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The Info List - Jean-Baptiste Jourdan


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American Revolutionary War

Siege of Savannah
Siege of Savannah
(1779)

French Revolutionary Wars

Battle of Jemappes
Battle of Jemappes
(1792) Battle of Neerwinden (1793) Battle of Hondschoote (1793) Battle of Wattignies
Battle of Wattignies
(1793) Battle of Fleurus (1794) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(1796) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(1799) Battle of Stockach (1799)

Napoleonic Wars

Battle of Talavera
Battle of Talavera
(1809) Battle of Vitoria
Battle of Vitoria
(1813)

Other work Governor of Les Invalides (1830-1833)

Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, 1st Comte Jourdan (29 April 1762 – 23 November 1833), enlisted as a private in the French royal army and rose to command armies during the French Revolutionary Wars. Emperor Napoleon I of France
Napoleon I of France
named him a Marshal of France
Marshal of France
in 1804 and he also fought in the Napoleonic Wars. After 1815, he became reconciled to the Bourbon Restoration. He was one of the most successful commanders of the French Revolutionary Army.

Contents

1 Early career 2 War of the First Coalition 3 War of the Second Coalition 4 Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and later life 5 Footnotes 6 References 7 External links 8 Further reading

Early career[edit] Born at Limoges, France
France
into a surgeon's family, he enlisted in the French royal army in early 1778 when he was not quite sixteen. Assigned to the Regiment of Auxerrois, he participated in the ill-fated assault at the Siege of Savannah
Siege of Savannah
on 9 October 1779 during the American War of Independence. After service in the West Indies, he returned home in 1782 sick with a fever. Bouts of illness (possibly malaria) troubled him for the rest of his life. In 1784 he was discharged from the army and set up a haberdashery business in Limoges. He married a dressmaker in 1788 and the couple had five daughters.[1] War of the First Coalition[edit]

Battle of Fleurus, won by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
over the Austrian forces led by the princes of Coburg and Orange on 26 June 1794.

