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Francisco Javier Solana
Javier Solana
de Madariaga, KOGF KCMG (Spanish: [fɾanˈθisko xaˈβjer soˈlana ðe maðaˈɾjaɣa]; born 14 July 1942), is a Spanish physicist and Socialist politician. After serving in the Spanish government as Foreign Affairs Minister under Felipe González
Felipe González
(1982–1995) and as the Secretary General of NATO
NATO
(1995–1999), he was appointed the European Union's High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, Secretary General of the Council of the European Union
European Union
and Secretary-General of the Western European Union
European Union
and held these posts from October 1999 until December 2009.

Contents

1 Background and career as a physicist 2 Spanish politics 3 NATO

3.1 Kosovo War
Kosovo War
and NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia

4 EU foreign policy chief

4.1 Foreign affairs

5 Other activities 6 Personal life 7 Awards and honours

7.1 Spanish honours 7.2 Other countries 7.3 Awards 7.4 Arms

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Background and career as a physicist[edit] Solana was born in Madrid, Spain. He comes from a well-known Spanish family, being the grand nephew of Salvador de Madariaga[1] (Javier's grandfather, Rogelio de Madariaga and Salvador de Madariaga
Salvador de Madariaga
were cousins). His father was a chemistry professor, Luis Solana San Martín, who died when Javier was nineteen. His mother, Obdulia de Madariaga Pérez, died in 2005.[2][3][4][5][6] Javier is the third of five children.[2] His older brother Luis was once imprisoned for his political activities opposing the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, subsequently became a distinguished leader in the Spanish telecommunications industry[7] and was one of the first socialist members of the Trilateral Commission.[8] Solana studied at the Nuestra Señora del Pilar School, an exclusive Catholic Marianist secondary school, before going to Complutense University (UCM). There as a student in 1963 he suffered sanctions imposed by the authorities for having organised an opposition forum at the so-called Week of University Renovation. In 1964 he clandestinely joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
(PSOE), which had been illegal under Franco since the end of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
in 1939. In the same year he graduated and then spent a year furthering his studies at Spain's Higher Council for Scientific Research
Spain's Higher Council for Scientific Research
(CSIC) and in the United Kingdom. In 1965 he went to the United States, where he spent six years studying at various universities on a Fulbright Scholarship.[9] He visited the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
and the University of California, San Diego, and then enrolled in the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences of the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
in Charlottesville. There, he taught physics classes as a Teaching Assistant and carried on independent research; he also joined in the protests against the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and was President of the Association of Foreign Students. He received his doctorate in physics from Virginia in 1971 with a thesis on Theory of the Elementary Excitation Spectrum of Superfluid Helium: the Roton Lifetime, extending his planned stay in the US by a year in order to continue his research. Returning to Spain he became a lecturer in solid-state physics at the Autonomous University of Madrid, UAM, and then in 1975 he became a Professor at Complutense University. During these years he published more than 30 articles. For a time he worked as assistant to Nicolás Cabrera, whom he had met when Cabrera was Professor at the University of Virginia. The last PhD dissertations that he directed were in the early 1990s. Spanish politics[edit] On returning to Spain in 1971 Solana joined the Democratic Co-ordination of Madrid
Madrid
as the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
(PSOE) representative. In 1976, during PSOE's first national congress inside Spain since the civil war, he was elected Secretary of the party's Federal Executive Commission, and also Secretary for Information and Press, remaining in the post for five years. He was a close personal friend of the party's leader Felipe González, and is considered one of the PSOE leaders responsible for the transformation of the party in the post-Franco era. In 1976 he represented the PSOE at a Socialist International congress held in Suresnes, France, and again when it was held in Spain in 1977. On 20 May 1977 he accompanied González in visiting King Juan Carlos at the Zarzuela Palace. He became a representative of a teachers' union in the Complutense University, and in this role won a parliamentary seat for PSOE on 15 June 1977 and represented Madrid
Madrid
region until December 1995. On 23 February 1981 he was in the parliament when it was taken over for 18 hours in an attempted coup by gunmen led by Antonio Tejero. On 28 October 1982 PSOE won a historic victory with 202 out of 350 seats in the lower house. On 3 December, along with the other members of González's first cabinet, Solana was sworn in as Minister for Culture, where he remained until moving to the Ministry of Education in 1988. On 5 July 1985 he was also made the Official Spokesman for the Government for three years. He was made Minister for Foreign Affairs on 22 July 1992, the day before the opening of the II Ibero-American conference of heads of state in Madrid, replacing the terminally ill Francisco Fernández Ordóñez. On 27–28 November 1995, while Spain held the Presidency of the Council of the EU, Solana convened and chaired the Barcelona Conference. A treaty was achieved between the twenty-seven nations in attendance with Solana gaining credit for what he called "a process to foster cultural and economic unity in the Mediterranean region". It was during these thirteen years as a cabinet minister that Solana's reputation as a discreet and diplomatic politician grew. By going to the foreign Ministry in the later years of González administration he avoided the political scandals of corruption, and of the dirty war allegedly being fought against ETA, that characterised its last years. Towards the end of 1995, Solana – the only surviving member of González's original cabinet – was talked about in the press as a possible candidate to replace him and lead the PSOE in the following March elections. Instead, he made the leap to international politics. During and after his spell as NATO
NATO
secretary general (see below) Solana continued to play an active role in PSOE and Spanish politics. In June 1997, at the 34th PSOE Congress, Solana left their Executive Commission and joined their Federal Committee, being re-elected in second place three years later. By supporting Colin Powell's 5 February 2003 speech to the UN Security council which claimed that Iraq had WMD's[citation needed] Solana contradicted the position of his party leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, who opposed the PP government of José María Aznar's support for the invasion of Iraq. Solana is seen, along with González, as representing the older wing of the party. On 15 February 2005 he criticised the Plan Ibarretxe for its position on Basque Country independence, saying that its call for separate Basque representation within the EU had no place within the proposed EU constitution. NATO[edit]

