Javanese people (Javanese: Ngoko: ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦗꦮ (Wong Jawa),
Krama: ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦗꦮꦶ (Tiyang Jawi); Malay (both
Malaysian and Indonesian): Suku Jawa or Orang Jawa) are an ethnic
group native to the Indonesian island of Java. With approximately 100
million people (as of 2011[update]),
they form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. They are
predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island.
There are also significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in
most provinces of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Suriname, Saudi
Arabia and the Netherlands.
The Javanese ethnic group has many sub-groups, such as the Mataram,
Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Samin, Naganese, Banyumasan,
A majority of the
Javanese people identify themselves as Muslims, with
a minority identifying as
Christians and Hindus. However, Javanese
civilization has been influenced by more than a millennium of
interactions between the native animism
Kejawen and the Indian
Buddhist culture, and this influence is still visible in
Javanese history, culture, traditions, and art forms. With a sizeable
global population, the Javanese are considered significant as they are
the fourth largest ethnic group among Muslims, in the world, after the
Arabs, Bengalis and Punjabis.
1.1 Ancient Javanese kingdoms and empires
1.2 Javanese sultanates
1.3 Colonial Java
1.4 Republic of Indonesia
2.2 Literature and philosophy
2.3 Social structure
3.6 Wood carving
5 Notable people
6 See also
9 Further reading
For other uses, see Javanese historical texts.
Like most Indonesian ethnic groups, including the Sundanese of West
Java, the Javanese are of
Austronesian origins whose ancestors are
thought to have originated in Taiwan, and migrated through the
Philippines to reach
Java between 1,500BC and
1,000BC. However, according to recent genetic study,
Javanese together with Sundanese and Balinese has almost equal ratio
of genetic marker shared between
Austronesian and Austroasiatic
Ancient Javanese kingdoms and empires
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the
Buddhist influences arrived through trade contacts with the
Buddhist - traders and
visitors, arrived in the 5th century. The Hindu,
Buddhist and Javanese
faiths blended into a unique local philosophy.
The cradle of
Javanese culture is commonly described as being in Kedu
Kewu Plain in the fertile slopes of
Mount Merapi as the heart of
the Medang i Bhumi Mataram kingdom. The earliest Sanjaya
Sailendra dynasties had their power base
The centre of
Javanese culture and politics was moved towards the
eastern part of the island when
Mpu Sindok (r. 929-947) moved the
capital of the kingdoms eastward to the valleys of the Brantas River
in the 10th century CE. The move was most likely caused by the
volcanic eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from
The major spread of Javanese influence occurred under King Kertanegara
Singhasari in the late 13th century. The expansionist king launched
several major expeditions to Madura,
Bali in 1284,
Borneo[when?] and most importantly to
1275. Following the defeat of the Melayu Kingdom,
Singhasari controlled trade in the Strait of Malacca.
Singhasari dominance was cut short in 1292 by Kediri's rebellion under
Jayakatwang, killing Kertanegara. However, Jayakatwang's reign as king
Java soon ended as he was defeated by Kertanegara's son-in-law,
Raden Wijaya with the help of invading Mongol troops in March 1293.
Raden Wijaya would later establish
Majapahit near the delta of the
Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java. Kertanegara policies
were later continued by the Majapahits under King
Hayam Wuruk and his
minister Gajah Mada.
Various kingdoms of
Java were actively involved in the spice trade in
the sea route of the Silk Road. Although not major spice producers,
these kingdoms were able to stockpile spice by trading for it with
rice, of which
Java was a major producer.
usually regarded as the greatest of these kingdoms. It was both an
agrarian and a maritime power, combining wet-rice cultivation and
foreign trade. The ruin of their capital can be found in
Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord
Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East
(VOC). ca 1684 AD.
Islam gained its foothold in port towns on Java's northern coast such
as Gresik, Ampel Denta (Surabaya), Tuban, Demak and Kudus. The spread
and proselytising of
Islam among the Javanese was traditionally
credited to Wali Songo.
Java underwent major changes as
Islam spread. Following succession
disputes and civil wars,
Majapahit power collapsed. After this
collapse, its various dependencies and vassals broke free.
Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate of Demak became the new strongest power, gaining
supremacy among city-states on the northern coast of Java.
