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The JAZZ AGE was a period in the 1920s, ending with the Great Depression , in which jazz music and dance styles became popular, mainly in the United States
United States
, but also in Britain , France
France
and elsewhere. Jazz
Jazz
originated in New Orleans
New Orleans
as a fusion of African and European music and played a significant part in wider cultural changes in this period, and its influence on pop culture continued long afterwards. The Jazz
Jazz
Age is often referred to in conjunction with the Roaring Twenties
Roaring Twenties
.

CONTENTS

* 1 How the Jazz
Jazz
Age began * 2 Radio * 3 Youth * 4 Role of women * 5 Origins of jazz * 6 Classical music * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HOW THE JAZZ AGE BEGAN

The birth of jazz music is credited to African Americans
African Americans
, but expanded and over time became modified to become socially acceptable to middle-class white Americans. Those critical of jazz saw it as music from people with no training or skill. White performers were used as a vehicle for the popularization of jazz music in America. Even though the jazz movement was taken over by the middle-class white population, it facilitated the mesh of African American traditions and ideals with white middle-class society. Cities like New York and Chicago
Chicago
were cultural centers for jazz, and especially for African-American artists. People who were not familiar with jazz music could not recognize it by the way Africans Americans wrote it. Furthermore, the way African-Americans writers wrote about jazz music made it seem as though it was not a cultural achievement of the race.

From 1920 to 1933 Prohibition
Prohibition
in the United States
United States
banned the sale of alcoholic drinks, resulting in illicit speakeasies which became lively venues of the " Jazz
Jazz
Age", hosting popular music including current dance songs, novelty songs and show tunes. Jazz
Jazz
began to get a reputation as being immoral, and many members of the older generations saw it as threatening the old cultural values and promoting the new decadent values of the Roaring Twenties
Roaring Twenties
. Professor Henry van Dyke of Princeton University wrote: "... it is not music at all. It's merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing, a sensual teasing of the strings of physical passion." The media too began to denigrate jazz. The New York Times used stories and headlines to pick at jazz: Siberian villagers were said by the paper to have used jazz to scare off bears, when in fact they had used pots and pans; another story claimed that the fatal heart attack of a celebrated conductor was caused by jazz.

From 1919, Kid Ory
Kid Ory
's Original Creole Jazz
Jazz
Band of musicians from New Orleans played in San Francisco
San Francisco
and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, where in 1922 they became the first black jazz band of New Orleans
New Orleans
origin to make recordings. That year also saw the first recording by Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith
, the most famous of the 1920s blues singers. Chicago
Chicago
, meanwhile, was the main center developing the new "Hot Jazz
Jazz
", where King Oliver joined Bill Johnson . Bix Beiderbecke formed The Wolverines in 1924.

That same year, Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
joined the Fletcher Henderson dance band as featured soloist, leaving in 1925. The original New Orleans style was polyphonic, with theme variation and simultaneous collective improvisation. Armstrong was a master of his hometown style, but by the time he joined Henderson's band, he was already a trailblazer in a new phase of jazz, with its emphasis on arrangements and soloists. Armstrong's solos went well beyond the theme-improvisation concept, and extemporized on chords, rather than melodies. According to Schuller, by comparison, the solos by Armstrong's bandmates (including a young Coleman Hawkins ), sounded "stiff, stodgy," with "jerky rhythms and a grey undistinguished tone quality." The following example shows a short excerpt of the straight melody of "Mandy, Make Up Your Mind" by George W. Meyer and Arthur Johnston (top), compared with Armstrong's solo improvisations (below) (recorded 1924). (The example approximates Armstrong's solo, as it does not convey his use of swing.) Top: excerpt from the straight melody of "Mandy, Make Up Your Mind" by George W. Meyer ">, Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
, Duke Ellington , and Count Basie
Count Basie
. Several musicians grew up in musical families, where a family member would often teach how to read and play music. Some musicians, like Pops Foster
Pops Foster
, learned on homemade instruments. Urban radio stations played African-American jazz more frequently than suburban stations, due to the concentration of African Americans
African Americans
in urban areas such as New York and Chicago. Younger demographics popularized the black-originated dances such as the Charleston as part of the immense cultural shift the popularity of jazz music generated. The migration of African Americans
African Americans
from the American south introduced the culture born out of a repressive, unfair society to the American north where navigating through a society with little ability to change played a vital role in the birth of jazz.