Javier Solana
Javier Solana
in 1999

On 5 December 1995, Solana became the new Secretary-General of NATO, replacing Willy Claes
Willy Claes
who had been forced to resign in a corruption scandal. His appointment created controversy as, in the past, he had been an opponent of NATO. He had written a pamphlet called 50 Reasons to say no to NATO, and had been on a US subversives list.[citation needed] On 30 May 1982 Spain joined NATO. When PSOE came to power later that year, Solana and the party changed their previous anti-NATO positions into an atlanticist, pro- NATO
NATO
stance. On 12 March 1986 Spain held a referendum on whether to remain in NATO, with the government and Solana successfully campaigning in favour. When criticised about his anti- NATO
NATO
past, Solana argued that he was happy to be its representative as it had become disassociated from its Cold War origins. Solana immediately had to deal with the Balkans
Balkans
NATO
NATO
mission Operation Joint Endeavour that consisted of a multinational peacekeeping Implementation Force
Implementation Force
(IFOR) of 60,000 soldiers which took over from a United Nations mission on 20 December. This came about through the Dayton Agreement, after NATO
NATO
had bombed selected targets in Bosnia and Herzegovina the previous August and September. He did this by deploying the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps
Allied Rapid Reaction Corps
(ARRC). In December 1996 the ARRC was again activated, with IFOR being replaced by a 32,000-strong Stabilisation Force (SFOR) operating under codenames Joint Guard and later Joint Forge. During Solana's term, NATO
NATO
reorganised its political and military structure and changed its basic strategies. He gained the reputation of being a very successful, diplomatic Secretary General who was capable of negotiating between the differing NATO
NATO
members and between NATO
NATO
and non- NATO
NATO
States. In December 1995 France partially returned to the military structure of NATO, while in November 1996 Spain joined it. On 27 May 1997, after 5 months of negotiations with Russian foreign minister Yevgeny Primakov, an agreement was reached resulting in the Paris NATO–Russia Founding Act.[10] On the same day, Solana presided over the establishment of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council to improve relations between European NATO
NATO
and non-NATO countries.

