on the future direction of cinema, influencing film-makers as diverse as Robert Altman, Martin Scorsese, Jim Jarmusch, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wim Wenders, Steven Soderbergh, Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
and Wong Kar-Wai.  ^ a b Grant 2007, Vol. 3, p. 49. ^ "A Surprising Coalition Brings A New Leader To Peru". The New Yorker. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2017.  ^ a b Zahedi, Caveh. ""Be Beautiful and Shut Up": Anna Karina
Anna Karina
on Filmmaking with Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
Filmmaker Magazine". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 2018-01-13.  ^ Moullet, Luc (2005). "Jean-Luc Godard". In Jim Hillier. Cahiers du cinéma: 1960–1968. New Wave, New Cinema, Re-evaluating Hollywood. 2. Milton Park, Oxford, UK: Routledge. pp. 35–48. ISBN 0-415-15106-6. Retrieved 28 September 2011.  ^ Richard Brody, Everything is Cinema, p. 4 ^ Morrey 2005, p. 1. ^ "The religion of director Jean-Luc Godard". Adherents.com. Retrieved 29 December 2011.  ^ "Jean Monod (1765–1836), pasteur". Ordiecole.com. Retrieved 29 December 2011.  ^ "Jean-Luc Godard". AllMovie. Retrieved 28 June 2014.  ^ Richard Brody, Everything is Cinema, p6 ^ Richard Brody, p. 7 ^ MacCabe 2005, p. 36. ^ Richard Brody, pp. 8–17 ^ " Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
Biography: The Black Sheep". New Wave Film. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ "Godard Biography". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ 'Le cinema n'a pas su remplir son role' Jean-Pierre Lavoignat and Christophe d'Yvoire, Studio , number 96, 155-158 [1] ^ " Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
Biography: What is Cinema?". New Wave Film. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ " Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
Biography: Cahiers du Cinema". New Wave Film. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ Brody, pp. 29–30. ^ Brody, pp. 26–27. ^ Richard Brody, pp. 31–34. ^ Brody, pp. 39–42. ^ Brody, p. 45. ^ Brody, pp. 47, 50. ^ Brody, p. 59. ^ Brody, p. 69. ^ Brody, p. 70. ^ "MoMA".  ^ Brody, p. 71. ^ Brody, p. 54. ^ Godard on Godard, p. 150. ^ Brody, p. 62. ^ Brody, pp. 72–73. ^ Brody, p. 89. ^ Brody, p. 92. ^ Brody, p. 110. ^ Archer, Eugene (27 Sep 1964). "France's Far Out Filmmaker". New York Times. p. X11.  ^ Luc Moullet, Masters of Cinema #4, booklet p. 10. ^ Brody, pp. 190–191. ^ Usher, Phillip John. (2009). "De sexe incertain: Masculin, Féminin de Godard". French Forum, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 97–112. ^ Morrey, Douglas (2005). Jean-Luc Godard.  ^ Michael Cieply (1 November 2010). "An Honorary Oscar Revives a Controversy". New York Times. Retrieved 27 January 2011.  ^ TOM TUGEND (6 October 2010). "Is Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
an anti-Semite?". The Jewish Journal. Retrieved 9 May 2012.  ^ Richard Brody (2 November 2010). "Jean-Luc Godard: The Oscar Question". The Front Row. Retrieved 27 January 2011.  ^ Kyle Buchanan (15 November 2010). " Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
Says Honorary Oscar Meant 'Nothing' to Him". Vulture. Retrieved 9 May 2012.  ^ Brody, pp 53-80. ^ National Public Radio. Light And Dark: The Racial Biases That Remain In Photography (April 16, 2014) ^ Kino-eye: the writings of Dziga Vertov. Google Books. Retrieved 6 March 2010.  ^ "Jean-Luc Godard". Electronic Arts Intermix. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ "Anne-Marie Mieville". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ "Six Fois Deux / Sur et Sous La Communication [TV Documentary Series]". Fandango. Archived from the original on 8 September 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ "New Godard: "Socialisme"". Justpressplay.net. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2010.  ^ Leffler, Rebecca (15 April 2010). " Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter: Cannes Lineup". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter. Archived from the original on 22 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.  ^ Zeitchik, Steven (3 June 2009). "Holocaust Tale Piques Auteur". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010.  ^ "3X3D, a 3D Stereoscopic Feature from Jean-Luc Godard, Peter Greenaway, and Edgar Pera". Stereoscopy News. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ "3x3D: Cannes Review". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ craig keller. (13 September 2011). "Cinemasparagus: ADIEU AU LANGAGE / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ 5 x 45-Minute Interview This Week". Cinemasparagus.blogspot.com. Retrieved 29 December 2011.  ^ "Daily Briefing. JLG, Benning/Cassavetes, Jia + Zhao on Notebook". MUBI. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.  ^ "Awards 2014 : Competition". Cannes. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2014.  ^ Hoberman, J. (February 24, 2015). "Brother From Another Planet". The Nation. Retrieved March 1, 2015.  ^ "Ciak News 295: cos'è il cinema" (in Italian). Radiotelevisione svizzera. September 5, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2016.  ^ Goodfellow, Melanie (27 December 2016). "New Jean-Luc Godard, Omar Sy films on 2017 Wild Bunch slate". Screen Daily. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ Garcia, Patricia (May 10, 2016). " Anna Karina
Anna Karina
on Loving and Working With Jean-Luc Godard". Vogue. Retrieved October 9, 2017.  ^ a b Roberts, Sam (October 5, 2017). "Anne Wiazemsky, Film Star, Wife of Godard and Author, Dies at 70". New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2017.  ^ a b "Jean Luc Godard's muse Anna Karina
Anna Karina
on why she refused to star in 'Breatless'". The Independent. 2016-02-12. Retrieved 2018-01-13.  ^ Sagansky, Gillian. " Anna Karina
Anna Karina
on Her Torrid Love Affair with Jean-Luc Godard". W Magazine. Retrieved 2018-01-13.  ^ Zeitchik, Steven (May 28, 2017). "Cannes 2017: New movie about Jean-Luc Godard, from 'The Artist' director, shows auteurs can be funny too". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 9, 2017.  ^ Lake: Horizons Touched (2010), pp. 115–133. ^ Kern: Der Blaue Klang (2010), pp. 99–111. ^ Lake: Horizons Touched (2010), pp. 5–12. ^ Lake: Windfall Light (2010), pp. 415–441.

