Jean-Antoine Chaptal, comte de Chanteloup (5 June 1756 – 30 July
1832) was a distinguished French chemist, physician, agronomist,
industrialist, statesman, educator and philanthropist. His
multifaceted career unfolded during one of the most brilliant periods
in French science. In chemistry it was the time of Antoine Lavoisier,
Claude-Louis Berthollet, Louis Guyton de Morveau, Antoine-François
Fourcroy and Joseph Gay-Lussac. Chaptal made his way into this elite
Paris beginning in the 1780s, and established his
credentials as a serious scientist most definitely with the
publication of his first major scientific treatise, the Ėléments de
chimie (3 vols, Montpellier, 1790). His treatise brought the term
"nitrogen" into the revolutionary new chemical nomenclature developed
by Lavoisier. By 1795, at the newly established École Polytechnique
in Paris, Chaptal shared the teaching of courses in pure and applied
chemistry with Claude-Louis Berthollet, the doyen of the science. In
1798, Chaptal was elected a member of the prestigious Chemistry
Section of the Institut de France. He became president of the section
in 1802 soon after
Napoleon appointed him Minister of Interior (6
November 1800). Chaptal was a key figure in the early
Napoleon and during the Bourbon
Restoration. He was a founder and first president in 1801 of the
important Society for the Encouragement of National Industry and a key
organizer of industrial expositions held in
Paris in 1801 and
subsequent years. He compiled a valuable study, De l'industrie
française (1819), surveying the condition and needs of French
industry in the early 1800s. Chaptal was especially strong in applied
science. Beginning in the early 1780s, he published a continuous
stream of practical essays on such things as acids and salts, alum,
sulfur, pottery and cheese making, sugar beets, fertilizers,
bleaching, degreasing, painting and dyeing. As a chemicals
industrialist, he was a major producer of hydrochloric, nitric and
sulfuric acids, and was much sought after as a technical consultant
for the manufacture of gunpowder. His reputation as a master of
applied science, dedicated to using the discoveries of chemistry for
the benefit of industry and agriculture, was furthered with the
publication of his L'Art de faire, de gouverner et de perfectionner
les vins (1801) and La Chimie appliquée aux arts (1806), works that
drew on the theoretical chemistry of Lavoisier to revolutionize the
art of wine-making in France. His new procedure of adding sugar to
increase the final alcohol content of wines came to be called
"chaptalization." In 1802, Chaptal purchased the Château de
Chanteloup and its extensive grounds in Touraine, near Amboise. He
raised merino sheep and experimented there in his later years on a
model farm for the cultivation of sugar beets. He wrote his classic
study of the application of scientific principles to the cultivation
of land, the Chimie appliquée à l'agriculture (1823), and composed
his important political memoir, Mes souvenirs sur Napoléon(1893).
Napoleon named Chaptal Count of the Empire (1808) and Count of
Chanteloup (1810). In 1819 he was named by Louis XVIII to the
Restoration's Chamber of Peers.
1.1 Early life
1.3 Consulate, Empire, and Restoration
2 Scientific Works by Chaptal
3 See also
Chaptal was born in Nojaret (Lozère) in southwestern France, the
youngest son of well-to-do small landowners, Antoine Chaptal and
Françoise Brunel. He was fortunate to have a rich uncle, Claude
Chaptal, who was a prominent physician at Montpellier. The young
Chaptal's brilliant record at the area collèges of Mende and Rodez
encouraged his uncle to finance his way through medical school at the
University of Montpellier, 1774-76. After receiving his degree of
doctor of medicine, he persuaded his uncle to continue his support for
three and one-half years of postgraduate study in medicine and
chemistry at Paris. There he attended courses on chemistry at the
École de Médicine given by J.B.Bucquet, who was a friend of
Lavoisier and instructor earlier of Berthollet. He returned to
Montpellier in 1780 to a salaried chair in chemistry at the
university, where his lectures were quickly acclaimed. He composed a
first book, Mémoires de chimie(1781), reporting on his early studies
in chemistry. Also in 1781, he married Anne-Marie Lajard, the daughter
of a rich cottons merchant at Montpellier. With his new wife's
substantial dowry, plus capital supplied by his generous uncle, he
then established at Montpellier one of the first modern chemical
factories in France. The enterprise, manufacturing sulfuric, nitric,
hydrochloric and other acids, alum, white lead and soda, among other
substances, was a great success. By 1787 Montpellier became a center
of innovation for the production of industrial chemicals in France.
