Jean-Luc Godard (French: [ʒɑ̃lyk ɡɔdaʁ]; born 3 December
1930) is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter and film critic.
He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s
French New Wave film
Like his New Wave contemporaries, Godard criticized mainstream French
cinema's "Tradition of Quality", which "emphasized craft over
innovation, privileged established directors over new directors, and
preferred the great works of the past to experimentation." As a
result of such argument, he and like-minded critics started to make
their own films. Many of Godard's films challenge the conventions
Hollywood in addition to French cinema. In 1964,
Godard described his and his colleagues' impact: "We barged into the
cinema like cavemen into the
Versailles of Louis XV." He is often
considered the most radical French filmmaker of the 1960s and
1970s; his approach in film conventions, politics and philosophies
made him arguably the most influential director of the French New
Wave. Along with showing knowledge of film history through homages and
references, several of his films expressed his political views; he was
an avid reader of existential and Marxist philosophy.
Since the New Wave, his politics have been much less radical and his
recent films are about representation and human conflict from a
humanist, and a Marxist perspective.
In a 2002 Sight & Sound poll, Godard ranked third in the critics'
top-ten directors of all time (which was put together by assembling
the directors of the individual films for which the critics voted).
He is said to have "created one of the largest bodies of critical
analysis of any filmmaker since the mid-twentieth century." He and
his work have been central to narrative theory and have "challenged
both commercial narrative cinema norms and film criticism's
vocabulary." In 2010, Godard was awarded an Academy Honorary Award,
but did not attend the award ceremony. Godard's films have
inspired many directors including Martin Scorsese, Quentin Tarantino,
Brian De Palma, Steven Soderbergh, D. A. Pennebaker, Robert
Altman, Jim Jarmusch, Wong Kar-wai, Wim Wenders, Bernardo
Bertolucci, and Pier Paolo Pasolini.
From his father, he is the cousin of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, former
President of Peru. He has been married twice, to actresses Anna
Karina and Anne Wiazemsky, both of whom starred in several of his
films. His collaborations with Karina—which included such critically
acclaimed films as Bande à part (1964) and Pierrot le Fou
(1965)—was called "arguably the most influential body of work in the
history of cinema" by Filmmaker magazine.
1 Early life
2 Early career (1950–59)
2.1 Film criticism
3 New Wave period (1960–68)
3.1.2 The Little Soldier
3.1.3 My Life to Live
Les Carabiniers and Contempt
3.1.5 Anouchka Films
3.1.6 Week End
3.2.1 Vietnam War
3.3 Bertolt Brecht
4 Revolutionary period (1968–79)
4.2 Jean-Pierre Gorin
Dziga Vertov group
6 Personal life
8 Collaboration with ECM Records
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Jean-Luc Godard was born on 3 December 1930 in the 7th
arrondissement of Paris, the son of Odile (née Monod) and Paul
Godard, a Swiss physician. His wealthy parents came from
Protestant families of Franco–Swiss descent, and his mother was the
daughter of Julien Monod, a founder of the Banque Paribas. She was the
great-granddaughter of theologian Adolphe Monod. Relatives on his
mother's side include also composer Jacques-Louis Monod, naturalist
Théodore Monod and pastor Frédéric Monod. Four years after
Jean-Luc's birth, his father moved the family to Switzerland. At the
outbreak of the Second World War, Godard was in
France and returned to
Switzerland with difficulty. He spent most of the war in Switzerland,
although his family made clandestine trips to his grandfather's estate
on the French side of Lake Geneva. Godard attended school in Nyon,
Not a frequent cinema-goer, he attributed his introduction to cinema
to a reading of Malraux's essay Outline of a Psychology of Cinema, and
his reading of La Revue du cinéma, which was relaunched in 1946.
In 1946, he went to study at the Lycée Buffon in
Paris and, through
family connections, mixed with members of its cultural elite. He
lodged with the writer Jean Schlumberger. Having failed his
baccalaureate exam in 1948 he returned to Switzerland. He studied in
Lausanne and lived with his parents, whose marriage was breaking up.
He spent time in
Geneva also with a group that included another film
fanatic, Roland Tolmatchoff, and the extreme rightist philosopher Jean
Parvulesco. His older sister Rachel encouraged him to paint, which he
did, in an abstract style. After time spent at a boarding school in
Thonon to prepare for the retest, which he passed, he returned to
Paris in 1949. He registered for a certificate in anthropology at
the University of
Paris (Sorbonne), but did not attend class. He
got involved with the young group of film critics at the ciné-clubs
that started the New Wave. Godard originally held only French
citizenship, then in 1953, he became a citizen of Gland, canton of
Vaud, Switzerland, possibly through simplified naturalisation through
his Swiss father.
Early career (1950–59)
In Paris, in the Latin Quarter just prior to 1950, ciné-clubs (film
societies) were gaining prominence. Godard began attending these clubs
- the Cinémathèque, the CCQL, Work and Culture ciné Club, and
others - which became his regular haunts. The Cinémathèque had been
Henri Langlois and
Georges Franju in 1936; Work and Culture
was a workers' education group for which
André Bazin had organized
wartime film screenings and discussions and which had become a model
for the film clubs that had risen throughout
France after the
Liberation; Ciné-Club du
Quartier Latin (CCQL), founded 1947-48, was
animated and intellectually led by Maurice Schérer. At these
clubs he met fellow film enthusiasts including Jacques Rivette, Claude
Chabrol, and François Truffaut. Godard was part of a generation
for whom cinema took on a special importance. He has said: "In the
1950s cinema was as important as bread—but it isn't the case any
more. We thought cinema would assert itself as an instrument of
knowledge, a microscope... a telescope.... At the Cinémathèque I
discovered a world which nobody had spoken to me about. They'd told us
about Goethe, but not Dreyer. ... We watched silent films in the era
of talkies. We dreamed about film. We were like Christians in the
His foray into films began in the field of criticism. Along with
Maurice Schérer (writing under the to-be-famous pseudonym Éric
Rohmer) and Rivette, he founded the short-lived film journal Gazette
du cinéma, which saw publication of five issues in 1950. When
Bazin co-founded the influential critical magazine Cahiers du cinéma
in 1951, Godard was the first of the younger critics from the
CCQL/Cinémathèque group to be published—the January 1952 issue
featured his review of an American melodrama directed by Rudolph
Maté, No Sad Songs for Me. His "Defence and Illustration of Classical
Découpage" published in September 1952, in which he attacks an
earlier article by Bazin and defends the use of the shot-reverse shot
technique, is one of his earliest important contributions to
Otto Preminger and "the greatest American
artist—Howard Hawks", Godard raises their harsh melodramas above the
more "formalistic and overtly artful films of Welles, De Sica and
Wyler which Bazin endorsed". At this point Godard's activities did
not include making films—rather he watched films, and wrote about
them, and helped others make films, notably Rohmer, with whom he
worked on Présentation ou Charlotte et son steak.
Paris in the autumn of 1952, Godard returned to
Switzerland and went to live with his mother in Lausanne. He became
friendly with his mother's lover, Jean-Pierre Laubscher, who was a
labourer on the Grande Dixence Dam. Through Laubscher he secured work
himself as a construction worker at the Plaz Fleuri work site at the
dam. He saw the possibility of making a documentary film about the dam
and when his initial contract ended, in order to prolong his time at
the dam, moved to the post of telephone switchboard operator. It was
whilst on duty, in April 1954, that he put through a call to Laubscher
that relayed the fact that Odile Monod, his mother, had died in a
scooter accident. Thanks to Swiss friends who lent him a 35mm movie
camera, he was able to shoot on 35mm film. He rewrote the commentary
that Laubscher had written, and gave his film a rhyming title
Opération béton (Operation concrete). The company that administered
the dam bought the film and used it for publicity purposes.