Further reading[edit]

Grant, Barry Keith, ed. (2007). Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film. Detroit: Schirmer Reference. ISBN 0-02-865791-8.  MacCabe, Colin (2005). Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy. New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21105-0.  Morrey, Douglas (2005). Jean-Luc Godard. New York: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6759-4.  Steritt, David (1998). Jean-Luc Godard: Interviews. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781578060818. Usher, Phillip John (2009). "De Sexe Incertain: Masculin, Féminin de Godard". French Forum, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 97–112. Godard, Jean-Luc (2014). Introduction to a True History of Cinema and Television. Montreal: caboose. ISBN 978-0-9811914-1-6. Brody, Richard (2008). Everything Is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard. ISBN 978-0-8050-6886-3. Temple, Michael. Williams, James S. Witt, Michael (eds.) 2007. For Ever Godard. London: Black Dog Publishing. Dixon, Wheeler Winston. The Films of Jean-Luc Godard. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997. Godard, Jean-Luc (2002). The Future(s) of Film: Three Interviews 2000–01. Bern; Berlin: Verlag Gachnang & Springer. ISBN 978-3-906127-62-0. Loshitzky, Yosefa. The Radical Faces of Godard and Bertolucci. Silverman, Kaja and Farocki, Harun. 1998. Speaking About Godard. New York: New York University Press. Temple, Michael and Williams, James S. (eds.) (2000). The Cinema alone: Essays on the Work of Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
1985–2000. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Almeida, Jane. Dziga Vertov
Dziga Vertov
Group. São Paulo: witz, 2005. ISBN 85-98100-05-6. Nicole Brenez, David Faroult, Michael Temple, James E. Williams, Michael Witt (eds.) (2007). Jean-Luc Godard: Documents. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou. Godard Bibliography (via UC Berkeley) Diane Stevenson, "Godard and Bazin" in the Andre Bazin special issue, Jeffrey Crouse (ed.), Film International, Issue 30, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2007, pp. 32–40. Intxauspe, J.M. (2013). "Film Socialisme: Quo vadis Europa". hAUSnART, 3: 94–99. Lake, Steve and Griffiths, Paul, eds. (2007). Horizons Touched: the Music of ECM. Granta Books. ISBN 978-1-86207-880-2. 2007. Müller, Lars (2010). Windfall Light: The Visual Language of ECM. Lars Müller Publishers. ISBN 978-3-03778-157-9 (in English) & ISBN 978-3-03778-197-5 (in German). Rainer Kern, Hans-Jürgen Linke and Wolfgang Sandner (2010). Der Blaue Klang. Wolke Verlag. ISBN 978-3-936000-83-2 (in German).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean-Luc Godard.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jean-Luc Godard

Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
on IMDb Cinema=Godard=Cinema, a hub for academic information and discussion about Godard Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
at the Criterion Collection Jean Luc Godard Biography at newwavefilm.com Jean-luc Godard Timeline Detailed filmography of Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
on unifrance.org Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
at The Guardian
The Guardian
Film Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
at The New York Times
The New York Times
Movies " Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  Publications by and about Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
in the catalogue Helveticat of the Swiss National Library Guardian interview (29 April 2005) Video dialog—in French—between Godard and the French writer Stéphane Zagdanski about Literature and Cinema, November 2004 Interview with Jean-Luc Godard, 1972

v t e

Jean-Luc Godard

Filmography

Feature

Breathless (1960) The Little Soldier
The Little Soldier
(1960) A Woman Is a Woman
A Woman Is a Woman
(1961) My Life to Live (1962) The Carabineers (1963) Contempt (1963) Bande à part (1964) A Married Woman
A Married Woman
(1964) Alphaville (1965) Pierrot le Fou
Pierrot le Fou
(1965) Masculin Féminin
Masculin Féminin
(1966) Made in U.S.A. (1966) Two or Three Things I Know About Her
Two or Three Things I Know About Her
(1967) La Chinoise
La Chinoise
(1967) Weekend (1967) One Plus One (Sympathy for the Devil) (1968) Joy of Learning
Joy of Learning
(1969) Tout Va Bien
Tout Va Bien
(1972) Number Two (1975) Every Man for Himself (1980) Passion (1982) First Name: Carmen (1983) Hail Mary (1985) Détective (1985) King Lear (1987) Keep Your Right Up (1987) Nouvelle Vague (1990) Germany Year 90 Nine Zero (1991) Hélas pour moi (1993) Les Enfants jouent à la Russie (1993) JLG/JLG – Self-Portrait in December (1995) For Ever Mozart (1996) In Praise of Love (2001) Notre musique
Notre musique
(2004) Film Socialisme (2010) Goodbye to Language
Goodbye to Language
(2014) Image et Parole (2018)

Short and segment

Operation Concrete Une femme coquette All the Boys Are Called Patrick A Story of Water Charlotte and Her Boyfriend "Sloth" in The Seven Deadly Sins "The New World" in Ro.Go.Pa.G. "Le Grand escroc" in Les plus belles escroqueries du monde "Montparnasse-Levallois" in Paris
Paris
vu par "Anticipation, ou: l'amour en l'an 2000" in The Oldest Profession "Caméra-oeil" in Far from Vietnam "L'Amore" in Amore e rabbia Letter to Jane Here and Elsewhere A Letter to Freddy Buache Soft and Hard Meetin' WA "Armide" in Aria "Le Dernier mot" in The French as Seen by... Histoire(s) du cinéma "Dans le noir du temps" in Ten Minutes Older Tribute to Eric Rohmer "Les Trois Désastres" in 3X3D "The Bridge of Sighs" in Bridges of Sarajevo Letter in Motion to Gilles Jacob and Thierry Fremaux

Related

Two in the Wave
Two in the Wave
(2010 documentary) One P.M. Bibliography

Awards for Jean-Luc Godard

v t e

Silver Bear for Best Director

1956-1979

Robert Aldrich (1956) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1957) Tadashi Imai (1958) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1959) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1960) Bernhard Wicki (1961) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1962) Nikos Koundouros (1963) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1964) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1965) Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(1966) Živojin Pavlović (1967) Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(1968) Jean-Pierre Blanc
Jean-Pierre Blanc
(1972) Sergei Solovyov
Sergei Solovyov
(1975) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1976) Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón
Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón
(1977) Georgi Djulgerov (1978) Astrid Henning-Jensen (1979)