Aside from its power over Javanese city-states, it also gained
overlordship of the ports of
Palembang in eastern
Sumatra. Demak played a major role in opposing the newly
arrived colonial power, the Portuguese. Demak twice attacked the
Portuguese following their capture of Malacca. They also attacked the
allied forces of the Portuguese and the Sunda Kingdom, establishing in
the process the Sultanate of Banten.
Demak was succeeded by the
Kingdom of Pajang and finally the Sultanate
of Mataram. The centre of power moved from coastal Demak, to Pajang in
Blora, and later further inland to Mataram lands in Kotagede, near
present-day Yogyakarta. The
Mataram Sultanate reached its peak of
power and influence during the reign of
Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo
between 1613 and 1645.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at
Surakarta in 1932.
In 1619 the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia.
Java slowly fell to the Dutch East
India Company, which would also
eventually control most of Maritime Southeast Asia. The internal
intrigue and war of succession, in addition to Dutch interference,
Mataram Sultanate to break up into
Yogyakarta. The further separation of the Javanese realm was marked by
the establishment of the
Although the real political power in those days actually lay with the
colonial Dutch, the Javanese kings, in their keratons, still held
prestige as the supposed power centre of the Javanese realm,
especially in and around
Surakarta and Yogyakarta.
Dutch rule was briefly interrupted by British rule in the early 19th
century. While short, the British administration led by Stamford
Raffles was significant, and included the re-discovery of Borobudur.
Conflict with foreign rule was exemplified by the
Java War between
1825 and 1830, and the leadership of Prince Diponegoro.
Like the rest of the Dutch East Indies,
Java was captured by the
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan during World War II. With Japan's defeat, independence
was proclaimed in the new Republic of Indonesia.
Republic of Indonesia
When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed on 17 August 1945, the
last sovereign Javanese monarchies, represented by the Sri Sultan of
Yogyakarta, the Sunanate of
Surakarta and Prince of Mangkunegara
declared that they would become part of the Republic of Indonesia.
Yogyakarta and Pakualam were later united to form the Yogyakarta
Special Region. The Sri sultan became Governor of Yogyakarta, and the
Pakualaman became vice-governor; both were responsible to
the President of Indonesia. The
Special Region of
created after the war of independence ended and formalised on 3 August
Surakarta was later absorbed as part of the Central Java
Main article: Javanese culture
Javanese dance and Javanisation
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often
used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Javanese culture is one of the oldest civilisations and has
flourished in Indonesia. It has gradually absorbed various elements
and influences from other cultures, including native reverence for
ancestral and natural spirits,
Islamic values, and to a lesser extent, Christianity,
Western philosophy and modern ideas. Nevertheless, Javanese culture
— especially in the Javanese cultural heartland; those of highly
polished aristocratic culture of the keratons in
Surakarta — demonstrates some specific traits, such as particular
concern with elegance and refinement (Javanese: alus), subtlety,
politeness, courtesy, indirectness, emotional restraint and
consciousness to one's social stature.
Javanese culture values harmony
and social order highly, and abhors direct conflicts and
disagreements. These Javanese values are often promoted through
Javanese cultural expressions, such as Javanese dance, gamelan, wayang
and batik. It is also reinforced through adherence to Javanese adat
(traditional rules) in ceremonies, such as Slametan, Satu Suro,
Javanese weddings and Naloni Mitoni.
However, the culture of pesisiran of Javanese north coast and in
Java demonstrates some slightly different traits. They tend to
be more open to new and foreign ideas, more egalitarian, and less
conscious of one's social stature. Some of these northern settlements
— such as Demak, Kudus, Tuban,
Gresik and Ampel in
Surabaya — have
become more overtly Islamic, traditionally because these port towns
are among the earliest places that
Islamic teachings gained foothold
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate
Javanese culture is traditionally centred in the Central Java,
Yogyakarta and East
Java provinces of Indonesia. Due to various
migrations, it can also be found in other parts of the world, such as
Suriname (where 15% of the population are of Javanese descent), the
broader Indonesian archipelago region, Cape
Malay, Malaysia, Singapore,
Netherlands and other
countries. The migrants bring with them various aspect of Javanese
cultures such as
Gamelan music, traditional dances and the
Wayang kulit shadow play. The migration of Javanese
people westward has created a coastal
Javanese culture in West Java
distinct from the inland Sundanese culture.
Main article: Javanese language
Javanese script and Javanese (Unicode block)
Javanese is a member of the
Austronesian family of languages and is
closely related to, but distinct from, other languages of
Indonesia. It is notable for its great number of nearly
Sanskrit loans, found especially in literary
Javanese. This is due to the long history of
Buddhist influences in Java.
