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Javanisation
Javanisation
(Indonesian: Jawanisasi or Penjawaan) is the process in which Javanese culture
Javanese culture
dominates, assimilates, or influences other cultures in general. The term "Javanise" means "to make or to become Javanese in form, idiom, style, or character." This domination could take place in various aspects; such as cultural, language, politics and social. In its modern sense within Indonesian social, cultural and politics perspective; Javanisation
Javanisation
simply means the spreading of rural Javanese population of densely populated Java
Java
to less populated parts of the archipelago.[1] While to others it could also mean the conscious or unconscious imposition of Javanese patterns of thought and behaviour throughout Indonesia, in the sense of cultural imperialism. In previous sense it is more focused on thinking and practice of those in power.[2] The term "Javanise" however, is not only to describe outward process, but also inward; it is also used to describes the adoption and assimilation of foreign social-cultural influences and elements into Javanese culture. These foreign influences are somehow are interpreted and adopted to suit Javanese frame of reference, style, needs and social-cultural conditions. The adoption of Indian Hindu
Hindu
epics and cultural elements in 5th to 15th-century Java
Java
and the adoption of Islam
Islam
introduced by Wali Songo
Wali Songo
into Javanese culture
Javanese culture
in 15th-century are the notable examples. The promotion and expansion of Javanese cultural elements, such as Javanese language, architecture, cuisine, batik, wayang, gamelan and kris are also can be seen as the manifestation of Javanisation process. The Javanese migration to settle in places out of their traditional homeland in Central and East Java
Java
to other places in Indonesia
Indonesia
(Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua, etc.), Malay peninsula (esp. Johor), to Suriname, is also a contributing factor of Javanisation
Javanisation
process.

Contents

1 Manifestation 2 Early history 3 Later history 4 Modern history 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References

Manifestation[edit]

Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.

This Javanese cultural hegemony or domination could take form in various aspects. Such as physical through the expansions and settlements of Javanese diaspora outside their traditional homeland in Java. In spiritual and behavioural aspects, the Javanisation
Javanisation
process includes the promotion of Javanese culture
Javanese culture
and values; such as obsession with elegance and refinements (Javanese: alus), subtleness, politeness, courtesy, indirectness, emotional restraint and consciousness to one's social stature. Javanese values harmony and social order highly, and abhorred direct conflicts and disagreements. These Javanese values were often promoted through Javanese cultural expressions, such as Javanese dance, gamelan, wayang and batik as national culture of Indonesia. It also being reinforced through adherence to Javanese adat (traditional rules) in ceremonies, such as Slametan, Satu Suro, Javanese wedding and Naloni Mitoni. In the language aspect, such as the using of Javanese terms, idioms, and vocabularies outside of traditional Javanese language
Javanese language
realm. For example, today it is commons for Indonesians to use Javanese terms to address people across Indonesia, such as "Mas" (to address the same of age or slightly older male) or "Mbak" (for female counterparts). It is common in national capital Jakarta; however, this phenomenon has somewhat alarmed the Malay- and Minangkabau-speaking realms in Sumatra that considered it as a form of Javanisation
Javanisation
and cultural imperialism. In social and politics, the examples of perceived Javanisation
Javanisation
such as numbers of Indonesian Presidents are always Javanese (with exception of B. J. Habibie). Also the alleged Javanese political dominance in government administrations, civil service, military and police, as well as Javanese traits in Indonesian political culture. Early history[edit]