1980-1989

István Szabó
István Szabó
(1980) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1982) Éric Rohmer
Éric Rohmer
(1983) Costas Ferris / Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1984) Robert Benton (1985) Georgiy Shengelaya (1986) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1987) Norman Jewison
Norman Jewison
(1988) Dušan Hanák (1989)

1990-1999

Michael Verhoeven
Michael Verhoeven
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
/ Ricky Tognazzi
Ricky Tognazzi
(1991) Jan Troell
Jan Troell
(1992) Andrew Birkin (1993) Krzysztof Kieślowski
Krzysztof Kieślowski
(1994) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(1995) Yim Ho / Richard Loncraine (1996) Eric Heumann (1997) Neil Jordan
Neil Jordan
(1998) Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(1999)

2000-2009

Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(2000) Lin Cheng-sheng (2001) Otar Iosseliani
Otar Iosseliani
(2002) Patrice Chéreau
Patrice Chéreau
(2003) Kim Ki-duk
Kim Ki-duk
(2004) Marc Rothemund
Marc Rothemund
(2005) Michael Winterbottom
Michael Winterbottom
/ Mat Whitecross (2006) Joseph Cedar (2007) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2008) Asghar Farhadi
Asghar Farhadi
(2009)

2010-2019

Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2010) Ulrich Köhler (2011) Christian Petzold (2012) David Gordon Green
David Gordon Green
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Radu Jude / Malgorzata Szumowska (2015) Mia Hansen-Løve
Mia Hansen-Løve
(2016) Aki Kaurismäki
Aki Kaurismäki
(2017) Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
(2018)

v t e

Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017)

v t e

European Film Academy Lifetime Achievement Award

  Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988)   Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1988)   Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1989)   Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1990)   Alexandre Trauner (1991)   Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1992)   Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1993)   Robert Bresson (1994)   Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
(1995)   Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1996)   Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1997)   Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(1999)   Richard Harris
Richard Harris
(2000)   Monty Python
Monty Python
(2001)   Tonino Guerra
Tonino Guerra
(2002)   Claude Chabrol
Claude Chabrol
(2003)   Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(2004)   Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(2005)   Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2006)   Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(2007)   Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2008)   Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2009)   Bruno Ganz
Bruno Ganz
(2010)   Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2011)   Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(2012)   Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(2013)   Agnès Varda
Agnès Varda
(2014)   Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2015)   Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
(2016) Alexander Sokurov
Alexander Sokurov
(2017)

v t e

Georges Delerue Award

Daniel Schmid (BMD) (1985) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(BUEM) (1985) Ry Cooder
Ry Cooder
(BOM) (1986) Pirjo Honkasalo
Pirjo Honkasalo
and Pekka Lehto (BAM) (1986) Benoît Lamy
Benoît Lamy
(1987) Astor Piazzolla
Astor Piazzolla
(1988) Tôru Takemitsu
Tôru Takemitsu
(1989) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
(BUMF) (1989) Michael Kamen
Michael Kamen
(1990) Rachid Bouchareb
Rachid Bouchareb
(1991) David Robbins (1992) Hou Hsiao-hsien
Hou Hsiao-hsien
(1993) Frédéric Devreese (1994) Tôn-Thất Tiết (1995) Bruno Coulais
Bruno Coulais
(1996) Vangelis
Vangelis
(1997) Simon Fisher Turner (1998) Rachel Portman (1999) Tan Dun
Tan Dun
(2000) Vladimír Godár (2001) Howard Shore
Howard Shore
(2002) Zygmunt Konieczny
Zygmunt Konieczny
(2003) Miguel Miranda and José Tobar (2004) Stephen Warbeck (2005) Tony Gatlif
Tony Gatlif
and Delphine Mantoulet (2006) Benny Andersson
Benny Andersson
(2007) Tolib Shakhidi
Tolib Shakhidi
(2008) Nathan Larson
Nathan Larson
(2009) Hong-jip Kim (2010) Evgueni and Sacha Galperine (2011) Olivier Assayas
Olivier Assayas
(2012) Lim Giong
Lim Giong
(2013) Boris Debackere (2014) Johnnie Burn (2015) Johnny Jewel (2016)