RADIO

The spread of jazz was encouraged by the introduction of large-scale radio broadcasts in 1932. The radio was described as the "sound factory." Radio made it possible for Americans to experience different styles of music without physically visiting a jazz club. The radio provided Americans with a trendy new avenue for exploring the world through broadcasts and concerts from the comfort of their living room. These were broadcast from cities such as New York, Chicago, Kansas City, and Los Angeles. There were two categories of live music on the radio: concert music and big band dance music. The concert music was known as "potter palm" and was concert music by amateurs, usually volunteers. This type of radio was a way of making broadcasting cheaper. This type of radio's popularity started to decrease as commercial radio increased.

The next type of music is known as big band dance music. This type is played by professionals and was featured from nightclubs, dance halls, and ballrooms. Musicologist Charles Hamm described three types of jazz music at the time: black music for black audiences, black music for white audiences, and white music for white audiences. Jazz artists like Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
originally received very little airtime because most stations preferred to play the music of white American jazz singers. Other jazz vocalists include Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith
and Florence Mills . In urban areas, such as Chicago
Chicago
and New York, African-American jazz was played on the radio more often than in the suburbs. Big-band jazz, like that of James Reese Europe and Fletcher Henderson in New York, attracted large radio audiences.

YOUTH

1920s youth used the influence of jazz to rebel against the traditional culture of previous generations. This youth rebellion of the 1920s went hand-in-hand with fads like bold fashion statements (flappers ), women smoking cigarettes, free talk about sex, and new radio concerts. Dances like the Charleston , developed by African Americans, suddenly became popular among the youth. Traditionalists were aghast at what they considered the breakdown of morality. Some urban middle-class African Americans
African Americans
perceived jazz as "devil's music", and believed the improvised rhythms and sounds were promoting promiscuity.

ROLE OF WOMEN

Women played an important role throughout jazz\'s history . With women's suffrage —the right for women to vote—at its peak with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment on August 18, 1920, and the entrance of the free-spirited flapper , women began to take on a larger role in society and culture. With women now taking part in the work force after the end of the First World War there were many more possibilities for women in terms of social life and entertainment. Ideas such as equality and free sexuality were very popular during the time and women seemed to capitalize during this period. The 1920s saw the emergence of many famous women musicians including Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith
. Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith
also gained attention because she was not only a great singer but also an African-American woman. She has grown through the ages to be one of the most well respected singers of all time. Singers such as Billie Holiday and Janis Joplin were inspired by Bessie Smith.

Lovie Austin (1887–1972) was a Chicago-based bandleader, session musician (piano), composer, singer, and arranger during the 1920s classic blues era. She and Lil Hardin Armstrong
Lil Hardin Armstrong
are often ranked as two of the best female jazz blues piano players of the period.

Piano player Lil Hardin Armstrong
Lil Hardin Armstrong
was originally a member of King Oliver's band with Louis, and went on to play piano in her husband's band the Hot Five and then his next group called the Hot Seven It was not until the 1930s and 1940s that many women jazz singers, such as Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith
and Billie Holiday were recognized as successful artists in the music world. These women were persistent in striving to make their names known in the music industry and lead the way for many more women artists to come.

ORIGINS OF JAZZ

Jazz
Jazz
music originated in New Orleans
New Orleans
in the "sub-style" of Dixieland Jazz. The music that began in New Orleans
New Orleans
was largely created from African folk music with some European roots in it. New Orleans provided great opportunity for such an occurrence because it was a port city, with many different cultures intertwined. While in New Orleans, jazz gained influence from creole , ragtime , and most importantly blues music . Two important aspects of jazz are swing and improvisation . The famous jazz trumpeter Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
's most influential impact upon jazz was bringing an improvisational soloist to the forefront of a piece.

CLASSICAL MUSIC

As jazz flourished, American elites who preferred classical music sought to expand the listenership of their favored genre, hoping that jazz would not become mainstream. Controversially, jazz became an influence on composers as diverse as George Gershwin
George Gershwin
and Herbert Howells .