As he continued to work for Cahiers, he made Une femme coquette
(1955), in Geneva, a ten-minute short; and in January 1956 he returned
to Paris. A plan for a feature film of Goethe's Elective Affinities
proved too ambitious and came to nothing. Truffaut enlisted his help
to work on an idea he had for a film based on the true-crime story of
a petty criminal, Michel Portail, who had shot a motorcycle policeman
and whose girlfriend had turned him in to the police. But Truffaut
failed to interest any producers. Another project with Truffaut, a
comedy about a country girl arriving in Paris, was also abandoned.
He worked with Rohmer on a planned series of short films centering on
the lives of two young women, Charlotte and Véronique; and in the
autumn of 1957,
Pierre Braunberger produced the first film in the
series, All the Boys Are Named Patrick, directed by Godard from
Une histoire d'eau
Une histoire d'eau (1958) was created largely out of
unused footage shot by Truffaut. In 1958, Godard, with a cast that
Jean-Paul Belmondo and Anne Colette, made his last short
before gaining international prominence as a filmmaker, Charlotte et
son Jules, an homage to Jean Cocteau. The film was shot in Godard's
hotel room on the rue de Rennes and apparently reflected something of
the 'romantic austerity' of Godard's own life at this time. His Swiss
friend Roland Tolmatchoff noted; "In
Paris he had a big Bogart poster
on the wall and nothing else." In December 1958, Godard reported
from the Festival of Short Films in
Tours and praised the work of, and
became friends with, Jacques Demy, Jacques Rozier, and Agnès
Varda—he already knew
Alain Resnais whose entry he also
praised—but Godard now wanted to make a feature film. He travelled
1959 Cannes Film Festival and asked Truffaut to let him use the
story on which they had collaborated in 1956, about the car thief
Michel Portail. He sought money from the producer Georges de
Beauregard whom he had met previously whilst working briefly in the
publicity department of Twentieth Century Fox's
Paris office, and who
was also at the Festival. Beauregard could offer his expertise, but
was in debt from two productions based on
Pierre Loti stories and so
financing came instead from a film distributor, René Pignières.
New Wave period (1960–68)
Godard's most celebrated period as a director spans roughly from his
first feature, Breathless (1960), through to Week End (1967). His work
during this period focused on relatively conventional films that often
refer to different aspects of film history. Although Godard's work
during this time is considered groundbreaking in its own right, the
period stands in contrast to that which immediately followed it,
during which Godard ideologically denounced much of cinema's history
as "bourgeois" and therefore without merit.
Godard's Breathless (À bout de souffle, 1960), starring Jean-Paul
Jean Seberg distinctly expressed the French New Wave's
style, and incorporated quotations from several elements of popular
culture—specifically American film noir. The film employed
various techniques such as the innovative use of jump cuts (which were
traditionally considered amateurish), character asides, and
breaking the eyeline match in continuity editing.
From the beginning of his career, Godard included more film references
into his movies than did any of his New Wave colleagues. In
Breathless, his citations include a movie poster showing Humphrey
Bogart—from The Harder They Fall, his last film (whose
expression the lead actor
Jean-Paul Belmondo tries reverently to
imitate)—visual quotations from films of Ingmar Bergman, Samuel
Fuller, Fritz Lang, and others; and an onscreen dedication to Monogram
Pictures, an American
B-movie studio. Quotations from, and
references to literature include William Faulkner, Dylan Thomas, Louis
Aragon, Rilke, Françoise Sagan, Maurice Sachs. The film also contains
citations in images or on the soundtrack—Mozart, Picasso, J. S.
Bach, Paul Klee, and Auguste Renoir. "This first-person cinema invoked
not the director's experience but his presence".
Godard wanted to hire the American actress Jean Seberg, who was living
Paris with her husband François Moreuil, an attorney, to play the
American woman. Seberg had become famous in 1956 when Otto Preminger
had chosen her to play
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc in his Saint Joan, and had then
cast her in his acidulous 1958 adaptation of Bonjour Tristesse.
Her performance in this film had not been generally regarded as a
success—the New York Times critic called her a "misplaced
amateur"—but Truffaut and Godard disagreed. In the role of Michel
Poiccard, Godard cast Belmondo, an actor he had already called,
writing in Arts in 1958, "the
Michel Simon and the
Jules Berry of
tomorrow." The cameraman was Raoul Coutard, the producer
Beauregard's choice. Godard wanted Breathless to be shot like a
documentary, with a lightweight handheld camera and a minimum of added
lighting and Coutard had had experience as a documentary cameraman
while working for the French army's information service in Indochina
during the French-Indochina War. Tracking shots were filmed by Coutard
from a wheelchair pushed by Godard. Though he had prepared a
traditional screenplay, he dispensed with it and Godard wrote the
dialogue day by day as the production went ahead. The film's
importance was recognized immediately and in January 1960, Godard won
the Jean Vigo Prize, awarded " to encourage an auteur of the future".
One reviewer mentioned Alexandre Astruc's prophecy of the age of the
caméra-stylo, the camera that a new generation would use with the
efficacy with which a writer uses his pen—"here is in fact the first
work authentically written with a caméra-stylo".
Anna Karina, having rejected a role in Breathless, appeared in
Godard's next film Le Petit Soldat, which concerned France's war in
The Little Soldier
The following year Godard made
Le Petit Soldat
Le Petit Soldat (The Little Soldier),
filmed on location in Geneva, and dealing with the Algerian War of
Independence. The film begins on 13 May 1958, the date of the
attempted putsch in Algeria, and ends later the same month. In the
film, Bruno Forestier a photojournalist who has links with a right
wing paramilitary group working for the French government, is ordered
to murder a professor accused of aiding the Algerian resistance. He is
in love with Veronica Dreyer, a young woman who has worked with the
Algerian fighters. He is captured by Algerian militants and tortured.
His organisation captures and tortures her. The 'little soldier' was
Michel Subor and Veronica Dreyer by Anna Karina—the first
collaboration between Godard and the Danish-born—of Russian
extraction—actress. Unlike Seberg, Karina had virtually no
experience as an actress and Godard used her awkwardness as an element
of her performance. He wrote the dialogue every day and, since it was
filmed without direct sound and was dubbed, called dialogue to the
actors. Forestier was a character close to Godard himself, an
image-maker and intellectual, 'more or less my spokesman, but not
totally' Godard told an interviewer. The film, due to its
political nature, implied that
France was involved in a dirty war,
engaging in torture, and was banned by the French government until
January 1963. Godard and Karina were a couple by the end of the shoot.
She appeared again, along with Belmondo, in Godard's first color film,
A Woman Is a Woman
A Woman Is a Woman (1961), which was intended as a homage to the
American musical. Adjustments that Godard made to the original version
of the story gave it autobiographical resonances, 'specifically in
regard to his relationship with Anna Karina'. The film revealed 'the
confinement within the four walls of domestic life', and 'the
emotional and artistic fault lines that threatened their
My Life to Live
Godard's next film,
Vivre sa vie (My Life to Live) (1962), was one of
his most popular among critics. Karina starred as Nana, an errant
mother and aspiring actress whose financially strained circumstances
lead her to the life of a streetwalker. It is an episodic account of
her rationalizations to prove she is free, even though she is tethered
at the end of her pimp's short leash. In one scene, within a cafe, she
spreads her arms out and announces she is free to raise or lower them
as she wishes.
The film was a popular success and led to Columbia giving him a deal
where he would be provided with $100,000 to make a movie, with
complete artistic control.
Les Carabiniers and Contempt
Les Carabiniers (1963) was about the horror of war and its inherent
injustice. It was the influence and suggestion of Roberto Rossellini
that led Godard to make this film which follows two peasants who join
the army of a king, only to find futility in the whole thing as the
king reveals the deception of war-administrating leaders.