Chaptal reported regularly on his studies in chemistry applied to
industry and agriculture for the Société Royale des Sciences de
Montpellier. He communicated with the Controller General's department
Paris in 1782 regarding his projects for bottle-making, dyeing and
the manufacture of artificial soda. His articles were published by
the Académie Royale des Sciences and in the Annales de chimie, the
new journal founded in 1789 by Berthollet, Guyton, Fourcroy and others
for reporting on the new chemistry and its application. Chaptal was a
master popularizer of the new chemistry, applying his knowledge and
writing skills to everything that intrigued him from pottery and paper
to wines and Roquefort cheese. The ten years or so prior to the
Revolution in 1789 in
France were perhaps "the best of times" for the
young Chaptal. On the eve of the Revolution, he was thirty-three years
old—wealthy, famous, happily married, enthusiastic, well connected,
full of ideas and hopeful of human progress through science.
Reflecting later in his life on the Revolution in France, Chaptal
wrote: "In the widespread confusion and flood of all passions, the
wise man will consider carefully the role he must play; it will appear
to him equally dangerous in the midst of such agitation to remain
either inactive or to participate." Chaptal was a man of liberal
ideas, but apolitical. He never jostled for political power. He
believed in orderly change, human progress, competence and hierarchy.
Initially, he welcomed the Revolution. But in 1793 he determined to
lead opposition in Montpellier against the extremism of the Committee
of Public Safety of the National Convention in Paris. As a
consequence, he was arrested, imprisoned, and in danger of being
guillotined (the sad fate of Lavoisier at the time). Fortunately for
Chaptal, his value to the nation as an industrial chemist was deemed
sufficient to excuse his politics.
France at the time was desperately
in need of gunpowder to supply the armies of the Revolution. In the
Spring of 1794, by order of Lazare Carnot, the Minister of War,
Chaptal was charged with the management of the major gunpowder factory
at Grenelle in Paris. Chaptal recounts in his memoirs how, with the
help of his fellow scientists—Berthollet, Fourcroy, Guyton and
others—he was able to introduce new and more rapid methods for
refining saltpeter (at Saint-Germain-des-Prés) and produce increasing
amounts of gunpowder at Grenelle. In the language of the Committee
of Public Safety, it was the type of service expected of "un bon
citoyen." After Thermidor (July 1794), Chaptal spent about four years
mainly in Montpellier teaching at the medical school and rebuilding
his chemicals industry. He estimated his losses because of the
Revolution at 500,000 francs, almost all of his fortune. In 1798 he
decided to take up permanent residence in Paris, leaving his business
enterprises in Montpellier to his long-time partner, Étienne Bérard.
He was elected to the Institut (24 May 1798) and became a member of
the editorial board of the Annales de chimie. He began to build up a
second large chemicals industry near
Paris at Ternes, an enterprise
managed after 1808 by his son, Jean-Baptiste Chaptal (1782-1833).
Consulate, Empire, and Restoration
Napoleon's coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799) leading to
the establishment of the Consulate (1799-1804) opened up a new career
for Chaptal. He had friends in high places at the time, not the least
being the Second Consul, Jean-Jacques Cambacérès, a good friend from
Montpellier who was well acquainted with his organizational skills and
wide knowledge of the French economy. There was also Claude-Louis
Berthollet, by then a close friend of Napoleon, who called Berthollet
"my chemist": they were on the Egyptian Expedition together in
1798-99, which mattered. Berthollet could vouch for Chaptal's
remarkable abilities and dedication to using science for the
advancement of agriculture, commerce and industry.