SEE ALSO

* 1920s portal

* Flapper * Interwar Britain * Roaring Twenties
Roaring Twenties

NOTES

* ^ McCANN, PAUL. 2008. "Performing Primitivism: Disarming the Social Threat of Jazz
Jazz
in Narrative Fiction of the Early Sixties." Journal of Popular Culture 41, no. 4: 658–675. America: History & Life, p. 3. * ^ A B Berger, Morroe (1 January 1947). "Jazz: Resistance to the Diffusion of a Culture-Pattern". The Journal of Negro History. 32 (4): 461–494. JSTOR
JSTOR
2714928 . doi :10.2307/2714928 . * ^ A B C Barlow, William (1 January 1995). "Black Music on Radio During the Jazz
Jazz
Age". African American Review. 29 (2): 325–328. JSTOR
JSTOR
3042311 . doi :10.2307/3042311 . * ^ A B Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (October 8, 2002). Jazz: A History of America's Music (1st ed.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-76539-4 . * ^ Cooke 1999 , p. 54 * ^ "Kid Ory". The Red Hot Archive. Retrieved October 29, 2007. * ^ "Bessie Smith". The Red Hot Archive. Retrieved October 29, 2007. * ^ "Fletcher Henderson: \'Architect of Swing\'". NPR. December 19, 2007. Retrieved January 27, 2017. * ^ Schuller (1968: 91). * ^ Schuller (1968: 93) * ^ Cooke 1999 , pp. 56–59, 78–79, 66–70 * ^ Mario Dunkel, "W. C. Handy, Abbe Niles, and (Auto)biographical Positioning in the Whiteman Era," Popular Music and Society 38.2 (2015): 122–139. * ^ Cooke 1999 , pp. 82–83, 100–103 * ^ Schuller (1968: 88) * ^ Cunningham, Lawrence, John J. Reich, and Lois Fichner-Rathus. Culture Spring 2001/2002; 71–73. Print. * ^ "The Jazz
Jazz
Age". Boundless.com. July 21, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015. * ^ "The Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz
Jazz
Age". Tdl.org. Retrieved August 28, 2015. * ^ Biocca, Frank, "Media and Perceptual Shifts: Early Radio and the Clash of Musical Cultures", Journal of Popular Culture, 24:2 (1990), p. 3. * ^ Savran, David. "The Search for America's Soul: Theatre in the Jazz
Jazz
Age." Theatre Journal 58.3 (2006), 459-476. Print. * ^ Paula S. Fass, The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s (1977), p. 22. * ^ Dinerstein, Joel. "Music, Memory, and Cultural Identity in the Jazz
Jazz
Age." American Quarterly 55.2 (2003), 303-313. Print. * ^ Ward, Larry F. "Bessie", Notes, Volume 61, Number 2, December 2004, pp. 458–460 (review). Music Library Association. * ^ For her music see "Black Women in America: Lovie Austin" (June 6, 2011). * ^ Santelli, Robert. The Big Book of Blues, Penguin Books (2001), p. 20; ISBN 0-14-100145-3 * ^ A B C Borzillo, Carrie, "Women in Jazz: Music on Their Terms--As Gender Bias Fades, New Artists Emerge", Billboard 108:26 (June 29, 1996), pp. 1, 94–96. * ^ " Dixieland
Dixieland
(AKA Early Jazz)". www.jazzinamerica.org. Retrieved October 19, 2015. * ^ "Where did jazz come from?". www.jazzinamerica.org. Retrieved October 19, 2015. * ^ A B Biocca, Frank (1990). "Media and Perceptual Shifts: Early Radio and the Clash of Musical Cultures". The Journal of Popular Culture. 24 (2): 1. doi :10.1111/j.0022-3840.1990.2402_1.x . * ^ Biocca, Frank, "Media and Perceptual Shifts: Early Radio and the Clash of Musical Cultures", Journal of Popular Culture, 24:2 (1990), p. 9.

FURTHER READING

* Allen, Frederick Lewis (1931). Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the Nineteen-Twenties. online edition * Best, Gary Dean. The Dollar Decade: Mammon and the Machine in 1920s America. Praeger Publishers, 2003. * Berger, Morroe. "Jazz: Resistance to the Diffusion of a Culture-Pattern". The Journal of Negro History 32 (October 1947): 461-494 * Chevan, David. "Musical Literacy and Jazz
Jazz
Musicians in the 1910s and 1920s." Current Musicology * Dinerstein, Joel. "Music, Memory, and Cultural Identity in the Jazz
Jazz
Age." American Quarterly * Dumenil, Lynn. The Modern Temper: American Culture and Society in the 1920s. Hill and Wang, 1995. * Fass, Paula. The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s. Oxford University Press, 1977. * David E. Kyvig ; Daily Life in the United States, 1920–1939: Decades Promise and Pain. Greenwood Press, (2002). online edition * Leuchtenburg, William . The Perils of Prosperity, 1914–1932 University of Chicago
Chicago
Press, 1955. * Lynd, Robert S. , and Helen Merrell Lynd . Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture. Harcourt, Brace and World, 1929. Famous sociological study of Muncie, Indiana, in the 1920s. * Mowry; George E. (ed.). The Twenties: Fords, Flappers, readings. * Parrish, Michael E. Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression, 1920–1941. W. W. Norton, 1992. * Peretti, Burton W. "The Great Travelers." The Creation of Jazz: Music, Race, and Culture in Urban America. * Savran, David. "The Search for America's Soul: Theatre in the Jazz Age". Theatre Journal.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* The Jazz
Jazz
Age In

.