v t e

Honorary César

1976–2000

Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1976) Diana Ross
Diana Ross
(1976) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
(1977) Jacques Tati
Jacques Tati
(1977) Robert Dorfmann (1978) René Goscinny
René Goscinny
(1978) Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
(1979) Charles Vanel
Charles Vanel
(1979) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1979) Pierre Braunberger (1980) Louis de Funès
Louis de Funès
(1980) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1980) Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
(1981) Alain Resnais (1981) Georges Dancigers (1982) Alexandre Mnouchkine (1982) Jean Nény (1982) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Raimu
Raimu
(1983) René Clément
René Clément
(1984) Georges de Beauregard (1984) Edwige Feuillère
Edwige Feuillère
(1984) Christian-Jaque (1985) Danielle Darrieux
Danielle Darrieux
(1985) Christine Gouze-Rénal (1985) Alain Poiré (1985) Maurice Jarre
Maurice Jarre
(1986) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1986) Jean Delannoy
Jean Delannoy
(1986) René Ferracci (1986) Claude Lanzmann
Claude Lanzmann
(1986) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1987) Serge Silberman (1988) Bernard Blier
Bernard Blier
(1989) Paul Grimault
Paul Grimault
(1989) Gérard Philipe
Gérard Philipe
(1990) Jean-Pierre Aumont
Jean-Pierre Aumont
(1991) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1991) Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1992) Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
(1992) Jean Marais
Jean Marais
(1993) Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1993) Gérard Oury
Gérard Oury
(1993) Jean Carmet
Jean Carmet
(1994) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1995) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1995) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1995) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
(1996) Henri Verneuil
Henri Verneuil
(1996) Charles Aznavour
Charles Aznavour
(1997) Andie MacDowell
Andie MacDowell
(1997) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(1998) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1998) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1998) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(1999) Johnny Depp
Johnny Depp
(1999) Jean Rochefort
Jean Rochefort
(1999) Josiane Balasko
Josiane Balasko
(2000) Georges Cravenne
Georges Cravenne
(2000) Jean-Pierre Léaud
Jean-Pierre Léaud
(2000) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2000)

2001–present

Darry Cowl (2001) Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2001) Agnès Varda
Agnès Varda
(2001) Anouk Aimée
Anouk Aimée
(2002) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(2002) Claude Rich
Claude Rich
(2002) Bernadette Lafont
Bernadette Lafont
(2003) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
(2003) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2003) Micheline Presle
Micheline Presle
(2004) Jacques Dutronc
Jacques Dutronc
(2005) Will Smith
Will Smith
(2005) Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
(2006) Pierre Richard
Pierre Richard
(2006) Marlène Jobert
Marlène Jobert
(2007) Jude Law
Jude Law
(2007) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(2008) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(2008) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(2009) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2010) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(2011) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2012) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(2013) Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
(2014) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2015) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2016) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2017) Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
(2018)

v t e

French New Wave

Cahiers du Cinéma Directors

François Truffaut Jean-Luc Godard Éric Rohmer Claude Chabrol Jacques Rivette

Left Bank

Henri Colpi Marguerite Duras Armand Gatti Chris Marker Alain Resnais Alain Robbe-Grillet Agnès Varda

Other filmmakers

Philippe de Broca Jacques Demy Jean Douchet Jean Eustache Georges Franju Pierre Kast Louis Malle Jean-Pierre Melville Luc Moullet Jacques Rozier Straub–Huillet Roger Vadim

Theoretical influences

Alexandre Astruc André Bazin Robert Bresson Jacques Doniol-Valcroze Henri Langlois Joseph-Marie Lo Duca Jean Rouch

Key films

Le Coup du Berger (1956) Le Beau Serge (1958) Le Signe du Lion (1959) The 400 Blows
The 400 Blows
(1959) Hiroshima mon amour
Hiroshima mon amour
(1959) Breathless (1960) Adieu Philippine
Adieu Philippine
(1962) Cléo from 5 to 7
Cléo from 5 to 7
(1962) La Jetée
La Jetée
(1962)

Related

Auteurism Cahiers du cinéma Cinémathèque Française Jump cut Two in the Wave
Two in the Wave
(2010 documentary)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108762210 LCCN: n79055544 ISNI: 0000 0003 6864 6695 GND: 118540009 SELIBR: 188346 SUDOC: 027323560 BNF: cb11905213z (data) BIBSYS: 90083073 ULAN: 500193556 HDS: 9170 MusicBrainz: b843da03-8b48-4567-9597-3c3e0068156d NLA: 35129196 NDL: 00441091 NKC: js20030216057 ICCU: ITICCURAVV25442 BNE: XX4578348 CiNii: DA01110376 RKD: 283

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