His most commercially successful film was Le Mépris (Contempt)
Michel Piccoli and one of France's biggest female
stars, Brigitte Bardot. A coproduction between Italy and France,
Contempt became known as a pinnacle in cinematic modernism with its
profound reflexivity. The film follows Paul (Piccoli), a screenwriter
who is commissioned by the arrogant American movie producer Prokosch
(Jack Palance) to rewrite the script for an adaptation of Homer's
Odyssey, which the Austrian director
Fritz Lang has been filming.
Lang's 'high culture' interpretation of the story is lost on Prokosch,
whose character is a firm indictment of the commercial motion picture
hierarchy. Another prominent theme is the inability to reconcile love
and labor, which is illustrated by Paul's crumbling marriage to
Camille (Bardot) during the course of shooting.
In 1964, Godard and Karina formed a production company, Anouchka
Films. He directed Bande à part (Band of Outsiders), another
collaboration between the two and described by Godard as "Alice in
Wonderland meets Franz Kafka." It follows two young men, looking to
score on a heist, who both fall in love with Karina, and quotes from
several gangster film conventions.
Une femme mariée
Une femme mariée (A Married Woman) (1964) followed Band of Outsiders.
It was a slow, deliberate, toned-down black-and-white picture without
a real story. The film was shot in four weeks and was "an
explicitly and stringently modernist film". It showed Godard's
"engagement with the most advanced thinking of the day, as expressed
in the work of
Claude Lévi-Strauss and Roland Barthes" and its
fragmentation and abstraction reflected also "his loss of faith in the
Hollywood styles." Godard made the film while he acquired
Pierrot le fou
Pierrot le fou (1965).
In 1965, Godard directed Alphaville, a futuristic blend of science
fiction, film noir, and satire.
Eddie Constantine starred as Lemmy
Caution, a detective who is sent into a city controlled by a giant
computer named Alpha 60. His mission is to make contact with Professor
von Braun (Howard Vernon), a famous scientist who has fallen
mysteriously silent, and is believed to be suppressed by the computer.
Pierrot le fou
Pierrot le fou (1965) featured a complex storyline, distinctive
personalities, and a violent ending. Gilles Jacob, an author, critic,
and president of the Cannes Film Festival, called it both a
"retrospective" and recapitulation in the way it played on so many of
Godard's earlier characters and themes. With an extensive cast and
variety of locations, the film was expensive enough to warrant
significant problems with funding. Shot in color, it departed from
Godard's minimalist works (typified by Breathless, Vivre sa vie, and
Une femme mariée). He solicited the participation of Jean-Paul
Belmondo, by then a famous actor, in order to guarantee the necessary
amount of capital.
Masculin, féminin (1966), based on two
Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant stories, La
Femme de Paul and Le Signe, was a study of contemporary French youth
and their involvement with cultural politics. An intertitle refers to
the characters as "The children of Marx and Coca-Cola." Although
Godard's cinema is sometimes thought to depict a wholly masculine
point of view, Phillip John Usher has demonstrated how the film, by
the way it connects images and disparate events, seems to blur gender
Godard followed with Made in U.S.A (1966), whose source material was
Richard Stark's The Jugger; and Two or Three Things I Know About Her
(1967), in which
Marina Vlady portrays a woman leading a double life
as housewife and prostitute. A Classic New Wave crime thriller, "Made
in the U.S.A" is inspired by American Noir films.
Anna Karina stars as
the anti-hero searching for her murdered lover; the film includes a
cameo by Marianne Faithfull.
La Chinoise (1967) saw Godard at his most politically forthright so
far. The film focused on a group of students and engaged with the
ideas coming out of the student activist groups in contemporary
France. Released just before the May 1968 events, the film is thought
by some to foreshadow the student rebellions that took place.
That same year, Godard made a more colorful and political film, Week
End. It follows a Parisian couple as they leave on a weekend trip
across the French countryside to collect an inheritance. What ensues
is a confrontation with the tragic flaws of the over-consuming
bourgeoisie. The film contains some of the most written-about scenes
in cinema's history. One of them, an eight-minute tracking shot of the
couple stuck in an unremitting traffic jam as they leave the city, is
cited as a new technique Godard used to deconstruct bourgeois
trends. Startlingly, a few shots contain extra footage from, as it
were, before the beginning of the take (while the actors are
preparing) and after the end of the take (while the actors are coming
out of character). Week End's enigmatic and audacious end title
sequence, which reads "End of Cinema", appropriately marked an end to
the narrative and cinematic period in Godard's filmmaking career.
Politics are never far from the surface in Godard's films. One of his
earliest features, Le Petit Soldat, which dealt with the Algerian War
of Independence, was notable for its attempt to present the complexity
of the dispute rather than pursue any specific ideological agenda.
Along these lines,
Les Carabiniers presents a fictional war that is
initially romanticized in the way its characters approach their
service, but becomes a stiff anti-war metonym. In addition to the
international conflicts Godard sought an artistic response to, he was
also very concerned with the social problems in France. The earliest
and best example of this is Karina's potent portrayal of a prostitute
in Vivre sa vie.
In 1960s Paris, the political milieu was not overwhelmed by one
specific movement. There was, however, a distinct post-war climate
shaped by various international conflicts such as the colonialism in
North Africa and Southeast Asia. Godard's Marxist disposition did not
become abundantly explicit until
La Chinoise and Week End, but is
evident in several films—namely Pierrot and Une femme mariée.
Godard has been accused by some of harboring anti-Semitic views: in
2010, in the lead-up to the presentation of Godard's honorary Oscar, a
prominent article in the New York Times by Michael Cieply drew
attention to the idea, which had been circulating through press in
previous weeks, that Godard might be an anti-Semite, and thus
undeserving of the accolade. Cieply makes reference to Richard Brody's
book, Everything is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc Godard, and
alluded to a previous, longer article published by the Jewish Journal
as lying near the origin of the debate. The article also draws
upon Brody's book, for example in the following quotation, which
Godard made on television in 1981: "Moses is my principal
enemy...Moses, when he received the commandments, he saw images and
translated them. Then he brought the texts, he didn't show what he had
seen. That's why the Jewish people are accursed." Immediately
after Cieply's article was published, Brody made a clear point of
criticizing the "extremely selective and narrow use" of passages in
his book, and noted that Godard's work has approached the Holocaust
with "the greatest moral seriousness". Indeed, his documentaries
feature images from the Holocaust in a context suggesting he considers
Nazism and the Holocaust as the nadir of human history. Godard's views
become more complex regarding the State of Israel. In 1970, Godard
traveled to the Middle East to make a pro-Palestinian film he didn't
complete and whose footage eventually became part of the 1976 film Ici
et ailleurs. In this film, Godard seems to view the Palestinian cause
as one of many worldwide Leftist revolutionary movements. Elsewhere,
Godard has explicitly identified himself as an anti-Zionist but has
denied the accusations of anti-Semitism.
Godard produced several pieces that directly address the Vietnam War.
Furthermore, there are two scenes in
Pierrot le fou
Pierrot le fou that tackle the
issue. The first is a scene that takes place in the initial car ride
between Ferdinand (Belmondo) and Marianne (Karina). Over the car
radio, the two hear the message "garrison massacred by the Viet Cong
who lost 115 men". Marianne responds with an extended musing on the
way the radio dehumanizes the Northern Vietnamese combatants.
In the same film, the lovers accost a group of American sailors along
the course of their liberating crime spree. Their immediate reaction,
expressed by Marianne, is "Damn Americans!", an obvious outlet of the
frustration so many French communists felt towards American hegemony.
Ferdinand then reconsiders, "That's OK, we’ll change our politics.
We can put on a play. Maybe they’ll give us some dollars." Marianne
is puzzled, but Ferdinand suggests that something the Americans would
like would be the Vietnam War. The ensuing sequence is a makeshift
play where Marianne dresses up as a stereotypical Vietnamese woman and
Ferdinand as an American sailor. The scene ends on a brief shot
revealing a chalk message left on the floor by the pair, "Long live
Mao!" (Vive Mao!).