Most Javanese in
Indonesia are bilingual, being fluent in Indonesian
and Javanese. In a public poll held circa-1990,
approximately 12% of Javanese used Indonesian (the standardized
variant of the Malay language), around 18% used both Javanese and
Indonesian, and the rest used Javanese exclusively.
Javanese language was formerly written with a script descended
from the Brahmi script, natively known as Hanacaraka or Carakan. Upon
Indonesian independence it was replaced with a form of the Latin
While Javanese was not made an official language of Indonesia, it has
the status of regional language for communication in the
Javanese-majority regions. The language also can be viewed as an
ethnic language because it is one of the defining characteristics of
the Javanese ethnic identity.
Literature and philosophy
Javanese literature and Javanese poetry
Javanese intellectuals, writers, poets and men of letters are known
for their ability to formulate ideas and creating idioms for high
cultural purpose, through stringing words to express a deeper
philosophical meanings. Several philosophical idioms sprung from
Javanese classical literature,
Javanese historical texts and oral
traditions, and have spread into several media and promoted as popular
mottos. For example, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", used as the national
motto of the Republic of Indonesia, "Gemah Ripah Loh Jinawi, Toto
Tentrem Kerto Raharjo", "Jer Basuki Mawa Bea", "Rawe-Rawe rantas,
Malang-Malang putung" and "Tut Wuri Handayani".
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. 1865.
The American anthropologist
Clifford Geertz divided in the 1960s the
Javanese community into three aliran or "streams": santri, abangan and
priyayi. According to him, the
Santri followed an orthodox
interpretation Islam, the abangan followed a syncretic form of Islam
Hindu and animist elements (often termed Kejawen), and the
priyayi were the nobility.
The Geertz opinion is often opposed today because he mixed the social
groups with belief groups. It was also difficult to apply this social
categorisation in classing outsiders, for example other non-indigenous
Indonesians such as persons of Arab, Chinese and Indian descent.
Social stratification is much less rigid in northern coast area.
See also: Religion in Indonesia
Distribution of religious affiliation, 2000
Javanese population = 95,217,022
Kebatinan and Javanese sacred places
Today, most Javanese follow
Islam as their religion, while
only 5-10 percent of Javanese follow orthodox Islamic
traditions. Orthodox Muslims are most common in the
northern coast bordering the
Java Sea, where
Islam was first brought
to the island.
Islam first came in contact with
Java during the
Majapahit period, when they traded or made tributary relations with
various states like Perlak and
Samudra Pasai in modern-day
A minority of Javanese also follow
Catholicism), which are concentrated in Central
Yogyakarta for Catholicism). Native Christian
churches such as the Gereja Kristen Jawa also exist. On a smaller
Hinduism are also found in the Javanese community.
The Javanese of the Tengger tribe continue to practice Javanese-Hindu
today, and live in villages on the slope of Mount Bromo.
Kebatinan, also called Kejawen, Agama Jawa and
Kepercayaan is a Javanese religious tradition, consisting
of an amalgam of animistic, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic, especially
Sufi, beliefs and practices. It is rooted in Javanese history and
religiosity, syncretising aspects of different religions.
Main article: Javanese calendar
Javanese calendar is used by the
Javanese people concurrently with
two other calendars, the
Gregorian calendar and the
Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of Indonesia, while
Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and Indonesian government for
religious worship and deciding relevant
Islamic holidays. The Javanese
calendar is presently used mostly for cultural events (such as Siji
Javanese calendar system is currently a lunar calendar
Sultan Agung in 1633, based on the
Javanese people used a solar system based on the Hindu
Unlike many other calendars, the
Javanese calendar uses a 5-day week
known as the Pasaran cycle. This is still in use today and is
superimposed with 7-day week of the
Gregorian calendar and Islamic
calendar to become what is known as the 35-day Wetonan cycle.
Main article: Javanese traditional house
Traditional Javanese house.
Throughout their long history, the Javanese have produced many
important buildings, ranging from
mortuary temples, palace complexes, and mosques.
Two important religious monuments are the
Hindu temple of Prambanan
Buddhist temple of Borobudur. Both of them are 9th century
UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Both are located near
Yogyakarta in the slope of Mount Merapi.