The expansion of Majapahit
Majapahit
empire circa 14th century

The island of Java
Java
has been a centre stage of Indonesian history
Indonesian history
for centuries, and Javanese people
Javanese people
as the largest ethnic groups in Indonesia
Indonesia
has been dominating the politics and social landscapes in the past as well as modern Indonesia. In its early stages, Javanese culture
Javanese culture
was heavily influenced by Indian Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
civilisation. The example of this process is the adoptions of large numbers of sanskrit loanwords into old Javanese, and the Javanisation
Javanisation
of Indian Hindu
Hindu
epics such as Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
into Javanese version, and incorporating local deities such as Semar
Semar
and Punakawan
Punakawan
into their Wayang
Wayang
Purwa stories. The process of adopting Hindu
Hindu
influences is describes as the Sanskritisation of Java
Java
and the Javanisation
Javanisation
of the Bharata.[3] The blossoming of Javanese classical literature for example are the composing of Kakawin Ramayana
Ramayana
and Arjunawiwaha. The early examples of Javanisation
Javanisation
is the expansion of Javanese Sailendran arts — developed in 8th to 9th-century Central Java
Java
— that influences the aesthethics of Srivijayan Buddhist
Buddhist
arts discovered in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Southern Thailand Malay peninsula. Despite absorbing Indian influences from Gupta and Amaravati arts, to Southern India Pallava influences, Javanese Sailendran art in return influenced the art and aesthethic of the Southeast Asian region. In early classical period, during Eastern Java
Java
Medang kingdom
Medang kingdom
in 10th-century, saw the expansion of Javanese influence to Bali. East Javanese princess Mahendradatta become the queen consort of King Udayana Warmadewa of Bali, signify the Javanese increasing influences upon Bali. During the reign of Airlangga, Bali
Bali
pretty much become parts of East Javanese Hindu
Hindu
kingdom realm. The expansion of Singhasari
Singhasari
kingdom in 13th-century during the reign of Kertanegara
Kertanegara
has strengthen the Javanese influence in the region, especially upon Bali
Bali
and Melayu Kingdom
Melayu Kingdom
in Eastern coast of Sumatra, through Pamalayu expedition. In 1200 CE, Mpu Jatmika from Java established the Hindu
Hindu
Kingdom of Negara Dipa by the river of Tapin, this was the start of the Javanese-style courts in South Kalimantan. Followed by the expansion of Majapahit
Majapahit
empire circa 14th-century, the archipelago saw again the Javanese expansion. It was probably during this period that some of Javanese cultural elements, such as gamelan and kris, being expanded and introduced to islands outside of Java; such as Sumatra, Malay peninsula
Malay peninsula
and Borneo. It was during this era that the town Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin
in South Kalimantan
Kalimantan
and Sukadana
Sukadana
in West Kalimantan
Kalimantan
has been established as Javanese colony as the vassal of Majapahit. In 1400 CE, Negara Dipa was succeeded by the Hindu
Hindu
Kingdom of Negara Daha. The Javanese influences can be seen on Banjar people art, culture, and costumes that demonstrated Javanese styles. It was also during the last period of Majapahit
Majapahit
in the 15th century that the native Austronesian
Austronesian
elements of pre Hindu-Javanese style are revived, as demonstrated in Sukuh
Sukuh
and Cetho
Cetho
temples. The stiffer wayang style figures of statues and bas reliefs, and the stepped pyramid temple structure replaced the classic towering Hindu
Hindu
temples. This reverse of Indianized process is also called the "Javanisation" of Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
prototypes in Javanese art.[4] Later history[edit]

The Javanese diaspora such as those to Suriname
Suriname
in Dutch colonial period also contributed to the spread of Javanese culture.

After the fall of Majapahit, Demak Sultanate
Demak Sultanate
replace its hegemony in Southern Sumatra
Sumatra
by appointing Javanese regent to rule Palembang. In the early 17th century, the Sultanate of Palembang
Palembang
was established by Ki Gede ing Suro, a Javanese nobleman fleeing the Demak court intrique after the death of Trenggana Sultan of Demak. The Sultanate of Palembang
Palembang
are known as the combination of various cultures; Malay, Javanese, Islamic and Chinese. The Javanisation
Javanisation
process of Palembang Sultanate court is evident in the adoption of Javanese words and vocabularies into local Malay Palembang
Palembang
dialect, such as wong (people) and banyu (water). During the ambitious Sultan Agung's reign of Mataram Sultanate
Mataram Sultanate
in the first half of the 17th century, Javanese culture
Javanese culture
again expanded, much of Western and East Java
Java
region are being Javanised. Mataram's campaign on Eastern Javanese principalities such as Surabaya and Pasuruan expanded Mataraman influences on Java. Mataram expansion includes Sundanese principalities of Priangan
Priangan
highlands; from Galuh Ciamis, Sumedang, Bandung and Cianjur. It was during this period that Sundanese people
Sundanese people
were exposed and assimilated further into Javanese Kejawen
Kejawen
culture. Wayang
Wayang
Golek are Sundanese taking on Javanese Wayang Kulit culture, similar shared culture such as gamelan and batik also flourished. It is probably during this times that Sundanese language began to adopt the stratified degree of term and vocabulary to denote politeness, as reflected in Javanese language. In addition, Javanese scripts also used to write Sundanese as cacarakan. Foreign influences and ideas such as religions and beliefs are sometimes consciously and deliberately undergone changes and adaptations, being "Javanised" to be accepted by popular Javanese audiences. The examples such as the process that took place in the 15th century dubbed as "the Islamisation
Islamisation
of Java
Java
and the Javanisation of Islam." The Wali Songos such as Sunan Kalijaga
Sunan Kalijaga
are known to use Javanese cultural expressions such as gamelan and wayang to promote and spread Islamic faith. Wayang
Wayang
sadat is a variant of wayang that used to in tabligh and da'wah to spread Islamic messages. Another example Javanisation
Javanisation
of Islam
Islam
in Java
Java
is the construction of pyramidal multi-tiered roof of Javanese mosque. Javanese mosque did not applied dome, minaret, brick or stone masonry, but instead adopted wood carpentry of pendopo and meru-like roofs derived from previous pre-Islamic art and architecture of Java. The example of this kinds of mosque are Demak Great Mosque
Demak Great Mosque
and Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Grand Mosque.