Napoleon as it
proved was "prejudiced in favour of men of science" for positions in
his government. His first Minister of Interior (1799) was
Berthollet's great friend, Pierre-Simon Laplace, a brilliant scientist
and mathematician of genius, but an extremely poor administrator. He
was replaced after six weeks by Napoleon's younger brother, Lucien
Bonaparte. But Lucien was always too willful for Napoleon. So it was
that Chaptal moved rapidly into position, first with appointment to
Napoleon's Council of State, then acting Minister of Interior (6
November 1800), and finally confirmed in the position (21 January
1801). He would remain in this high office until his resignation on 6
Chaptal was one of the best, if not the best, of Napoleon's
ministers. When he took over at the Ministry of Interior,
practically everything in
France was in disarray. Ten years of
Revolution and war had destroyed or disrupted many of the continuities
of life in
France and much of the nation's infrastructure. His
ministry, with Napoleon's encouragement, would be a major work of
reconstruction and reorganization. The jurisdiction of the ministry
was enormous. Chaptal found himself dealing with the accumulated
problems of hospitals, midwives, prisons, poor houses, public
buildings (the Louvre), city streets, highways and canals, a new
École des mines, a reorganization of the Institut de France, displays
of machines and tools at the Conservatoire des arts et métiers, and
even zoo problems at Versailles. He improved everything he touched.
From early on, he worked to design and implement not only a
fundamentally new administrative structure of prefects, subprefects,
mayors and municipal councils for France, but also a new primary and
secondary educational system introducing the lycée. For the needs of
the French economy, he saw to the creation of a Bureau of Statistics
for his ministry to gather basic data from each of the departments on
population and the condition of agriculture, commerce and industry.
Count Montalivet, the Minister of Interior during 1809-1814, would tap
into this data later for his Exposé de la situation de l'Empire (25
February 1813). To keep his ministry informed and to encourage the
introduction of new technology, Chaptal also sponsored the formation
of Councils of Agriculture, Arts and Commerce in each of France's
departments (1801); Chambers of Commerce were reestablished in 23 of
the largest cities (1802) and Chambres Consultatives des Arts et
Manufactures were organized in 150 of the smaller urban areas (1803).
The advancement of French industry was Chaptal's major interest. He
believed that government should "protect and encourage industry, open
new markets for its products and defend it against undue foreign
competition." Government should take steps to acquire new
technologies employed in foreign countries, provide prizes and honors
for innovative business leaders and create trade and technical schools
Paris and the departments. Educational reform was a must with
emphasis on science and technical training.
France was behind England
in economic development and needed to catch up. Chaptal was an admirer
of Adam Smith's laissez-faire doctrines, but he also believed in state
sponsorship of industrialization for France. He believed that his
ministry should play an active role in forging a new industrial order
France capable of competing with England. For this purpose,
scientists, entrepreneurs, artisans, workers, farmers and government
officials would need to work closely together. Government would
mediate private interests for the public good.
Chaptal was most proud of the establishment in
France in 1801 of the
Société d'Encouragement pour l'industrie nationale, patterned after
the successful English society founded in London in 1754, the Society
for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Chaptal
was the key animator and president of the new French association.
Among other principal organizers were: Claude Berthollet (chemist),
François de Neufchâteau (Minister of Interior, 1797), Benjamin
Delessert (banker), William Ternaux (woolens), Jacques Perier (steam
engines), Scipion Perier (banker, coal mining), Louis Costaz
(Conservatory of Arts & Sciences), Claude-Anthelme Costaz (Chief
of Bureau of Manufactures, Ministry of Interior), Claude Molard
(Director, Conservatory of Arts & Sciences), Alphonse Perregaux
(banker), Gaspard Monge (founder, École Polytechnique) and Joseph
Degérando (Institut de France). The society was financed by
member subscriptions. It offered prizes and published a Bulletin to
encourage discoveries useful to industry and new products. Closely
related to this initiative, Chaptal resumed François de
Neufchâteau's plan for periodic expositions in
Paris of the products
of French industry. The first Exposition des produits de l'industrie
française had been held on the Champs-de-Mars in 1798 (110 exhibits);
under Chaptal's guidance, the number of exhibitors steadily increased
for the next three expositions held at the Louvre in 1801, 1802 and
Napoleon was in attendance with Chaptal for the distribution of
awards at the 1801 exposition (229 exhibits). Chaptal's son would win
a gold medal for the chemicals industry category at the exposition of
Emmanuel-Anatole Chaptal (1861-1943) wrote that his great-grandfather
was "the voice of commerce, agriculture and industry" for
Napoleon. There's much truth to this claim.