Meanwhile, examples of secular buildings can be seen in the ruins of
the former capital city of the
Majapahit Kingdom (14th to 16th century
AD) in Trowulan, East Java. The complex covers an area of 11 km x
9 km. It consists of various brick buildings, a canal ranging
from 20 to 40 meters wide, purification pools, temples and iconic
split gates. The capital complex is currently being
considered as a candidate for becoming a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Traditional Javanese buildings can be identified by their trapezoid
shaped roofs supported by wooden pillars. Another common
feature in Javanese buildings are pendopo, pavilions with open-sides
and four large pillars. The pillars and other parts of the buildings
can be richly carved. This architecture style can be found at kraton,
or palaces, of the Sultanates of
Yogyakarta (palaces of Hamengkubuwono
and Pakualaman) and
Surakarta (palaces of
Traditional mosques in
Java maintain a distinctive Javanese style. The
pendopo model is used as the main feature of mosques as prayer halls.
A trapezoidal roof is used instead of the more typically
These roofs are often multi-tiered and tiled. In addition
to not using domes, traditional Javanese mosques also often lack
minarets. The split gate from earlier Hindu-Buddhist
period is still used in many mosques and public buildings in Java.
Some notable examples of mosques using traditional Javanese
architecture include the Agung Demak Mosque, the Menara Kudus Mosque
and the Grand
Mosque of Banten. The Kudus
Mosque is also of note
because it incorporates Hindu-style stone architecture.
Main article: Javanese cuisine
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo
crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises
Javanese cuisine and culture place an important role in rice, which is
a staple food on the island. Among the Javanese it is considered not
to be a meal if a person hasn't eaten rice yet. It is also
important part of identity that differentiate Javanese with foreigners
that eat bread (the Europeans) and resident of other island who eat
sago (for example Moluccans).
Rice is also symbol of development and
prosperity, while cassava and tuber is associated with
Javanese cuisine varies by region. Eastern
Javanese cuisine has a
preference for more salty and hot foods, while the Central
Javanese prefer sweeter foods.
A famous food in
Javanese cuisine is
marinated cow lips and noses served with vegetable, shrimp prawn and
peanut sauce with chili. Rojak Cingur is considered a traditional food
Surabaya in East Java.
Gudeg is a traditional food from Yogyakarta and Central
Java which is made from young Nangka (jack fruit) boiled for several
hours with palm sugar, and coconut milk.
Pecel, a type of peanut sauce with chili is a common
ingredient in Javanese cuisine. It is used in various types of Rujak
and Gado-gado. It can also be used as stand-alone sauce with rice,
prawns, eggs and vegetables as Nasi
Tumpeng, is a rice served in the shape of a conical
volcano, usually with rice coloured yellow using turmeric.
It is an important part of many ceremonies in Java.
Tumpeng is served
at landmark events such as birthdays, moving house, or other
Tumpeng is served alongside
fried chicken, boiled egg, vegetables, and goat meat on a round plate
made from bamboo called besek.
A notable food in
Java is tempeh, a meat substitute made from soy bean
fermented with mould. It is a staple source of protein in
popular around the world as a meat substitute for vegetarians.
Main article: Javanese names
Javanese do not usually have family names or surnames, with only a
Javanese names may come from traditional Javanese
languages, many of which are derived from Sanskrit. Names with the
prefix Su-, which means good, are very popular. After the advent of
Islam, many Javanese began to use
Arabic names, especially coast
Islamic influences are stronger. Commoners usually
only have one-word names, while nobilities use two-or-more-word names,
but rarely a surname. Some people use a patronymic. Due to the
influence of other cultures, many people started using names from
other languages, mainly European languages. Christian Javanese usually
Latin baptism names followed by a traditional Javanese name.
Javanese people can be found in all occupations,
especially in the government and the military.
Javanese people are farmers. Farming is especially
common because of the fertile volcanic soil in Java. The most
important agricultural commodity is rice. In 1997, it was estimated
Java produced 55% of Indonesia's total output of the
crop. Most farmers work in small-scale rice fields, with
around 42% of farmers working and cultivating less than 0.5 hectares
of land. In region where soil is less fertile of where
rainy season is short, other staple crops is cultivated, such as
Borobudur ship from
In the ancient times, the
Javanese people are excelled at navigating
the seas and trading. This is because not all commodities can be found
at the island of Java, and trading is required to fulfill the life
necessities. Javanese merchant and sailors already in frequent voyage
in the seas between
India and China as early as 1st century
Borobudur ship of the Javanese
brought Nusantaran sailor and settler to Ghana and
Madagascar in the
8th century CE, but there is possibility that they have
been there as early as 500 BCE.