Notably, he also participated in
Loin du Vietnam (1967). An anti-war
project, it consists of seven sketches directed by Godard (who used
stock footage from La Chinoise), Claude Lelouch, Joris Ivens, William
Klein, Chris Marker,
Alain Resnais and Agnès Varda.
Godard's engagement with German poet and playwright Bertolt Brecht
stems primarily from his attempt to transpose Brecht's theory of epic
theatre and its prospect of alienating the viewer (Verfremdungseffekt)
through a radical separation of the elements of the medium (in
Brecht's case theater, but in Godard's, film). Brecht's influence is
keenly felt through much of Godard's work, particularly before 1980,
when Godard used filmic expression for specific political ends.
For example, Breathless' elliptical editing, which denies the viewer a
fluid narrative typical of mainstream cinema, forces the viewers to
take on more critical roles, connecting the pieces themselves and
coming away with more investment in the work's content. Godard
also employs other devices, including asynchronous sound and alarming
title frames, with perhaps his favorite being the character aside. In
many of his most political pieces, specifically Week End, Pierrot le
fou, and La Chinoise, characters address the audience with thoughts,
feelings, and instructions.
Karl Marx in film
A Marxist reading is possible with most if not all of Godard's early
work. Godard's direct interaction with
Marxism does not become
explicitly apparent, however, until Week End, where the name Karl Marx
is cited in conjunction with figures such as Jesus Christ. A constant
refrain throughout Godard's cinematic period is that of the
bourgeoisie's consumerism, the commodification of daily life and
activity, and man's alienation—all central features of Marx's
critique of capitalism.
In an essay on Godard, philosopher and aesthetics scholar Jacques
Rancière states, "When in Pierrot le fou, 1965, a film without a
clear political message, Belmondo played on the word 'scandal' and the
'freedom' that the Scandal girdle supposedly offered women, the
context of a Marxist critique of commodification, of pop art derision
at consumerism, and of a feminist denunciation of women's false
'liberation', was enough to foster a dialectical reading of the joke
and the whole story." The way Godard treated politics in his cinematic
period was in the context of a joke, a piece of art, or a
relationship, presented to be used as tools of reference,
romanticizing the Marxist rhetoric, rather than being solely tools of
Une femme mariée
Une femme mariée is also structured around Marx's concept of
commodity fetishism. Godard once said that it is "a film in which
individuals are considered as things, in which chases in a taxi
alternate with ethological interviews, in which the spectacle of life
is intermingled with its analysis". He was very conscious of the way
he wished to portray the human being. His efforts are overtly
characteristic of Marx, who in his Economic and Philosophical
Manuscripts of 1844 gives one of his most nuanced elaborations,
analyzing how the worker is alienated from his product, the object of
his productive activity. Georges Sadoul, in his short rumination on
the film, describes it as a "sociological study of the alienation of
the modern woman".
Revolutionary period (1968–79)
The period that spans from May 1968 indistinctly into the 1970s has
been subject to an even larger volume of varying labeling. They
include everything from his "militant" period, to his "radical"
period, along with terms as specific as "Maoist" and vague as
"political". The period saw Godard align himself with a specific
revolution and employ a consistent revolutionary rhetoric.
Amid the upheavals of the late 1960s, Godard became passionate about
"making political films politically." Though many of his films from
1968 to 1972 are feature-length films, they are low budget and
challenge the notion of what a film can be. In addition to abandoning
mainstream filmmaking, Godard also tried to escape the cult of
personality that had formed around him. He worked anonymously in
collaboration with other filmmakers, most notably Jean-Pierre Gorin,
with whom he formed the Dziga-Vertov cinema collective. During this
period, Godard made films in England, Italy, Czechoslovakia,
Palestine, and America, as well as France. He and Gorin toured with
their work, attempting to create discussion, mainly on college
campuses. This period came to a climax with the big budget production
Tout va bien, which starred
Yves Montand and Jane Fonda. Owing to a
motorcycle accident that severely incapacitated Godard, Gorin ended up
directing this most celebrated of their work together almost
single-handedly. As a companion piece to Tout va bien, the pair made
Letter to Jane, a 50-minute "examination of a still" showing Jane
Fonda visiting with the
Viet Cong during the Vietnam War. The film is
a deconstruction of Western imperialist ideology. This was the last
film that Godard and Gorin made together.
In 1978 Godard was commissioned by the Mozambican government to make a
short film. During this time his experience with
Kodak film led him to
criticize the film stock as "inherently racist" since it did not
reflect the variety, nuance or complexity in dark brown or dark skin.
This was because
Shirley cards were only made for Caucasian
subjects, a problem that was not rectified until 1995.
Following this important collaboration, Godard met his life partner
Anne-Marie Miéville. The two set up a production company, SonImage,
in Switzerland and together they made two feature films, Number Two
and Comment ca va. They also produced two series for French
television, Six fois deux and France/tour/détour/deux enfants. Since
Godard returned to mainstream filmmaking in 1980, Anne-Marie Miéville
has remained an important collaborator.
After the events of May 1968, when the city of
Paris saw total
upheaval in response to the "authoritarian de Gaulle", and Godard's
professional objective was reconsidered, he began to collaborate with
like-minded individuals in the filmmaking arena. The most notable of
these collaborations was with a young Maoist student, Jean-Pierre
Gorin, who displayed a passion for cinema that grabbed Godard's
Between 1968 and 1973, Godard and Gorin collaborated to make a total
of five films with strong Maoist messages. The most prominent film
from the collaboration was Tout va bien, which starred
Jane Fonda and
Yves Montand, at the time very big stars.
Jean-Pierre Gorin now
teaches the study of film at the University of California, San Diego.
Dziga Vertov group
The small group of Maoists that Godard had brought together, which
included Gorin, adopted the name
Dziga Vertov Group. Godard had a
specific interest in Vertov, a Soviet filmmaker—whose adopted name
is derived from the verb to spin or rotate and is best remembered
Man with the Movie Camera
Man with the Movie Camera (1929) and a contemporary of both the
great Soviet montage theorists, most notably Sergei Eisenstein, and
Russian constructivist and avant-garde artists such as Alexander
Rodchenko and Vladimir Tatlin. Part of Godard's political shift after
May 1968 was toward a proactive participation in the class struggle.
In 1972, Godard and Swiss filmmaker
Anne-Marie Miéville started the
alternative video production and distribution company Sonimage, based
in Grenoble. Under Sonimage, Godard produced both Numéro Deux
(1975) and "Sauve qui peut (la vie)" (1980). In 1976, Godard and
Miéville, his wife, collaborated on a series of innovative video
works for European broadcast television called "Six fois deux/Sur et
sous la communication" (1976) and
Godard's return to somewhat more traditional fiction was marked with
Sauve qui peut (la vie)
Sauve qui peut (la vie) (1980), the first of a series of more
mainstream films marked by autobiographical currents: for example
Lettre à Freddy Buache (1982),
Prénom Carmen (1984),
and Grandeur et décadence d'un petit commerce de cinéma (1986).
There was, though, another flurry of controversy with Je vous salue,
Marie (1985), which was condemned by the Catholic Church for alleged
heresy, and also with King Lear (1987), an essay on William
Shakespeare and language. Also completed in 1987 was a segment in the
film ARIA which was based loosely from the plot of Armide; it is set
in a gym and uses several arias by
Jean-Baptiste Lully from his famous
His later films have been marked by great formal beauty and frequently
a sense of requiem—Nouvelle Vague (New Wave, 1990), the
autobiographical JLG/JLG, autoportrait de décembre (JLG/JLG:
Self-Portrait in December, 1995), and
For Ever Mozart (1996).