When the National Assembly asked for volunteers, Jourdan was elected Chef de bataillon
Chef de bataillon
of the 2nd Haute-Vienne Battalion. He led his troops in the French victory at the Battle of Jemappes
Battle of Jemappes
on 6 November 1792 and in the defeat at the Battle of Neerwinden on 18 March 1793. Jourdan's leadership skills were noticed and led to his promotion to general of brigade on 27 May 1793 and to general of division two months later. On 8 September, he led his division at the Battle of Hondschoote, in which he was wounded in the chest. On 22 September he was named to lead the Army of the North.[2] Three of his predecessors, Nicolas Luckner, Adam Philippe, comte de Custine, and Jean Nicolas Houchard were under arrest and later executed by guillotine. His first assignment was to relieve Jacques Ferrand's 20,000-man garrison of Maubeuge
Maubeuge
which was besieged by an Austrian-Dutch army commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg. The Committee of Public Safety felt that this mission was so important that it dispatched Lazare Carnot to oversee the operation. Jourdan defeated Coburg on 15–16 October at the Battle of Wattignies
Battle of Wattignies
and broke the siege. Carnot claimed that it was his own intervention that won the victory. Historian Michael Glover writes that the first day's attack was a failure because of Carnot's interference, while the second day's success resulted from Jourdan using his own tactical judgment. In any case, only Carnot's account reached Paris.[3] On 10 January 1794, after refusing to carry out an impossible order, Jourdan was brought before the Committee of Public Safety. Carnot presented Jourdan's arrest warrant, which was signed by Maximilien de Robespierre, Bertrand Barère, and Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois. Jourdan was saved from certain execution when an eyewitness, Representative-on-mission
Representative-on-mission
Ernest Joseph Duquesnoy rose and contradicted Carnot's version of events at Wattignies. Spared from arrest, Jourdan was nevertheless dismissed from the army and sent home.[4] The government soon recalled Jourdan to lead the Army of the Moselle. In May, he was ordered north with the left wing of the Army of the Moselle. This force was combined with the Army of the Ardennes and the right wing of the Army of the North to form an army which did not officially become the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse
Army of Sambre-et-Meuse
until 29 June 1794. With 70,000 soldiers of the new army, Jourdan laid siege to Charleroi
Charleroi
on 12 June. A 41,000-man Austrian-Dutch army under William V, Prince of Orange defeated the French at the Battle of Lambusart on 16 June and drove them south of the Sambre River. Casualties numbered 3,000 for each army.[5] Undeterred, Jourdan immediately marched on Namur to the east-northeast of Charleroi. Instead of attacking Namur, he suddenly swung west and appeared to the north of Charleroi. After a brief siege, the 3,000-man Austrian garrison of Charleroi
Charleroi
surrendered on 25 June.[6] Military strategist B. H. Liddell Hart
B. H. Liddell Hart
cited Jourdan's maneuver as an example of the Indirect approach, even though it was probably inadvertent on the French general's part.[7] Too late to save Charlerloi, Coburg's 46,000-strong army attacked Jourdan's 75,000 French on 26 June. The Battle of Fleurus proved to be a strategic French victory when Coburg called off his attacks and retreated.[8] During the action, the Allied attacks pushed back both French flanks, but Jourdan stubbornly fought it out and was saved when François Joseph Lefebvre's division held its ground in the center.[9] After Fleurus, the Allied position in the Austrian Netherlands collapsed. The Austrian army evacuated Belgium and the Dutch Republic was extinguished by the advancing French armies in 1795. On 7 June 1795, Jourdan's army concluded the long but successful Siege of Luxembourg.[10] Operations east of the Rhine
Rhine
were less successful that year, with the French capturing, then losing Mannheim.[11] In the Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1796 Jourdan's Army of Sambre-et-Meuse
Army of Sambre-et-Meuse
formed the left wing of the advance into Bavaria. The whole of the French forces were ordered to advance on Vienna, Jourdan on the extreme left and Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
in the centre by the Danube
Danube
valley, Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
on the right in Italy. The campaign began brilliantly, the Austrians under the Archduke Charles being driven back by Moreau and Jourdan almost to the Austrian frontier. But the archduke, slipping away from Moreau, threw his whole weight on Jourdan, who was defeated at the Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
in August. Jourdan failed to retrieve the situation at the Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
and was forced over the Rhine
Rhine
after the Battle of Limburg, which cost the life of François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers. Moreau had to fall back in turn, and the operations of the year in Germany were a failure. The chief cause of defeat was the plan of campaign imposed upon the generals by their government. Jourdan was nevertheless made the scapegoat and was not employed for two years. In those years he became prominent as a politician and above all as the framer of the famous conscription law of 1798, which came to be known as the Jourdan Law.[12] War of the Second Coalition[edit] When the war was renewed in 1799, Jourdan was at the head of the army on the Rhine, but again underwent defeat at the hands of the Archduke Charles at the battles of Ostrach and Stockach in late March. Disappointed and broken in health, he handed over command to André Masséna. He resumed his political duties, and was a prominent opponent of the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire, after which he was expelled from the Council of the Five Hundred. Soon, however, he became formally reconciled to the new régime, and accepted from Napoleon
Napoleon
fresh military and civil employment. In 1800 he became inspector-general of cavalry and infantry and representative of French interests in the Cisalpine Republic.[12] Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and later life[edit] In 1804, Napoleon
Napoleon
appointed Jourdan a marshal of France. He remained in the newly created Kingdom of Italy until 1806, when Joseph Bonaparte, whom his brother made king of Naples in that year, selected Jourdan as his military adviser. He followed Joseph into Spain
Spain
in 1808; but Joseph's throne had to be maintained by the French army, and throughout the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
the other marshals, who depended directly upon Napoleon, paid little heed either to Joseph or to Jourdan.[12] Jourdan was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Talavera in 1809 and replaced by Marshal Nicolas Soult. He was reinstated as Joseph's chief of staff in September 1811, but given few troops.[13] After the disastrous French defeat at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812, Joseph and Jourdan were forced to abandon Madrid
Madrid
and retreat to Valencia. Joining with Soult's army, which evacuated Andalusia, the French were able to recapture Madrid
Madrid
during the Siege of Burgos
Siege of Burgos
campaign and push Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese army back to Portugal. The following year, Wellington advanced again with a large, well-organized army. Repeatedly outmaneuvering the French, the Anglo-Allied army forced Joseph and Jourdan to fight at the Battle of Vitoria on 21 June 1813. After the decisive French defeat, which resulted in the permanent loss of Spain, Jourdan held no important command up to the fall of the Empire. He adhered to the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, and though he rejoined Napoleon
Napoleon
in the Hundred Days and commanded a minor army, he submitted to the Bourbons again after the Battle of Waterloo. Jourdan refused to be a member of the court which sentenced Marshal Michel Ney
Michel Ney
to death. He was made a count, a peer of France
France
in 1819, and governor of Grenoble
Grenoble
in 1816. In politics he was a prominent opponent of the royalist reactionaries and supported the revolution of 1830. After this event he held the portfolio of foreign affairs for a few days, and then became governor of the Invalides, where his last years were spent. Jourdan died in Paris on 23 November 1833 and was buried in Les Invalides.[12] While in exile on Saint Helena, Napoleon
Napoleon
admitted,

I certainly used that man very ill ... I have learned with pleasure that since my fall he invariably acted in the best manner. He has thus afforded an example of that praiseworthy elevation of mind which distinguishes men one from another. Jourdan is a true patriot; and that is the answer to many things that have been said of him.[14]

Jourdan wrote Opérations de l'armée du Danube
Danube
(1799); Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire sur la campagne de 1796 (1819); and unpublished personal memoirs.[12] Footnotes[edit]

^ Glover-Chandler, p 158 ^ Glover-Chandler, p 159 ^ Glover-Chandler, p 160 ^ Glover-Chandler, pp 160–161 ^ Smith, pp 84–85 ^ Smith, pp 85–86 ^ Liddell-Hart, p 97 ^ Smith, pp 86–87 ^ Glover-Chandler, pp 161–162 ^ Smith, p 103 ^ Smith, pp 104–107 ^ a b c d e Brittanica, Jourdan ^ Glover-Chandler, p 164-165 ^ Glover-Chandler, p 168

References[edit]

Glover, Michael. "Jourdan: The True Patriot". Chandler, David (ed.). Napoleon's Marshals. New York: Macmillan, 1987. ISBN 0-02-905930-5 Liddell-Hart, B. H. Strategy. NY: Praeger Publishers, 1967. Smith, Digby. The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jourdan, Jean Baptiste, Count". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 524. 