Majapahit era, almost all of the commodities from Asia can
be found in Java. This is because extensive shipping by Majapahit
empire using various type of ships, particularly the jong, for trading
to faraway places. It was also during
Nusantaran exploration reached its greatest accomplishment. Ludovico
di Varthema (1470-1517), in his book Itinerario de Ludouico de
Varthema Bolognese stated that the Southern
Javanese people sailed to
"far Southern lands" up to the point they arrived at an island where a
day only last 4 hours long and "colder than in any part of the world".
Modern studies determine that such place is located at least 900
nautical miles (1666 km) southward the Southern point of
Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca,
the Portuguese recovered a chart from a Javanese pilot, which already
included part of the Americas.
European colonial presence diminish the Javanese merchant-sailor
range. However in 1602, Diogo de Couto confirms that the Javanese were
still in communication with east coast of Madagascar. The
decision of Amangkurat I of
Mataram Sultanate to destroy ships on
coastal cities and close ports to prevent them from rebelling in
mid-17th century further reducing the Javanese people's ability in
long distance sailing. In the second half of 18th century, most of the
Javanese merchant-sailor is restricted to only short range
The Javanese were known to produce large ships called jong. These
ships already plied the seas between
India and China as early as 1st
century CE, carrying up to 1000 people alongside 250-1000 tons of
cargo. The jong was mainly constructed in two major
shipbuilding centres around Java: north coastal Java, especially
around Rembang-Demak (along the Muria strait) and Cirebon; and the
south coast of
Borneo (Banjarmasin) and the adjacent islands. Pegu,
which is a large shipbuilding port at the 16th century, also produced
jong, built by Javanese who resided there.
Impressed by their ability, Albuquerque hired 60 Javanese carpenters
and shipbuilders to work in
Malacca for the Portuguese. The
Java was hampered when the VOC gained foothold in Java
starting in early 17th century. They prohibited the locals from
building vessels more than 50 tons in tonnage and assigned European
supervisors to shipyards. However, in the 18th century the
javanese shipbuilding areas (particularly Rembang and Juwana) has
started builiding large European-styled vessels (bark and brigantine
type) ranging between 160-600 tons in tonnage.
A decorative kris with a figure of
Semar as the handle. The bilah
has thirteen luk.
Blacksmiths are traditionally valued. Some blacksmiths fast and
meditate to reach perfection. Javanese blacksmiths create a range of
tools and farming equipment, and also cultural items such as gamelan
instruments and kris. The
Majapahit used fire-arms and
cannonade as a feature of warfare. Cetbang, the Javanese bronze
breech-loaded swivel-gun, was used ubiquitously by the
pirates, and rival lords. The demise of the
Majapahit empire also
caused the flight of disaffected skilled bronze cannon-smiths to
Sumatra and Malaysia, and the Philippines. This led to
near universal use of the swivel-gun, especially on trade vessels to
protect against pirates, in the
Duarte Barbosa ca. 1510 said that the inhabitants of
Java are great
masters in casting artillery and very good artillerymen. They make
many one-pounder cannons (cetbang or rentaka), long muskets, and other
fire-works. Every place are considered excellent in casting artillery,
and in the knowledge of using it. In 1513, the Javanese
fleet led by Patih Yunus, when sailed to attack Portuguese Malacca
"carried much artillery made in Java, for [the Javanese] are excellent
Kris knives are important items, with many heirloom kris holding
significant historical value. The design of the kris is to tear apart
an opponent's abdomen, making the injury more severe.
Kota Gede is famous for its silverworks and silver
Batiks are traditionally made by women as a pastime, but some town and
villages have specialised in making batik, such as Pekalongan, Kauman,
Kampung Taman and Laweyan.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East
The Javanese art of wood carving is traditionally applied to various
cultural attributes such as statues, (wayang-)dolls, and masks.
Woodcarving also prominent as house ornamentation and details. The
elaborately carved Omah Kudus is a fine example of Javanese
woodcarving mastery. The Central
Java town of
Jepara is famous as a
center of Javanese woodcarving workshops, where artists and carpenters
especially working on Javan teak wood.