Allemagne année 90 neuf zéro (Germany Year 90 Nine Zero, 1991) was a
quasi-sequel to Alphaville but done with an elegiac tone and focus on
the inevitable decay of age. Between 1988 and 1998 he produced perhaps
the most important work of his career in the multi-part series
Histoire(s) du cinéma, a monumental project which combined all the
innovations of his video work with a passionate engagement in the
issues of twentieth-century history and the history of film itself.
In 2001, In Praise of Love (Éloge de l'amour) was released. The film
is notable for its use of both film and video—the first half
captured in 35-mm black and white, the latter half shot in color on
DV—and subsequently transferred to film for editing. The blending of
film and video recalls the statement from Sauve Qui Peut, in which the
tension between film and video evokes the struggle between Cain and
Abel. The film is also noted for containing themes of aging, love,
separation, and rediscovery as it follows the young artist Edgar in
his contemplation of a new work on the four stages of love.
Notre musique (2004), Godard turned his focus to war, specifically,
the war in Sarajevo, but with attention to all war, including the
American Civil War, the war between the US and Native Americans, and
the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The film is structured into three
Dantean kingdoms: Hell, Purgatory and Paradise. Godard's fascination
with paradox is a constant in the film. It opens with a long,
ponderous montage of war images that occasionally lapses into the
comic; Paradise is shown as a lush wooded beach patrolled by US
Film Socialisme (2010), premiered in the Un Certain
Regard section at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival. It was
released theatrically in
France in May 2010.
Godard was rumored to be considering directing a film adaptation of
Daniel Mendelsohn's The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million, an
award-winning book about the Holocaust. In 2013, Godard released
the short Les trois désastres (The Three Disasters) as part of the
3X3D with filmmakers
Peter Greenaway and Edgar Pera.
3X3D premiered at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival.
His 2014 film Goodbye to Language, shot in 3-D, revolves
around a couple who cannot communicate with each other until their pet
dog acts as an interpreter for them. The film was selected to compete
Palme d'Or in the main competition section at the 2014 Cannes
Film Festival, where it won the Jury Prize.
J. Hoberman reported that Godard is working on a new film.
Initially titled Tentative de bleu, in December 2016 Wild Bunch
co-chief Vincent Maraval stated that Godard had been shooting Image et
Parole for almost two years "in various Arab countries, including
Tunisia" and that is an examination of the modern Arab World.
Godard has been married twice, to two of his leading women: Anna
Karina (1961–1965) and
Anne Wiazemsky (1967–1979).
Beginning in 1970, he collaborated personally and professionally with
His relationship with Karina in particular produced some of his most
critically acclaimed films, and their relationship was widely
The Independent described them as "one of the most
celebrated pairings of the 1960s." A writer for Filmmaker magazine
called their collaborations "arguably the most influential body of
work in the history of cinema." Karina has said they no longer
speak to each other.
Michel Hazanavicius directed a film about Godard,
Redoubtable, based on the memoir, One Year After (2015), by
Wiazemsky. It centers on his life in the late 1960s, when he and
Wiazemsky made films together. The film premiered at the Cannes Film
Festival this year.
Jean-Luc Godard filmography
1960 Le Petit soldat
1961 A Woman Is a Woman
1962 My Life to Live
1963 Les Carabiniers
1964 Band of Outsiders
1964 A Married Woman
1965 Pierrot le fou
1966 Masculin Féminin
1966 Made in U.S.A.
1967 Two or Three Things I Know About Her
1967 La Chinoise
1967 Week End
1968 A Film Like Any Other
1968 One Plus One
1969 Le Gai savoir
1969 British Sounds
Wind from the East (Le Vent d'est)
1971 Struggles in Italy
1971 Vladimir et Rosa
1972 Tout va bien
1974 Here and Elsewhere
1975 Number Two
1976 How's It Going?
1980 Every Man for Himself
1983 First Name: Carmen
1985 Hail Mary
1987 King Lear
1987 Keep Your Right Up
1990 New Wave
1991 Germany Year 90 Nine Zero
1993 The Kids Play Russian
1993 Oh Woe Is Me
1994 JLG/JLG – Self-Portrait in December
1996 For Ever Mozart
2001 In Praise of Love
2004 Notre musique
2010 Film Socialisme
2014 Goodbye to Language
Collaboration with ECM Records
Godard shares a friendship with Manfred Eicher, founder and head of
the innovative German music label ECM Records. The label has
released the soundtracks of Nouvelle Vague (ECM NewSeries 1600-01) and
Histoire(s) du cinéma
Histoire(s) du cinéma (ECM NewSeries 1706) by Godard. This
collaboration expanded over the years and led on the one hand into the
contribution of several stills from Godard’s movies for album
covers. On the other hand, Eicher took over the musical direction
of many of Godard’s films like Allemagne 90 neuf zéro, Hélas Pour
Moi, JLG or For Ever Mozart. Tracks from ECM records have also been
used in his films (for example
Ketil Bjørnstad and David Darling's
album Epigraphs was extensively used in the soundtrack for In Praise
of Love). Additionally Godard has released a collection of short films
on the label with
Anne-Marie Miéville called Four Short Films (ECM
Album covers with Godard's contribution include:
Voci, works of
Luciano Berio played by
Kim Kashkashian (ECM 1735)
Words of The Angel, by
Trio Mediaeval (ECM 1753)
Christoph Poppen & The
Hilliard Ensemble (ECM 1765)
Songs of Debussy and Mozart, by
Juliane Banse & András Schiff
Requiem for Larissa, by
Valentin Silvestrov (ECM 1778)
Soul of Things, by
Tomasz Stanko Quartet (ECM 1788)
Suspended Night, by
Tomasz Stanko Quartet (ECM 1868)
Asturiana: Songs from Spain and Argentina, by
Kim Kashkashian &
Robert Levin (ECM 1975)
Distances, by Norma Winstone,
Glauco Venier & Klaus Gesing (ECM
Live at Birdland, by Lee Konitz, Brad Mehldau,
Charlie Haden &
Paul Motian (ECM 2162)
Jean-Luc Godard bibliography
^ a b c Grant 2007, Vol. 4, p. 235.
^ Grant 2007, Vol. 2, p. 259.
^ "Jean-Luc Godard". New Wave Film. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
^ Brody, Richard, Everything is Cinema: The Working Life of Jean-Luc
Godard, Henry Holy & Co., 2008, pg. 72
^ a b c Grant 2007, Vol. 4, p. 126.
^ David Sterritt. "40 Years Ago, 'Breathless' Was Hyperactive Anarchy.
Now It's Part of the Canon". Archived from the original on 2 November
2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
^ "BFI – Sight & Sound – Top Ten Poll 2002 Poll – The
Critics' Top Ten Directors". Archived from the original on 23 June
^ Grant 2007, Vol. 4, p. 238.
^ Grant 2007, Vol. 4, p. 202.
^ Freeman, Nate. "Godard Companion: Director Will Not Travel to Oscars
for a 'Bit of Metal' The New York Observer". Observer.com. Retrieved
6 February 2012.
^ "1 PM". Pennebaker Hegedus Films. Archived from the original on 24
August 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
^ BFI (4 September 2006). "Jean-Luc Godard: Biography". BFI. Archived
from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011. He made
an enormous impact on the future direction of cinema, influencing
film-makers as diverse as Robert Altman, Martin Scorsese, Jim
Jarmusch, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wim Wenders, Steven Soderbergh,
Quentin Tarantino and Wong Kar-Wai.
^ a b Grant 2007, Vol. 3, p. 49.
^ "A Surprising Coalition Brings A New Leader To Peru". The New
Yorker. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
^ a b Zahedi, Caveh. ""Be Beautiful and Shut Up":
Anna Karina on
Jean-Luc Godard Filmmaker Magazine". Filmmaker
Magazine. Retrieved 2018-01-13.