Kosovo War
Kosovo War
and NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia[edit] Keeping the peace in the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
continued to be both difficult and controversial. IFOR and SFOR had received a lot of criticism for their inability to capture the Bosnian Serb
Bosnian Serb
leaders Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
and Ratko Mladić. In late 1998 the conflict in Kosovo, between the Yugoslav authorities and the Kosovar Albanian guerilla Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army deteriorated, culminating in the Račak massacre
Račak massacre
on 15 January 1999, in which 45 Albanians
Albanians
were killed. NATO
NATO
decided that the conflict could only be settled by introducing a proper military peacekeeping force under their auspices, to forcibly restrain the two sides.[citation needed] On 30 January 1999, NATO announced that it was prepared to launch air strikes against Yugoslav targets. On 6 February, Solana met both sides for negotiations at the Château de Rambouillet, but they were unsuccessful. On 24 March, NATO
NATO
forces launched air attacks on military and civilian targets in Yugoslavia. Solana justified the attacks on humanitarian grounds, and on the responsibility of NATO
NATO
to keep peace in Europe and to prevent recurrences of ethnic cleansing and genocide similar to those which occurred during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–1995).

Solana with Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and Madeleine Albright, 1999

Solana and NATO
NATO
were criticised for the civilian casualties caused by the bombings.[11][12] On 23–24 April, the North Atlantic Council
North Atlantic Council
met in Washington D.C. where the Heads of State
Heads of State
of the member nations agreed with the New Strategic Concept, which changed the basic defensive nature of the organisation and allowed for NATO
NATO
intervention in a greater range of situations than before. On 10 June, Serbian forces withdrew from Kosovo, and NATO
NATO
stopped its attacks, which ended the Kosovo
Kosovo
War. The same day UN Security Council Resolution 1244 authorised NATO
NATO
to active the ARRC, with the Kosovo Force launching Operation Joint Guardian and occupying the province on 12 June. Solana left NATO
NATO
on 6 October 1999, two months ahead of schedule, and was replaced by George Robertson. EU foreign policy chief[edit] After leaving NATO, Solana took up a role in the European Union. Earlier in the year, on 4 June 1999, he was appointed by the Cologne European Council as Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union. An administrative position but it was decided that the Secretary-General would also be appointed High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy
Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP). In this role he represented the EU abroad where there was an agreed common policy. He took up the post on 18 October 1999, shortly after standing down from NATO. The post has a budget of €40 million, most of which goes to Balkan operations. From 25 November 1999 he was also appointed Secretary-General of Western European Union
European Union
(WEU), overseeing the transfer of responsibilities from that organisation to the CFSP. In 2004 his 5-year mandate was renewed. He has also become president of the European Defence Agency. The Clinton administration claimed in May 2000 that Solana was the fulfilment of Henry Kissinger's famous desire to have a phone number to talk to Europe.[citation needed] In December 2003 Solana released the European Security Strategy, which sets out the main priorities and identifies the main threats to the security of the EU, including terrorism. On 25 March 2004 Solana appointed Gijs de Vries as the anti-terrorist co-ordinator for the CFSP, and outlined his duties as being to streamline, organise and co-ordinate the EU's fight against terrorism. On 29 June 2004 he was designated to become the EU's first "Union Minister for Foreign Affairs", a position created by the European Constitutional Treaty combining the head of the CFSP
CFSP
with that of the European Commissioner for External Relations. It would give a single voice to foreign policy and combine the powers and influence of the two posts with a larger budget, more staff and a coherent diplomatic corps. The position (colloquially known as "Mr. Europe") has been partly maintained in the Reform Treaty as High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, but Solana is not going to take the post as he announced that he would step down at the end of his term.[13] In late 2004, Solana held secret negotiations with Hamas
Hamas
leaders, saying that he met them at a time when there seemed to be an opportunity for progress, and were to "pass a clear message of what the international community wants", and said that the meetings occurred "months" before.[14] Foreign affairs[edit]