Javanization of religious buildings

A Hindu
Hindu
temple Pura Poten, Bromo.

Mendut
Mendut
Vihara, a Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery near Mendut
Mendut
temple, Magelang.

Demak Great Mosque
Demak Great Mosque
displaying a meru-like multi-tiered roof

Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.

Ganjuran Church
Ganjuran Church
in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Catholics
Catholics
faith for examples are also using Javanese vocabularies and frame of reference by using the term "Romo" (Javanese: father) for "father" to refer to Catholic priest. Catholic proselytising efforts also used traditional wayang art to spread their message; the wayang wahyu used to perform the biblical story and Christianity. In architecture, Catholicism also adopted Javanese style and architecture for their church, such as the Ganjuran Church
Ganjuran Church
in Bantul, Yogyakarta, that constructed the shrine of Jesus in ancient Javanese candi architecture. Another example includes Pohsarang Church in Kediri that built in traditional Javanese architecture. During colonial Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
period, numbers of Javanese are migrated to Suriname
Suriname
as plantation workers. Within the archipelago, Javanese are also migrate to several places such as Sumatra, Kalimantan
Kalimantan
and Johor
Johor
in Malay peninsula. Regions such as northern West Java, Lampung
Lampung
and South Kalimantan
Kalimantan
are known to have large numbers of Javanese settlers. Modern history[edit]

Javanese cultural identity were reinforced through traditional ceremonies, such as Javanese wedding

After the Indonesian revolution
Indonesian revolution
(1945-1949) and the independence of Indonesia, many of Indonesian national symbols are derived from its Majapahit
Majapahit
legacy, an empire that centred in Java
Java
in 14th to 15th century. Indonesian flag
Indonesian flag
displayed Majapahit
Majapahit
colours, the national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
and the state ideology Pancasila also demonstrates its Majapahit
Majapahit
legacy. Indonesian founding fathers, especially Sukarno
Sukarno
did dig into Indonesian past of indigenous wisdom and philosophy to formulate the new nationhood of Indonesia. Naturally Javanese culture
Javanese culture
as one of the most influential major element in Indonesian culture contributed its share of influences. During Suharto's New Order regime (1966-1998), the political culture of Indonesia
Indonesia
is somewhat perceived as being Javanised. The administration levels were also arranged in Javanese styles and idioms, such as Kabupaten
Kabupaten
and desa, the terms that originally not familiar in some of Indonesian provinces, such as West Sumatra
Sumatra
and West Papua. In this post-independence Indonesia
Indonesia
sense, the term "Javanisation" is used to describe the process whereby ethnic Javanese and Javanised individuals gradually became the overwhelming and disproportionate majority of the governing elite in the Indonesian post-independence era.[5] Criticism[edit]

Suharto
Suharto
and wife, Tien, in traditional Javanese attire. His authoritarian New Order regime has been criticised as "Javanising" Indonesian politics.