valued Chaptal's counsel and eventual friendship, and was reluctant to
accept his resignation as Minister of Interior on August 6, 1804. He
was quick to award Chaptal the dignities of the Legion of Honor and an
important place in the Senate. Chaptal wrote to
Napoleon that he
wanted to return to his scientific endeavors ("mes premières
occupations"), and it's worth noting that some of his major works were
written in the years immediately following the resignation. On the
other hand, the memoirs talk openly about certain personal
complications at the time involving a Mlle Bourgoin of the
Napoleon and Chaptal. In any case, Chaptal
now had the leisure to attend to his estate at Chanteloup in the Loire
valley where he raised merino sheep, experimented growing sugar beets,
wrote his applied science reports, entertained notables and made
himself available for consultations. He was close enough to
frequent trips. He had chemical factories there at Ternes and
Nanterre, and his son was about to establish a third chemicals plant
at Martigues in southern France. Chaptal was doing well producing a
variety of industrial acids, alum and soda. In 1804 he bought a new
home in Paris, the Hôtel de Mailly, at No.70 rue de
Grenelle-Saint-Germain. As time allowed, he began to frequent meetings
of the small and private, but very influential, Society of Arcueil, a
select association of leading scientists who gathered informally on
weekends at the homes of Berthollet and Laplace in Arcueil, a few
miles from Paris. Berthollet, who attracted scientific talent from all
over Europe, was Chaptal's close friend for forty years. The meetings
at his home at Arcueil were a way for Chaptal to keep up-to-date with
new discoveries in pure science in a variety of fields. We are
reminded that Chaptal was a contemporary of Thomas Jefferson
(1748-1826) of Monticello fame.
Cháteau de Chanteloup
Chaptal was called to
Paris when the French economy soured in
Continental System for ruining England by
closing the continent to British goods had resulted in an economic
crisis of the first order in France. There were business failures,
unemployment and worker protests. Manufacturers were distressed
especially by high tariffs on imports of essential raw materials. The
constant warfare disrupted shipping and markets in Europe. A poor
harvest in 1811 added the problem of food shortages. To help cope with
Napoleon brought in Chaptal as his key consultant for a
special Conseil d'Administration du commerce et des manufactures (6
Napoleon presided. The other members were the Ministers of
Interior and Foreign Affairs, plus the Director General of Customs,
Jean-Baptiste Collin de Sussy, Napoleon's "douanier par excellence."
In addition, two sixty-member advisory councils of leading
manufacturers and merchants were organized (7 June 1810) and attached
to the Ministry of Interior, then under Count Montalivet: a Conseil
général des Manufactures and a Conseil général de Commerce. It was
a difficult time for Chaptal. He believed that the wars of the
Napoleon had stimulated innovation and the application
of science to industry and agriculture, and encouraged the development
of the nation's resources. On the other hand, peace and a treaty of
commerce with England might have been a better way. It's unlikely that
Chaptal could have supported wholeheartedly Napoleon's proposed
economic war to the death ("guerre à outrance") against England. The
advisory councils of manufacturers and merchants had no influence on
Napoleon. He stood by his imperial plan. Collin de Sussy became the
head of a new Ministry of Manufactures and Commerce (22 June 1812)
dedicated to an intensification of the Continental System. Chaptal's
vision of a new industrial order in
France that would bring
scientists, business leaders and government officials together in a
"sublime alliance" had to give way in 1812-14 before Napoleon's
mercantilism and dream of Empire.