Solana with Colin Powell
Colin Powell
in April 2003

He has negotiated numerous Treaties of Association between the European Union
European Union
and various Middle Eastern and Latin American countries, including Bolivia
Bolivia
and Colombia. Solana played a pivotal role in unifying the remainder of the former Yugoslavian federation. He proposed that Montenegro
Montenegro
form a union with Serbia
Serbia
instead of having full independence, stating that this was done to avoid a domino effect from Kosovo
Kosovo
and Vojvodina
Vojvodina
independence demands. Local media sarcastically named the new country "Solania".[citation needed] On 21 January 2002 Solana said that the detainees at Guantanamo Bay should be treated as prisoners of war under the Geneva Convention.[15] The EU has stated that it hopes to avoid another war like the Iraqi invasion through this and future negotiations, and Solana has said the most difficult moments of his job were when the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France, the two permanent EU Security Council
Security Council
members, were in disagreement. The so-called Vilnius letter, a declaration of support by eastern European countries for the United States' aim of régime change in Iraq, and the letter of the eight, a similar letter from the UK, Italy, and six second-tier countries, are generally seen[by whom?] as a low-water mark of the CFSP. Solana has played an important role working toward a resolution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and continues to be a primary architect of the "Road Map for Peace," along with the UN, Russia, and the United States in the Quartet on the Middle East. On 22 July 2004 he met Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
in Israel. Sharon had originally refused to meet Solana, but eventually accepted that, whether he liked it or not, the EU was involved in the Road Map. He criticised Israel
Israel
for obstructing the Palestinian presidential election of 9 January 2005, but then met Sharon again on 13 January. In November 2004 he assisted the United Kingdom, France and Germany
Germany
in negotiating a nuclear material enrichment freeze with Iran. In the same month he was involved in mediating between the two presidential candidates in the post-election developments in Ukraine, and on 21 January 2005 he invited Ukraine's new President Viktor Yushchenko
Viktor Yushchenko
to discuss future EU membership.[16] In 2010, after he had left office, he signed a petition along with 25 other EU leaders directed at his successor, Catherine Ashton, calling for EU sanctions on Israel
Israel
in response to continued settlement construction in the West Bank.[17] Other activities[edit]

Munich Security Conference, Member of the Advisory Council[18]

Personal life[edit] Solana is married to Concepción Giménez, and they have two adult children, Diego and Vega. He lives in Brussels, where his apartment has a reputation of being a focal point for Spanish politicians in or visiting this capital. Apart from his native Spanish, he also speaks fluent French, as well as English. General Wesley Clark
Wesley Clark
once asked Solana the secret of his diplomatic success. He answered: "Make no enemies, and never ask a question to which you do not know or like the answer."[16] He has been described as a "squarer of circles."[citation needed] U.S. ambassador to NATO
NATO
Alexander Vershbow
Alexander Vershbow
said of him: "He is an extraordinary consensus-builder who works behind the scenes with leaders on both sides of the Atlantic to ensure that NATO
NATO
is united when it counts."[citation needed] He is a frequent speaker at the prestigious U.S. based Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations
(CFR). He is likewise active in the Foreign Policy Association (FPA) as well as the New York City based East West Institute. In March 2010, Dr. Solana became honorary president of the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, and in 2011 became a Member of the Global Leadership Foundation, an organization which works to promote good governance around the world. He is an honorary Knight
Knight
Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George, a member of the Spanish section of the Club of Rome. He has received the Grand Cross of Isabel the Catholic in Spain and the Manfred Wörner
Manfred Wörner
Medal from the German Defence Ministry. He has been President of the Madariaga - College of Europe Foundation since 1998. He received the Vision for Europe Award in 2003. Also in 2003, he received the 'Statesman of the Year Award' from the EastWest Institute, a Transatlantic think tank that organizes an annual Security Conference in Brussels. In 2006 Solana received the Carnegie-Wateler peace prize. He has also been awarded the Charlemagne Prize for 2007 for his distinguished services on behalf of European unification.[19] In December 2009, Javier Solana
Javier Solana
joined ESADE Business School as President of its new Centre for Global Economy and Geopolitics. In January 2010, King Juan Carlos I
Juan Carlos I
appointed Javier Solana the 1,194th Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
for his career in diplomacy.[20] Awards and honours[edit] Spanish honours[edit]

Grand Cross of the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise
Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise
(1996)[21] Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III
Order of Charles III
(1997)[22] Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic
Order of Isabella the Catholic
(2000)[22] Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
(2010)[22]

Other countries[edit]

Knight
Knight
Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George
Order of St Michael and St George
(United Kingdom, 2000)[22] Manfred Wörner
Manfred Wörner
Medal of the Federal German Ministry of Defence (Germany, 2002)[22] Order for Exceptional Merits (Slovenia, 2004) Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
(Poland, 2005)[23] Commander Cross of the Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas (Lithuania, 2005) Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic (Germany, 2007)[22] Grand Cross of the Order of Christ (Portugal, 2010)[24] Knight
Knight
of the Georgian Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
(Georgia, 2010)[25]