^ Moullet, Luc (2005). "Jean-Luc Godard". In Jim Hillier. Cahiers du
cinéma: 1960–1968. New Wave, New Cinema, Re-evaluating Hollywood.
2. Milton Park, Oxford, UK: Routledge. pp. 35–48.
ISBN 0-415-15106-6. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
^ Richard Brody, Everything is Cinema, p. 4
^ Morrey 2005, p. 1.
^ "The religion of director Jean-Luc Godard". Adherents.com. Retrieved
29 December 2011.
^ "Jean Monod (1765–1836), pasteur". Ordiecole.com. Retrieved 29
^ "Jean-Luc Godard". AllMovie. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
^ Richard Brody, Everything is Cinema, p6
^ Richard Brody, p. 7
^ MacCabe 2005, p. 36.
^ Richard Brody, pp. 8–17
Jean-Luc Godard Biography: The Black Sheep". New Wave Film.
Retrieved 24 May 2013.
^ "Godard Biography". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original
on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
^ 'Le cinema n'a pas su remplir son role' Jean-Pierre Lavoignat and
Christophe d'Yvoire, Studio , number 96, 155-158 
Jean-Luc Godard Biography: What is Cinema?". New Wave Film.
Retrieved 24 May 2013.
Jean-Luc Godard Biography: Cahiers du Cinema". New Wave Film.
Retrieved 24 May 2013.
^ Brody, pp. 29–30.
^ Brody, pp. 26–27.
^ Richard Brody, pp. 31–34.
^ Brody, pp. 39–42.
^ Brody, p. 45.
^ Brody, pp. 47, 50.
^ Brody, p. 59.
^ Brody, p. 69.
^ Brody, p. 70.
^ Brody, p. 71.
^ Brody, p. 54.
^ Godard on Godard, p. 150.
^ Brody, p. 62.
^ Brody, pp. 72–73.
^ Brody, p. 89.
^ Brody, p. 92.
^ Brody, p. 110.
^ Archer, Eugene (27 Sep 1964). "France's Far Out Filmmaker". New York
Times. p. X11.
^ Luc Moullet, Masters of Cinema #4, booklet p. 10.
^ Brody, pp. 190–191.
^ Usher, Phillip John. (2009). "De sexe incertain: Masculin, Féminin
de Godard". French Forum, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 97–112.
^ Morrey, Douglas (2005). Jean-Luc Godard.
^ Michael Cieply (1 November 2010). "An Honorary Oscar Revives a
Controversy". New York Times. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
^ TOM TUGEND (6 October 2010). "Is
Jean-Luc Godard an anti-Semite?".
The Jewish Journal. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
Richard Brody (2 November 2010). "Jean-Luc Godard: The Oscar
Question". The Front Row. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
^ Kyle Buchanan (15 November 2010). "
Jean-Luc Godard Says Honorary
Oscar Meant 'Nothing' to Him". Vulture. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
^ Brody, pp 53-80.
^ National Public Radio. Light And Dark: The Racial Biases That Remain
In Photography (April 16, 2014)
^ Kino-eye: the writings of Dziga Vertov. Google Books. Retrieved 6
^ "Jean-Luc Godard". Electronic Arts Intermix. Archived from the
original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
^ "Anne-Marie Mieville". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved 11 April
^ "Six Fois Deux / Sur et Sous La Communication [TV Documentary
Series]". Fandango. Archived from the original on 8 September 2013.
Retrieved 11 April 2012.
^ "New Godard: "Socialisme"". Justpressplay.net. 8 May 2009. Retrieved
6 March 2010.
^ Leffler, Rebecca (15 April 2010). "
Hollywood Reporter: Cannes
Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 22
April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
^ Zeitchik, Steven (3 June 2009). "Holocaust Tale Piques Auteur". The
Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2 January
^ "3X3D, a 3D Stereoscopic Feature from Jean-Luc Godard, Peter
Greenaway, and Edgar Pera". Stereoscopy News. 9 February 2013.
Retrieved 9 February 2013.
^ "3x3D: Cannes Review". The
Hollywood Reporter. 30 May 2013.
Retrieved 4 July 2013.
^ craig keller. (13 September 2011). "Cinemasparagus: ADIEU AU LANGAGE
Jean-Luc Godard / 5 x 45-Minute Interview This Week".
Cinemasparagus.blogspot.com. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
^ "Daily Briefing. JLG, Benning/Cassavetes, Jia + Zhao on Notebook".
MUBI. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
^ "Awards 2014 : Competition". Cannes. Archived from the original
on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
^ Hoberman, J. (February 24, 2015). "Brother From Another Planet". The
Nation. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
^ "Ciak News 295: cos'è il cinema" (in Italian). Radiotelevisione
svizzera. September 5, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
^ Goodfellow, Melanie (27 December 2016). "New Jean-Luc Godard, Omar
Sy films on 2017 Wild Bunch slate". Screen Daily. Retrieved 1 January
^ Garcia, Patricia (May 10, 2016). "
Anna Karina on Loving and Working
With Jean-Luc Godard". Vogue. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
^ a b Roberts, Sam (October 5, 2017). "Anne Wiazemsky, Film Star, Wife
of Godard and Author, Dies at 70". New York Times. Retrieved October
^ a b "Jean Luc Godard's muse
Anna Karina on why she refused to star
in 'Breatless'". The Independent. 2016-02-12. Retrieved
^ Sagansky, Gillian. "
Anna Karina on Her Torrid Love Affair with
Jean-Luc Godard". W Magazine. Retrieved 2018-01-13.
^ Zeitchik, Steven (May 28, 2017). "Cannes 2017: New movie about
Jean-Luc Godard, from 'The Artist' director, shows auteurs can be
funny too". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
^ Lake: Horizons Touched (2010), pp. 115–133.
^ Kern: Der Blaue Klang (2010), pp. 99–111.
^ Lake: Horizons Touched (2010), pp. 5–12.
^ Lake: Windfall Light (2010), pp. 415–441.
Grant, Barry Keith, ed. (2007). Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film.
Detroit: Schirmer Reference. ISBN 0-02-865791-8.
MacCabe, Colin (2005). Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy.
New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21105-0.
Morrey, Douglas (2005). Jean-Luc Godard. New York: Manchester
University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6759-4.
Steritt, David (1998). Jean-Luc Godard: Interviews. Jackson,
Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781578060818.
Usher, Phillip John (2009). "De Sexe Incertain: Masculin, Féminin de
Godard". French Forum, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 97–112.
Godard, Jean-Luc (2014). Introduction to a True History of Cinema and
Television. Montreal: caboose. ISBN 978-0-9811914-1-6.
Brody, Richard (2008). Everything Is Cinema: The Working Life of
Jean-Luc Godard. ISBN 978-0-8050-6886-3.
Temple, Michael. Williams, James S. Witt, Michael (eds.) 2007. For
Ever Godard. London: Black Dog Publishing.
Dixon, Wheeler Winston. The Films of Jean-Luc Godard. Albany: State
University of New York Press, 1997.
Godard, Jean-Luc (2002). The Future(s) of Film: Three Interviews
2000–01. Bern; Berlin: Verlag Gachnang & Springer.
Loshitzky, Yosefa. The Radical Faces of Godard and Bertolucci.
Silverman, Kaja and Farocki, Harun. 1998. Speaking About Godard. New
York: New York University Press.
Temple, Michael and Williams, James S. (eds.) (2000). The Cinema
alone: Essays on the Work of
Jean-Luc Godard 1985–2000. Amsterdam:
Amsterdam University Press.
Dziga Vertov Group. São Paulo: witz, 2005.
Nicole Brenez, David Faroult, Michael Temple, James E. Williams,
Michael Witt (eds.) (2007). Jean-Luc Godard: Documents. Paris: Centre
Godard Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)
Diane Stevenson, "Godard and Bazin" in the Andre Bazin special issue,
Jeffrey Crouse (ed.), Film International, Issue 30, Vol. 5, No. 6,
2007, pp. 32–40.