External links[edit]

Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
at Find a Grave

Further reading[edit]

Connelly, Owen, Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns SR Books, 1999, ISBN 0-8420-2780-7. Elting, John R. Swords Around a Throne: Napoleon's Grande Armée Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1997, ISBN 0-02-909501-8. Humble, Richard Napoleon's Peninsular marshals;: A reassessment Taplinger Pub., 1975, ISBN 0-8008-5465-9. Macdonell, A. G. Napoleon
Napoleon
and His Marshals Prion, 1997, ISBN 1-85375-222-3.

v t e

Marshals of the First French Empire

Augereau Bernadotte Berthier Bessières Brune Davout Gouvion Saint-Cyr Grouchy Jourdan Kellermann Lannes Lefebvre MacDonald Marmont Masséna Moncey Mortier Murat Ney Oudinot Pérignon Poniatowski Sérurier Soult Suchet Victor

v t e

French Provisional Ministry of 1830
French Provisional Ministry of 1830
(1 August 1830 to 11 August 1830)

Interior

François Guizot

Justice

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure

Foreign Affairs

Jean-Baptiste Jourdan

War

Étienne Maurice Gérard

Finance

Joseph Dominique, baron Louis

Navy

Henri de Rigny

Public Education

Louis Pierre Édouard, Baron Bignon

v t e

Foreign Ministers of France

Ancien Régime

Revol Villeroy A. J. Richelieu Sillery R. Phélypeaux Bouthillier Chavigny Brienne Lionne Pomponne Croissy Torcy Huxelles Dubois Morville Chauvelin Chaillou Noailles Argenson Puisieulx Saint-Contest Rouillé Bernis E. Choiseul C. Choiseul E. Choiseul L. Phélypeaux Aiguillon Bertin Vergennes Montmorin Vauguyon Montmorin Lessart Dumouriez Naillac Chambonas Dubouchage Sainte-Croix

First Republic

Lebrun-Tondu Deforgues Goujon Herman Delacroix Talleyrand Reinhard Talleyrand

First Empire

Talleyrand Champagny Bassano Caulaincourt

First Restoration

Laforest Talleyrand

Hundred Days

Caulaincourt Bignon

Second Restoration

Talleyrand A. E. Richelieu Dessolles Pasquier M. Montmorency Chateaubriand Damas La Ferronays Montmorency-Laval Portalis Polignac Mortemart

July Monarchy

Bignon Jourdan Molé Maison Sébastiani V. Broglie Rigny Bresson Rigny V. Broglie Thiers Molé Montebello Soult Thiers Guizot

Second Republic

Lamartine Bastide Bedeau Bastide Drouyn de Lhuys Tocqueville Rayneval La Hitte Drouyn de Lhuys Brénier Baroche Turgot Drouyn de Lhuys

Second Empire

Drouyn de Lhuys Walewski Baroche Thouvenel Drouyn de Lhuys La Valette Moustier La Valette La Tour Auvergne Daru Ollivier Gramont La Tour d'Auvergne

Third Republic

Favre Rémusat A. Broglie Decazes Banneville Waddington Freycinet Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire Gambetta Freycinet Duclerc Fallières Challemel-Lacour Ferry Freycinet Flourens Goblet Spuller Ribot Develle Casimir-Perier Hanotaux Berthelot Bourgeois Hanotaux Delcassé Rouvier Bourgeois Pichon Cruppi Selves Poincaré Jonnart Pichon Doumergue Bourgeois Viviani Doumergue Delcassé Viviani Briand Ribot Barthou Pichon Millerand Leygues Briand Poincaré Lefebvre Herriot Briand Herriot Briand Laval Tardieu Herriot Paul-Boncour Daladier Barthou Laval Flandin Delbos Paul-Boncour Bonnet Daladier Reynaud Daladier Reynaud Baudouin

Vichy France

Baudouin Laval Flandin Darlan Laval

Provisional Government

Bidault Blum

Fourth Republic

Bidault Schuman Bidault Mendès France Faure Pinay Pineau Pleven Couve de Murville

Fifth Republic

Couve de Murville Debré Schumann Bettencourt Jobert Sauvagnargues Guiringaud François-Poncet Cheysson Dumas Raimond Dumas Juppé Charette Védrine Villepin Barnier Douste-Blazy Kouchner Alliot-Marie Juppé Fabius Ayrault Le Drian

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54254049 LCCN: nr92041552 ISNI: 0000 0000 8132 9510 GND: 119024284 SUDOC: 09007694X BNF: cb12511814n (data) Léonore: LH/1381/74 BNE: XX1308

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