Awards[edit]

Charlemagne Prize
Charlemagne Prize
(2003) Vision for Europe Award, Edmond Israel
Israel
Foundation (2003)[22] Statesman of the Year Award, EastWest Institute
EastWest Institute
(2003)[22] Wateler Peace Prize, Carnegie Foundation (2006)[22] Peace Through Dialogue Medal, Munich Security Conference
Munich Security Conference
(2007)[22] Peace Award of the World Children's Parliament (2008)[22] Extraordinary Prize of the Spanish Ministry of Defence (2009)[22] Convivencia Award, Manuel Broseta Foundation (2009)[22] Charles V European Award, European Academy of Yuste Foundation (2010)[22] Ewald-von-Kleist Award, Munich Security Conference
Munich Security Conference
(2010)[22]/ Knight
Knight
of Freedom Award, the Casimir Pulaski Foundation[26] Honorary degree
Honorary degree
(political science), London School of Economics[22] Gold Medal of the Jean Monnet Foundation for Europe
Gold Medal of the Jean Monnet Foundation for Europe
(2011).

Arms[edit]

Coat of arms of Javier Solana

This box:

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Notes Javier Solana
Javier Solana
was created knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
in 2010. Crest Issuant from a torse Azure, Or, Vert and Gules, a plume of four ostrich feathers Or, Azure, Vert and Gules; Torse Mantling Or, Azure, Vert and Gules. Escutcheon Quarterly, first and fourth Azure a sun Or between four eight-rayed stars Argent, second and third Vert four bars Or between fifteen escallops Or 3, 3, 3, 3, 3 terraced wavy Argent
Argent
and Azure, on a bordure gules four crescents Argent
Argent
between as many four-rayed stars Or. Orders Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
collar. Symbolism The arms of Solana family quartered with the arms of the House of Madariaga.[27][28][29]

See also[edit]

Enlargement of the European Union Foreign Affairs Council History of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro History of the European Constitution History of the European Union List of European Union-related topics Politics of Europe

References[edit]

^ Biography of Luis Solana (brother of Javier Solana) at his blog (in Spanish):

Heredó de su abuelo materno [Rogelio de Madariaga y Castro] la revista “España Económica”, publicación que dio cabida a jóvenes economistas críticos con el régimen de Franco. Sobrino nieto de D. Salvador de Madariaga. He inherited from his maternal grandfather [Rogelio de Madariaga y Castro] the magazine "España Económica", which accommodated young economists critical of the Franco regime. (He's) the grand nephew of D. Salvador de Madariaga

^ a b "ABC (Madrid) - 17/04/2005, p. 86 - ABC.es Hemeroteca". hemeroteca.abc.es.  ^ Movimiento nobiliario 1934 Archived 25 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine., page 167. News about the marriage between Luis Solana San Martín and Obdulia Madariaga. ^ ¡Feliz Navidad, Maribel!, post in Luis Solana's blog (Luis Solana is Javier's brother) and the post accounts mentions the five brothers. ^ Death notice of Enrique de Madariaga y Pérez-Gros. It mentions Obdulia as sister and Luis Solana San Martín as brother-in-law. ^ Death notice of Juana San Martín Yoldi, widow of Ezequiel Solana. It mentions all her sibling, including Luis. ^ "Biografia". Luis Solana.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-03.  ^ "CIDOB". CIDOB.  ^ " NATO
NATO
- Official text: Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO
NATO
and the Russian Federation signed in Paris, France, 27-May.-1997". NATO.  ^ "New Figures on Civilian Deaths in Kosovo
Kosovo
War(Human Rights Watch Press Release, Feb. 7, 2000)". www.hrw.org.  ^ "Error 404". 24 February 2012. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ EU's Solana to step down ^ "BBC NEWS - Middle East - EU denies secret talks with Hamas". bbc.co.uk.  ^ "Solana urges POW status for Afghan captives". The Irish Times. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ a b Clark, Wesley K. Waging Modern War. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2001–2002, p. 15 ^ "Former EU leaders urge sanctions for Israel
Israel
settlements". BBC News.  ^ Advisory Council Munich Security Conference. ^ "Internationaler Karlspreis zu Aachen – News". Archived from the original on 5 January 2007.  ^ http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2010/01/23/pdfs/BOE-A-2010-1055.pdf ^ (in Spanish)Javier Solana's Order of Alfonso X, the Wise appointment. Spanish Official Journal (96/01/27) (PDF) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p (in Spanish) Javier Solana
Javier Solana
Madariaga, Barcelona Centre for International Affairs. ^ (in Spanish)Diario El País (05/11/11) ^ (in Spanish) Javier Solana
Javier Solana
knight of the Christ Order, Que.es ^ "Saakashvili condecora a Solana por su apoyo a los intereses de Georgia". que.es.  ^ "Javier Solana". Retrieved 2018-01-06.  ^ Ceballos-Escalera Gila, Alfonso de, Marqués de la Floresta; Mayoralgo y Lodo, José Miguel de, Conde de los Acevedos (1950-); Menéndez Pidal, Faustino (1996). La Insigne Orden del Toisón de Oro y su armorial ecuestre. Madrid: Patrimonio Nacional and Ed. Toisón ISBN 978-84-922198-0-3 ^ (in Spanish) Solana arms, Albakits. ^ (in Spanish) Madariaga arms, Albakits.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javier Solana.