The issue of Javanisation
Javanisation
has been a sensitive and critical issues in Indonesian national building and national unity. The Javanese domination is regarded not only on the realm of culture, but also social, politics and economy. The Suharto's New Order regime is criticised as has Javanised Indonesian politics during decades of his rules. In politics, administration, authority and civil service perspective, this Javanisation
Javanisation
is sometimes perceived negatively as it contains the worst elements of Javanese culture, such as rigidity of social hierarchy, authoritarianism and arbitrariness. A development that sometimes called as "Mataramisation" and "feudalisation", accompanied by fondness of status display and arrogance.[6] A typical negative description of priyayi behaving like the member of Javanese upper class. The Transmigration program
Transmigration program
that relocate people from densely populated Java
Java
to other Indonesian islands, such as Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Indonesian New Guinea, is also criticised has accelerated and promoted the Javanisation
Javanisation
process of Indonesia. The issue also fuels with development disparity issues, where other islands are dissatisfied with the development and social welfare in their region, in contrast with infrastructure development and wealth distribution that seems to be in favour and focused on Java. However today in the era of local autonomy, it is not relevant to connect the transmigration program to Javanisation
Javanisation
issues, because the migration process is also conducted internally within Java, or within certain provinces.[7] For example, in Eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
such as in Maluku and Papua, the majority of the non-native settlers are from Sulawesi
Sulawesi
(Bugis-Makassar and Buton) and Maluku itself, and not from Java. The transmigration should carefully examine economic potential, as well as social and cultural impact of the area. It is also based on the fact that the provinces which open themselves to pluralism and accept inter-province settlers and migrations are usually developing more rapidly compared to those that isolate themselves. It is also important to note, that Java
Java
itself has attracted perantau (migrant settlers) and workers from all over the Indonesian archipelago, and subsequently the demographics of Java
Java
is not homogenous. See also[edit]

Malayisation Indianised kingdom

References[edit]

^ See Transmigration program
Transmigration program
of Indonesia, the government policy to resettles the poor Javanese to outer parts of Indonesia
Indonesia
are generally not welcomed by native populations, especially when the newcomers threaten to become the majority there. ^ Mulder, Niels (2005). Chapter 3. Javanization, Inside Indonesian Society: Cultural Change in Java. Kanisius. p. 51. Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ Supomo, S. "Chapter 15. Indic Transformation: The Sanskritization of Jawa and the Javanization of the Bharata". epress.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ Fic, Victor M. (2003). From Majapahit
Majapahit
and Sukuh
Sukuh
to Megawati Sukarnoputri: Continuity and Change in Pluralism of Religion, Culture and Politics
Politics
of Indonesia
Indonesia
from the XV to the XXI Century. Abhinav Publications. Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ Thornton, David Leonard (1972). "Javanization of Indonesian politics". The University of British Columbia. Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ Mulder, Niels (2005). Chapter 3. Javanization, Inside Indonesian Society: Cultural Change in Java. Kanisius. p. 53. Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ "Transmigrasi Enyahkan Paradigma Jawanisasi". Bursa Transmigrasi (in Indonesian). Ministry of Work Force and Transmigration. 23 December 2005. Retrieved 6 November 2013. [permanent dead link]

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Cultural assimilation

Africanization Albanisation Americanization

Native Americans names

Anglicisation Arabization

Armenians Berbers Blacks Jews

Araucanization Batavianization Belarusization Bosniakization Bulgarization Castilianization Celticisation Chilenization Christianization Creolization Croatisation Cyrillization Czechization Estonianization Europeanisation Finnicization Francization

Brussels

Gaelicisation Germanisation Globalization Hawaiianize Hellenization Hispanicization Indianisation

placenames

Indigenization Indo-Aryanisation Indonesation Islamization Israelization

names

Italianization Japanization Javanisation Judaization Kurdification Lithuanization Magyarization
Magyarization
or hungarization Malayisation Montenegrization Norwegianization Pakistanisation Pashtunization Persianization

societies

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names

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placenames

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Opposite trends

Dehellenization De-Russification De-Sinicization Korenizatsiya

Related concepts

Cultural globalization Cultural imperialism Dominant culture Forced assimilation Identity politics Internal colonialism Jewish assimilation Language shift Melting p

.