Intxauspe, J.M. (2013). "Film Socialisme: Quo vadis Europa". hAUSnART,
Lake, Steve and Griffiths, Paul, eds. (2007). Horizons Touched: the
Music of ECM. Granta Books. ISBN 978-1-86207-880-2. 2007.
Müller, Lars (2010). Windfall Light: The Visual Language of ECM. Lars
Müller Publishers. ISBN 978-3-03778-157-9 (in English) &
ISBN 978-3-03778-197-5 (in German).
Rainer Kern, Hans-Jürgen Linke and Wolfgang Sandner (2010). Der Blaue
Klang. Wolke Verlag. ISBN 978-3-936000-83-2 (in German).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean-Luc Godard.
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Jean-luc Godard Timeline
Detailed filmography of
Jean-Luc Godard on unifrance.org
Jean-Luc Godard at
The Guardian Film
Jean-Luc Godard at
The New York Times
The New York Times Movies
Jean-Luc Godard collected news and commentary". The New York
Publications by and about
Jean-Luc Godard in the catalogue Helveticat
of the Swiss National Library
Guardian interview (29 April 2005)
Video dialog—in French—between Godard and the French writer
Stéphane Zagdanski about Literature and Cinema, November 2004
Interview with Jean-Luc Godard, 1972
The Little Soldier
The Little Soldier (1960)
A Woman Is a Woman
A Woman Is a Woman (1961)
My Life to Live (1962)
The Carabineers (1963)
Bande à part (1964)
A Married Woman
A Married Woman (1964)
Pierrot le Fou
Pierrot le Fou (1965)
Masculin Féminin (1966)
Made in U.S.A. (1966)
Two or Three Things I Know About Her
Two or Three Things I Know About Her (1967)
La Chinoise (1967)
One Plus One (Sympathy for the Devil) (1968)
Joy of Learning
Joy of Learning (1969)
Tout Va Bien
Tout Va Bien (1972)
Number Two (1975)
Every Man for Himself (1980)
First Name: Carmen (1983)
Hail Mary (1985)
King Lear (1987)
Keep Your Right Up (1987)
Nouvelle Vague (1990)
Germany Year 90 Nine Zero (1991)
Hélas pour moi (1993)
Les Enfants jouent à la Russie (1993)
JLG/JLG – Self-Portrait in December (1995)
For Ever Mozart (1996)
In Praise of Love (2001)
Notre musique (2004)
Film Socialisme (2010)
Goodbye to Language
Goodbye to Language (2014)
Image et Parole (2018)
Une femme coquette
All the Boys Are Called Patrick
A Story of Water
Charlotte and Her Boyfriend
"Sloth" in The Seven Deadly Sins
"The New World" in Ro.Go.Pa.G.
"Le Grand escroc" in Les plus belles escroqueries du monde
Paris vu par
"Anticipation, ou: l'amour en l'an 2000" in The Oldest Profession
"Caméra-oeil" in Far from Vietnam
"L'Amore" in Amore e rabbia
Letter to Jane
Here and Elsewhere
A Letter to Freddy Buache
Soft and Hard
"Armide" in Aria
"Le Dernier mot" in The French as Seen by...
Histoire(s) du cinéma
"Dans le noir du temps" in Ten Minutes Older
Tribute to Eric Rohmer
"Les Trois Désastres" in 3X3D
"The Bridge of Sighs" in Bridges of Sarajevo
Letter in Motion to Gilles Jacob and Thierry Fremaux
Two in the Wave
Two in the Wave (2010 documentary)
Awards for Jean-Luc Godard
Silver Bear for Best Director
Robert Aldrich (1956)
Mario Monicelli (1957)
Tadashi Imai (1958)
Akira Kurosawa (1959)
Jean-Luc Godard (1960)
Bernhard Wicki (1961)
Francesco Rosi (1962)
Nikos Koundouros (1963)
Satyajit Ray (1964)
Satyajit Ray (1965)
Carlos Saura (1966)
Živojin Pavlović (1967)
Carlos Saura (1968)
Jean-Pierre Blanc (1972)
Sergei Solovyov (1975)
Mario Monicelli (1976)
Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón
Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón (1977)
Georgi Djulgerov (1978)
Astrid Henning-Jensen (1979)
István Szabó (1980)
Mario Monicelli (1982)
Éric Rohmer (1983)
Costas Ferris /
Ettore Scola (1984)
Robert Benton (1985)
Georgiy Shengelaya (1986)
Oliver Stone (1987)
Norman Jewison (1988)
Dušan Hanák (1989)
Michael Verhoeven (1990)
Jonathan Demme /
Ricky Tognazzi (1991)
Jan Troell (1992)
Andrew Birkin (1993)
Krzysztof Kieślowski (1994)
Richard Linklater (1995)
Yim Ho /
Richard Loncraine (1996)
Eric Heumann (1997)
Neil Jordan (1998)
Stephen Frears (1999)
Miloš Forman (2000)
Lin Cheng-sheng (2001)
Otar Iosseliani (2002)
Patrice Chéreau (2003)
Kim Ki-duk (2004)
Marc Rothemund (2005)
Michael Winterbottom / Mat Whitecross (2006)
Joseph Cedar (2007)
Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson (2008)
Asghar Farhadi (2009)
Roman Polanski (2010)
Ulrich Köhler (2011)
Christian Petzold (2012)
David Gordon Green
David Gordon Green (2013)
Richard Linklater (2014)
Radu Jude / Malgorzata Szumowska (2015)
Mia Hansen-Løve (2016)
Aki Kaurismäki (2017)
Wes Anderson (2018)
Academy Honorary Award
Warner Bros. /
Charlie Chaplin (1928)
Walt Disney (1932)
Shirley Temple (1934)
D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith (1935)
The March of Time
The March of Time /
W. Howard Greene and
Harold Rosson (1936)
Edgar Bergen /
W. Howard Greene /
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art Film Library /
Mack Sennett (1937)
J. Arthur Ball /
Walt Disney /
Deanna Durbin and
Mickey Rooney /
Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art
Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills,
Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst /
Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey /
Harry Warner (1938)
Douglas Fairbanks /
Judy Garland /
William Cameron Menzies / Motion
Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad
Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939)
Bob Hope /
Nathan Levinson (1940)
Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA
Manufacturing Company /
Leopold Stokowski and his associates / Rey
Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941)
Charles Boyer /
Noël Coward /
George Pal (1943)
Bob Hope /
Margaret O'Brien (1944)
Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound
Walter Wanger / The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner
Harold Russell /
Laurence Olivier /
Ernst Lubitsch / Claude Jarman Jr.
James Baskett / Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith,
George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor /
Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947)
Walter Wanger /
Monsieur Vincent /
Sid Grauman /
Adolph Zukor (1948)
Jean Hersholt /
Fred Astaire /
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille / The Bicycle Thief
Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer /
George Murphy /
The Walls of Malapaga (1950)
Gene Kelly /
Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper /
Bob Hope /
Harold Lloyd / George Mitchell / Joseph
M. Schenck /
Forbidden Games (1952)
20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph
Breen / Pete Smith (1953)
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company /
Danny Kaye / Kemp Niver / Greta
Jon Whiteley /
Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954)
Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955)
Eddie Cantor (1956)
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers / Gilbert M.