Chaptal was called back during the
Hundred Days (March–June, 1815)
to serve as Napoleon's Minister of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry.
But that was a brief affair, ended by the Emperor's defeat at Waterloo
and final exile to St.Helena. As the Bourbon king Louis XVIII assumed
the throne in
France beginning the Restoration (1815-1830), Chaptal
wisely retreated temporarily to his estate at Chanteloup. He resisted
an invitation by the American consul in
Paris to take up residence in
the United States. Instead, he stayed above politics, and gradually,
with the intelligence and good grace he had always exercised in high
circles, emerged in the role of elder statesman, philanthropist,
esteemed scientist and authority on French agriculture, commerce and
industry. His chemicals industries he had turned over to the
management of his only son, who was doing well at the time. He had
leisure time to spend at Chanteloup for his writings, farming and herd
of merino sheep. But
Paris always beckoned. He resumed his favorite
position as president of the Society for the Encouragement of National
Industry and organizer of industrial expositions (1819,1823,1827). In
1817 he published a lengthy memoir on the high price of coal in France
that provoked a serious government inquiry into the coal tariff of
1816 and its benefits for the Anzin Coal Company in the Department of
Nord. In 1818, with the Duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, and
Paris bankers Benjamin Delessert, Casimir Perier and others, Chaptal
helped to found the first French savings bank, the Caisse d'Épargne
et de Prévoyance de Paris. In 1819 he was appointed to the
Restoration's Chamber of Peers, where he became noted for his informed
committee reports on tariffs, canal construction, government budgets
and schools of medicine, for example. In the field of education, with
Joseph Degérando, Benjamin Delessert and Scipion Perier, he organized
a society to improve primary school instruction (1815). He also helped
found two important business schools in Paris, the École Speciale de
Commerce (1816) and the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures
(1828). As a member of the Chamber of Peers, he watched over the
budget of the Conservatory of Arts and Sciences. As in 1800-1804, his
touch seemed to be everywhere. He was a member of an amazing number of
scientific societies both in
France and worldwide. In 1819, Chaptal
had this to say about his career: "If I might be permitted to speak
for myself, I would say that I have lived in workshops (ateliers) and
in the midst of artists for forty years; that I have created important
businesses; that the general administration of commerce, agriculture
and industry was conferred on me during my ministry; that the sessions
of the Académie des Sciences, and those of the Société
d'Encouragement which I presided over since its founding, allowed me
to see and judge every day the progress and state . . . of production
France and often worldwide."
Sadly, the 1820s for Chaptal were clouded by the financial ruin of his
son, Jean-Baptiste Chaptal. To cover his son's enormous debts due
to large-scale business speculations, Chaptal was forced to sell
Chanteloup and his home in Paris. He was left with only a small
pension. During his last years he resided in a small apartment in
Paris at No.8 rue Grenelle. It was there that he lived long enough to
witness the Revolution of 1830 that brought Louis Philippe I(the
Citizen King) to the throne. He was 76 years old when he died in 1832.
His remarkable career had unfolded through five different regimes and
he had contributed importantly to every one. His name is one of the 72
names of famous French scientists engraved on the Eiffel Tower in
Scientific Works by Chaptal
Bust of Chaptal, by Philippe-Laurent Roland.
The following is a partial list of books and articles in chronological
Mémoires de chimie (Montpellier, 1781).
"Observations sur l'acide muriatique oxigéné," Mémoires de
l'Académie Royales des Sciences (Paris, 1784).
"Sur les moyens de fabriquer de la bonne poterie à Montpellier,"
Annales de chimie, 2 (1789).
Éléments de chimie (3 vols, Montpellier, 1790).
"Instructions sur un nouveau procédé pour la raffinage du
salpétre," Journal de physique, 45 (1794).
Traité du salpétre et des goudrons (1796).
Tableau des principaux sels terreux (1798).
"Observations chimiques sur la couleur jaune qu'on extrait des
végétaux," Mémoires de l'Institut, 2 (1798).