Javier Solana
Javier Solana
at the Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB) (in Spanish) (updated to 2010[update]) Solana steps down as EU foreign policy chief EU's quiet diplomat steps aside after 10 years Curriculum Vitae of Javier Solana Assessment of next NATO
NATO
Secretary General Civil liberties and Solana Euro-Mediterranean Partnership for Peace European Neighbourhood Policy NATO
NATO
Declassified - Javier Solana
Javier Solana
(biography) Javier Solana
Javier Solana
on IMDb Interview about EDSP Interview as Spanish foreign minister in conflict with Canada Interview with Physics
Physics
world magazine Online Resource Guide to EU Foreign Policy Madariaga European Foundation Shorter biography of Javier Solana Solana's development of a Common Foreign and Security Policy Solana meets Sharon, July 2004 The puzzle of Solana's power Book about Javier Solana, 2011

Political offices

Preceded by Soledad Becerril Minister of Culture 1982–1988 Succeeded by Jorge Semprún

Preceded by Eduardo Sotillos Spokesman for the Government 1985–1988 Succeeded by Rosa Conde

Preceded by José María Maravall Herrero Minister of Education 1988–1992 Succeeded by Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba

Preceded by Francisco Fernández Ordóñez Minister of Foreign Affairs 1992–1995 Succeeded by Carlos Westendorp

Preceded by Jürgen Trumpf High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy 1999–2009 Succeeded by Catherine Ashton as High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

Secretary General of the Council of the European Union 1999–2009 Succeeded by Pierre de Boissieu

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Sergio Balanzino Acting Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1995–1999 Succeeded by George Robertson

Preceded by José Cutileiro Secretary General of the Western European Union 1999–2009 Succeeded by Arnaud Jacomet

Academic offices

Preceded by José Manuel Barroso Speaker of the College of Europe
College of Europe
Opening Ceremony 2005 Succeeded by Jean-Claude Juncker

v t e

Secretaries General of NATO

Lord Ismay Paul-Henri Spaak Dirk Stikker Manlio Brosio Joseph Luns Lord Carrington Manfred Wörner Sergio Balanzino
Sergio Balanzino
(acting) Willy Claes Sergio Balanzino
Sergio Balanzino
(acting) Javier Solana Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Alessandro Minuto-Rizzo (acting) Jaap de Hoop Scheffer Anders Fogh Rasmussen Jens Stoltenberg

v t e

High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of the European Union

Jürgen Trumpf Javier Solana Catherine Ashton Federica Mogherini

v t e

Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize

1950–1975

1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975

1976–2000

1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton

2001–present

2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25662193 LCCN: no2005088047 ISNI: 0000 0001 2124 9161 GND: 128676582 SUDOC: 074149091 BNF: cb15066237f (data) BIBSYS: 1083674 NDL: 001141523 BNE: XX833

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