"Broncho Billy" Anderson /
Charles Brackett /
B. B. Kahane (1957)
Maurice Chevalier (1958)
Buster Keaton /
Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest (1959)
Gary Cooper /
Stan Laurel /
Hayley Mills (1960)
William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler /
Jerome Robbins (1961)
William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle (1964)
Bob Hope (1965)
Yakima Canutt /
Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman (1966)
Arthur Freed (1967)
John Chambers /
Onna White (1968)
Cary Grant (1969)
Lillian Gish /
Orson Welles (1970)
Charlie Chaplin (1971)
Charles S. Boren /
Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson (1972)
Henri Langlois /
Groucho Marx (1973)
Howard Hawks /
Jean Renoir (1974)
Mary Pickford (1975)
Margaret Booth (1977)
Walter Lantz /
Laurence Olivier /
King Vidor / Museum of Modern Art
Department of Film (1978)
Hal Elias /
Alec Guinness (1979)
Henry Fonda (1980)
Barbara Stanwyck (1981)
Mickey Rooney (1982)
Hal Roach (1983)
James Stewart /
National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts (1984)
Paul Newman /
Alex North (1985)
Ralph Bellamy (1986)
Kodak Company /
National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada (1988)
Akira Kurosawa (1989)
Sophia Loren /
Myrna Loy (1990)
Satyajit Ray (1991)
Federico Fellini (1992)
Deborah Kerr (1993)
Michelangelo Antonioni (1994)
Kirk Douglas /
Chuck Jones (1995)
Michael Kidd (1996)
Stanley Donen (1997)
Elia Kazan (1998)
Andrzej Wajda (1999)
Jack Cardiff /
Ernest Lehman (2000)
Sidney Poitier /
Robert Redford (2001)
Peter O'Toole (2002)
Blake Edwards (2003)
Sidney Lumet (2004)
Robert Altman (2005)
Ennio Morricone (2006)
Robert F. Boyle (2007)
Lauren Bacall /
Roger Corman /
Gordon Willis (2009)
Kevin Brownlow /
Jean-Luc Godard /
Eli Wallach (2010)
James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones / Dick Smith (2011)
D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker /
Hal Needham /
George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr. (2012)
Angela Lansbury /
Steve Martin /
Piero Tosi (2013)
Jean-Claude Carrière /
Hayao Miyazaki /
Maureen O'Hara (2014)
Spike Lee /
Gena Rowlands (2015)
Jackie Chan /
Lynn Stalmaster /
Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman
Charles Burnett /
Owen Roizman /
Donald Sutherland / Agnès Varda
European Film Academy Lifetime Achievement Award
Ingmar Bergman (1988)
Marcello Mastroianni (1988)
Federico Fellini (1989)
Andrzej Wajda (1990)
Alexandre Trauner (1991)
Billy Wilder (1992)
Michelangelo Antonioni (1993)
Robert Bresson (1994)
Marcel Carné (1995)
Alec Guinness (1996)
Jeanne Moreau (1997)
Ennio Morricone (1999)
Richard Harris (2000)
Monty Python (2001)
Tonino Guerra (2002)
Claude Chabrol (2003)
Carlos Saura (2004)
Sean Connery (2005)
Roman Polanski (2006)
Jean-Luc Godard (2007)
Judi Dench (2008)
Ken Loach (2009)
Bruno Ganz (2010)
Stephen Frears (2011)
Bernardo Bertolucci (2012)
Catherine Deneuve (2013)
Agnès Varda (2014)
Charlotte Rampling (2015)
Jean-Claude Carrière (2016)
Alexander Sokurov (2017)
Georges Delerue Award
Daniel Schmid (BMD) (1985)
Jean-Luc Godard (BUEM) (1985)
Ry Cooder (BOM) (1986)
Pirjo Honkasalo and
Pekka Lehto (BAM) (1986)
Benoît Lamy (1987)
Astor Piazzolla (1988)
Tôru Takemitsu (1989)
Michael Haneke (BUMF) (1989)
Michael Kamen (1990)
Rachid Bouchareb (1991)
David Robbins (1992)
Hou Hsiao-hsien (1993)
Frédéric Devreese (1994)
Tôn-Thất Tiết (1995)
Bruno Coulais (1996)
Simon Fisher Turner (1998)
Rachel Portman (1999)
Tan Dun (2000)
Vladimír Godár (2001)
Howard Shore (2002)
Zygmunt Konieczny (2003)
Miguel Miranda and José Tobar (2004)
Stephen Warbeck (2005)
Tony Gatlif and Delphine Mantoulet (2006)
Benny Andersson (2007)
Tolib Shakhidi (2008)
Nathan Larson (2009)
Hong-jip Kim (2010)
Evgueni and Sacha Galperine (2011)
Olivier Assayas (2012)
Lim Giong (2013)
Boris Debackere (2014)
Johnnie Burn (2015)
Johnny Jewel (2016)
Ingrid Bergman (1976)
Diana Ross (1976)
Henri Langlois (1977)
Jacques Tati (1977)
Robert Dorfmann (1978)
René Goscinny (1978)
Marcel Carné (1979)
Charles Vanel (1979)
Walt Disney (1979)
Pierre Braunberger (1980)
Louis de Funès
Louis de Funès (1980)
Kirk Douglas (1980)
Marcel Pagnol (1981)
Alain Resnais (1981)
Georges Dancigers (1982)
Alexandre Mnouchkine (1982)
Jean Nény (1982)
Andrzej Wajda (1982)
René Clément (1984)
Georges de Beauregard (1984)
Edwige Feuillère (1984)
Danielle Darrieux (1985)
Christine Gouze-Rénal (1985)
Alain Poiré (1985)
Maurice Jarre (1986)
Bette Davis (1986)
Jean Delannoy (1986)
René Ferracci (1986)
Claude Lanzmann (1986)
Jean-Luc Godard (1987)
Serge Silberman (1988)
Bernard Blier (1989)
Paul Grimault (1989)
Gérard Philipe (1990)
Jean-Pierre Aumont (1991)
Sophia Loren (1991)
Michèle Morgan (1992)
Sylvester Stallone (1992)
Jean Marais (1993)
Marcello Mastroianni (1993)
Gérard Oury (1993)
Jean Carmet (1994)
Jeanne Moreau (1995)
Gregory Peck (1995)
Steven Spielberg (1995)
Lauren Bacall (1996)
Henri Verneuil (1996)
Charles Aznavour (1997)
Andie MacDowell (1997)
Michael Douglas (1998)
Clint Eastwood (1998)
Jean-Luc Godard (1998)
Pedro Almodóvar (1999)
Johnny Depp (1999)
Jean Rochefort (1999)
Josiane Balasko (2000)
Georges Cravenne (2000)
Jean-Pierre Léaud (2000)
Martin Scorsese (2000)
Darry Cowl (2001)
Charlotte Rampling (2001)
Agnès Varda (2001)
Anouk Aimée (2002)
Jeremy Irons (2002)
Claude Rich (2002)
Bernadette Lafont (2003)
Spike Lee (2003)
Meryl Streep (2003)
Micheline Presle (2004)
Jacques Dutronc (2005)
Will Smith (2005)
Hugh Grant (2006)
Pierre Richard (2006)
Marlène Jobert (2007)
Jude Law (2007)
Jeanne Moreau (2008)
Roberto Benigni (2008)
Dustin Hoffman (2009)
Harrison Ford (2010)
Quentin Tarantino (2011)
Kate Winslet (2012)
Kevin Costner (2013)
Scarlett Johansson (2014)
Sean Penn (2015)
Michael Douglas (2016)
George Clooney (2017)
Penélope Cruz (2018)
French New Wave
Cahiers du Cinéma Directors
Philippe de Broca
Joseph-Marie Lo Duca
Le Coup du Berger (1956)
Le Beau Serge (1958)
Le Signe du Lion (1959)
The 400 Blows
The 400 Blows (1959)
Hiroshima mon amour
Hiroshima mon amour (1959)
Adieu Philippine (1962)
Cléo from 5 to 7
Cléo from 5 to 7 (1962)
La Jetée (1962)
Cahiers du cinéma
Two in the Wave
Two in the Wave (2010 documentary)
ISNI: 0000 0003 6864 6695
BNF: cb11905213z (data)