"Sur les vins," Annual de chimie, 35 (1800).
"Essai sur le perfectionnement des arts chimiques en France," Journal
de Physique, 50 (1800).
Essai sur le blanchiment (1801).
L'Art de faire, gouverner et de perfectionner le vin (Paris, 1801).
Traité théorique et pratique sur la culture de la vigne, avec l'art
de faire le vin, les eaux-de-vie, esprit de vin, vinaigres simples et
composés (2 vols, Paris, 1801).
"Vues générales sur l'action des terres sans la végétation,"
Mémoires de la Société d'Agriculture de la Seine, 4 (1802).
La Chimie appliquée aux arts (4 vols, Paris, 1806).
Art de la teinture du coton en rouge (Paris, 1807).
Art des principes chimiques du teinturier dégraisseur (Paris, 1808).
"Mémoire sur le sucre de betterave," Annales de chimie, 95 (1815).
Chimie appliquée à l'agriculture (2 vols, Paris, 1823).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean-Antoine Chaptal.
Antoine Germain Labarraque
Antoine Germain Labarraque (1777–1850). Student of Chaptal who
established the routine use of solutions of chlorine as a disinfectant
has, in French, important entries for: Jean-Antoine Chaptal,
The Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale, Exposition
des produits de l'industrie française, Château de Chanteloup
^ See Jean Pigeire, La vie et l'oeuvre de Chaptal (1756-1832) (Paris,
1932); Maurice Crosland, The Society of Arcueil: A View of French
Science at the Time of
Napoleon (London, 1967); Maurice Crosland,
"Jean Antoine Chaptal," in Complete Dictionary of Scientific
Biography, vol 3 (2008); Jeff Horn & Margaret Jacob, "Jean-Antoine
Chaptal and the Cultural Roots of French Industrialization,"
Technology and Culture,Vol 39, No.4 (1998); Jeff Horn, The Path Not
Taken: French Industrialization in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1830
(2006); Harold T. Parker, "Jean-Antoine Chaptal," in Owen Connelly
(ed), Historical Dictionary of Napoleonic France, 1799-1815 (1985);
Pierre Flourens, "Éloge historique de Jean-Antoine Chaptal,"
Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences, vol 15 (1838).
^ Harold T. Parker, An Administrative Bureau during the Old Regime:
The Bureau of Commerce and Its Relations to French Industry from May
1781 to November 1783 (1993), pp.68-69.
^ Jean-Antoine Chaptal, Mes souvenirs sur Napoléon (1893), p.19.
^ Chaptal, Mes Souvenirs sur Napoléon, pp.23-24.
^ Crosland, The Society of Arcueil, p.49.
^ Jean Savant, Les ministres de Napoléon (Paris, 1959).
^ H.T.Parker, "Statistics," in Historical Dictionary of Napoleonic
^ Chaptal, Mes Souvenirs sur Napoléon, p. 54.
^ See Horn, The Path Not Taken, Chap 6, pp.194ff.
^ Crosland, The Society of Arcueil, pp.26,36,179-80; Horn, The Path
Not Taken, pp.202-203.
^ For the philosophy of economic administration that motivated these
men, see Harold T. Parker,"Two Administrative Bureaus under the
Directory and Napoleon," French Historical Studies, IV (Fall 1965).
^ Chaptal, Mes souvenirs sur Napoléon, p.72.
^ Chaptal, Mes souvenirs sur Napoléon, pp.56-59; Pigeire, Vie de
^ See Odette Viennet, Napoléon et l'industrie française: la crise de
1810-1811 (Paris, 1947); R.J. Barker, "The Conseil général des
Napoleon (1810-1814)," French Historical Studies, 6
(Fall 1969); Bertrand de Jouvenal, Napoléon et l'économie dirigée.
Le blocus continental (1943); Horn, The Path Not Taken, p.211. The
term "sublime alliance" is from Joseph Degérando's address at the
founding ceremony of the Société d'Encouragement, November 1, 1801.