The Javanese were probably involved in the
Austronesian migration to
Madagascar in the first centuries C.E. While the culture of the
migration is most closely related with the
Ma'anyan people of Borneo,
a portion of the
Malagasy language is derived from loanwords from the
Hindu kingdom period, Javanese merchants settled at many
places in the Indonesian archipelago.:247 In the late 15th
century, following the collapse of
Majapahit and the rise of Muslim
principalities on the northern coast of Java, many
artisans and courtiers migrated to Bali, where they would
contribute to the refined culture of Bali. Others who refused to
Islam retreated to Tengger mountain, retaining their Hindu
religion and becoming the Tenggerese people.
In the conflicts during the transitions of power between the Demak,
the Pajang and the Mataram in the late 16th century, some Javanese
Palembang in southern Sumatra. There they established a
sultanate and formed a mix of Malay and Javanese culture.
Palembang language is a dialect of
Malay language with heavy influence
During the reign of
Sultan Agung (1613–1645), some Javanese began to
establish settlements in coastal West
Java around Cirebon, Indramayu
and Karawang. These Javanese settlements were originally commissioned
Sultan Agung as rice farming villages to support the Javanese troop
logistics on his military campaign against Dutch Batavia.
The Javanese were also present in Peninsular Malaya since early
times. The Link between
Malacca was important
during spread of
Islam in Indonesia, when religious missionaries were
Malacca to seaports on the northern coast of
Java. Large migrations to the Malay Peninsula occurred
during the colonial period, mostly from Central
Java to British
Malaya. Migration also took place from 1880 to 1930 from other parts
Java with a secondary migration Javanese from Sumatra. Those
migrations were to seek a new life away from the Dutch colonists who
Indonesia at that time. Today these people live throughout
Malaysia and are mainly concentrated in parts of Johor,
Selangor and cities such as Kuala Lumpur.
Today, the Javanese in
Malaysia are included in
Malay race along with
other native Indonesian ethnics, it is estimated 40% of all Malays in
Malaysia at least has some Javanese ancestry.
In Singapore, approximately 50-60% of its Malay population have some
degree of Javanese ancestry. Most of them have identified themselves
as Malays, rather than Javanese.
Javanese merchants were also present in the
Maluku Islands as part of
the spice trade. Following the Islamisation of Java, they spread Islam
in the islands, with
Ternate being a
Muslim sultanate circa
1484. Javanese merchants also converted coastal cities in
Borneo to Islam. The Javanese thus played an important
part in transmitting
Islam from the western part to the eastern part
of the Archipelago with trade based from northern coast of Java.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940.
New migration patterns emerged during colonial periods. During the
rise of VOC power starting in the 17th century, many Javanese were
exiled, enslaved or hired as mercenaries for the Dutch colonies of
South Asia and the
Cape colony in South Africa. These
included princes and nobility who lost their dispute with the Company
and were exiled along with their retinues. These, along with exiles
from other ethnicities like
Bugis and Malay became the Sri Lankan
Malay and Cape Malay ethnic groups
respectively. Other political prisoners were transported to closer
Diponegoro and his followers were transported to North
Sulawesi, following his defeat in
Java War in the early 19th century.
Their descendants are well known as Jaton (abbreviation of "Jawa
Major migrations started during the Dutch colonial period under
Transmigration programs. The Dutch needed many labourers for their
plantations and moved many Javanese under the program as contract
workers, mostly to other parts of the colony in Sumatra. They also
sent Javanese workers to
Suriname in South America. Today
approximately 15% of the
Suriname population is of Javanese ancestry.
Transmigration program that was created by the Dutch continued
following independence. A significant Javanese population can be found
in the Jabodetabek (Greater Jakarta) area, Lampung, South
Jambi provinces. Several paguyuban (traditional community
organisation) were formed by these Javanese immigrants, such as
"Pujakesuma" (abbreviation of Indonesian: Putra Jawa Kelahiran
Sumateran or Sumatra-born Javanese).
Main article: List of Javanese people
Indonesians in Hong Kong
Indonesians in Saudi Arabia
Indonesians in Taiwan
^ Pramono, S.B. (2013). Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak. Grafindo Litera
Media. ISBN 978-979-3896-38-0..mw-parser-output cite.citation
font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'"
.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited
a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output
.cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription
span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px
dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a
.1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code
.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100%
.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output
.cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95%
.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left
padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output
^ Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk
Indonesia - Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2011.
ISBN 978-979-064417-5. Archived from the original on 10 July
^ Palash Ghosh (31 January 2013). "Uneasy Neighbors: The Plight of
Illegal Indonesian Immigrants In Malaysia". International Business
Times. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
^ Kompasiana (2016). Kami Tidak Lupa Indonesia. Bentang Pustaka.