^ Jean-Antoine Chaptal, Observations sur les commerce des houilles ou
charbons de terre Belge en France, sur la cherté de ce combustible et
sur les moyens d'en faire diminuer le prix (Paris, 1817), 79 pp.
^ Chaptal, De L'Industrie française (1819), as quoted by Pigeire, Vie
de Chaptal, p.345.
^ See Pigeire, Vie de Chaptal, pp.369-81.
Napoleon (Princeton, 1981).
Chaptal, Jean-Antoine. Mes Souvenirs sur Napoléon (Paris, 1893).
Mémoires personnels rédigés par lui-même de 1756 à 1804.
Continués, d'après ses notes, par son arrière-petit-fils jusqu'en
Costaz, Claude-Anthelme . Essai sur l'administration de l'agriculture,
du commerce, des manufactures et des subsistances, suivi de
l'historique des moyens qui ont amené le grand essor pris par les
arts depuis 1793 jusqu'en 1815 (Paris, 1818).
Crosland, M.P. The Society of Arcueil: A View of French Science at the
Napoleon (London, 1967).
Crosland, M.P. (ed.), Science in
France in the Revolutionary Era
Degérando, Joseph. "Notice sur Chaptal," Société d'encouragement
pour l'industrie nationale (Meeting, 22 August 1832).
Flourens, Pierre. "Éloge historique de Jean-Antoine Chaptal,"
Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences, vol 15 (1838).
Godechot, Jacques. Les institutions de la
France sous la Révolution
et l'Empire (1951).
Gough, J.B. "Winecraft and
Chemistry in 18th Century France: Chaptal
and the Invention of Chaptalization," Technology and Culture,39, No.1
Horn, Jeff. The Path Not Taken: French Industrialization in the Age of
Revolution, 1750-1830 (2006)
Horn, Jeff. & Margaret C. Jacob. "
Jean-Antoine Chaptal and the
Cultural Roots of French Industrialization," Technology and
Culture,39, No.4 (Oct 1998).
Parker, H.T. "French Administrators and French Scientists during the
Old Regime and the Early Years of the Revolution," in R. Herr &
H.T.Parker (eds), Ideas in History (Chicago, 1965).
Parker, H.T. "Two Administrative Bureaus under the Directory and
Napoleon," French Historical Studies,4 (1965).
Paul, Harry W. "Jean-Antoine Chaptal," Science, Vine and Wine in
France (London, 2002), Chap.5.
Péronnet, Michel.(ed.), Chaptal (1988).
Pigeire, Jean. La vie et l'oeuvre de Chaptal (1756-1832) (Paris,
Tresse, R. "J.A. Chaptal et l'enseignement technique de 1800 à 1819,"
Revue d'histoire des sciences,10 (1957).
Smith, John G. The Origins and Early Development of the Heavy Chemical
France (Oxford, 1979).
Williams, L.P. "Science, Education and
Napoleon I," Isis,47 (1956).
Minister of the Interior
Jean-Baptiste Nompère de Champagny
French Consulate (10 November 1799 – 18 May 1804)
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès
Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès
André Joseph Abrial
Claude Ambroise Régnier
Navy and Colonies
Marc Antoine Bourdon de Vatry
Secretary of State
Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano
Jean François Aimé Dejean
Preceded by French Directory
Followed by First cabinet of Napoleon
First cabinet of
Napoleon (18 May 1804 to 1 April 1814)
Head of state: Napoleon
Secretary of State
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny
Armand Augustin Louis de Caulaincourt
Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny
Jean-Pierre de Montalivet
Claude Ambroise Régnier
Henri Jacques Guillaume Clarke
Jean François Aimé Dejean
Nicolas François, Count Mollien
Navy and Colonies
Anne Jean Marie René Savary
Félix-Julien-Jean Bigot de Préameneu
Manufacturing and Commerce
Jean-Baptiste Collin de Sussy
French Consulate • Followed by French provisional
government of 1814
ISNI: 0000 0001 0908 4800
BNF: cb11896089k (data)