^ Silvey, Rachel (2005), "Transnational Islam: Indonesian Migrant
Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia", in Falah, Ghazi-Walid; Nagel,
Caroline (eds.), Geographies of
Muslim Women: Gender, Religion, and
Space, Guilford Press, pp. 127–146, ISBN 1-57230-134-1
行政院勞動部勞力發展署. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
^ "TKI di China Lebih Besar Dibandingkan Pekerja China di RI".
Okezone.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
^ "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Retrieved 10 May 2018.
^ "TKI di Singapura Bisa Kirim Uang ke Kampung Lewat HP". Detik.com
(in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
^ "1,3 Juta TKI Kerja di Timteng Terbanyak Arab Saudi". Detik.com (in
Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
^ "Suriname". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Retrieved 10 May 2018.
^ .mw-parser-output .smallcaps font-variant:small-caps Ko Oudhof,
Carel Harmsen, Suzanne Loozen en Chan Choenni, "Omvang en spreiding
van Surinaamse bevolkingsgroepen in Nederland" (CBS - 2011)
^ Ko Oudhof en Carel Harmsen, "De maatschappelijke situatie van
Surinaamse bevolkingsgroepen in Nederland" (CBS - 2011)
^ "Ini Data TKA di
Indonesia dan Perbandingan Dengan TKI di Luar
Negeri". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
^ Project, Joshua. "Javanese in Australia". joshuaproject.net.
^ Institut de la statistique et des études économiques de
Nouvelle-Calédonie (ISEE). "Population totale, selon la communauté
par commune et Province de résidence" (in French). Archived from the
original (XLS) on 28 September 2007.
^ Project, Joshua. "Javanese in Germany". joshuaproject.net.
^ Harjawiyana, Haryana; Theodorus Supriya, (2001). Kamus unggah-ungguh
basa Jawa. Kanisius. p. 185. ISBN 978-979-672-991-3.
^ "Publication Name:". Archived from the original on 10 July 2017.
Retrieved 6 August 2013.
^ Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern
Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14
^ roughly 170 million in
Bangladesh and 130 million in the Republic of
CIA Factbook 2014 estimates, numbers subject to rapid
population growth); about 10 million Bangladeshis in the Middle East,
1 million Bengalis in Pakistan, 5 million British Bangladeshi.
^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to
Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company.
p. 1. ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0.
^ a b Spiller, Henry (2008).
Gamelan music of Indonesia. Taylor &
Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-96067-0.
^ Taylor (2003), p. 7.
^ "Pemetaan Genetika Manusia Indonesia". Kompas.com (in Indonesian).
^ Miksic, John; Marcello Tranchini; Anita Tranchini (1996). Borobudur:
Golden Tales of the Buddhas. Tuttle Publishing.
^ Tarling, Nicholas (1999). Cambridge history of South East Asia: From
early times to c.1500. Cambridge University Press. p. 203.
^ a b c d Spuler, Bertold; F.R.C. Bagley (31 December 1981). The
Muslim world: a historical survey, Part 4. Brill Archive. p. 252.
^ a b c Capaldi, Liz; Joshua Eliot (2000).
Bali handbook with Lombok
and the Eastern Isles: the travel guide. Footprint Travel Guides.
^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007). World and Its Peoples:
Indonesia and East Timor. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1333.
^ a b c Wink, André (2004). Indo-
Islamic society, 14th-15th
centuries. BRILL. p. 217. ISBN 978-90-0413561-1.
^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern
Indonesia since c.1300,
2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 9–10.
^ Muljana, Slamet (2005). Runtuhnya kerajaan Hindu-Jawa dan timbulnya
Islam di Nusantara. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: LKiS.
^ a b
Pires, Tomé (1990). The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of
the East. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
^ a b Shucker, M. A. M. (1986). Muslims of Sri Lanka: avenues to
antiquity. Jamiah Naleemia Inst. OCLC 15406023.
^ a b Williams, Faldela (1988).
Cape Malay Cookbook. Struik.
^ Matusky, Patricia Ann; Sooi Beng Tan (2004). The music of Malaysia:
the classical, folk, and syncretic traditions. Ashgate Publishing.
p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7546-0831-8.
^ Osnes, Beth (2010). The Shadow Puppet Theatre of Malaysia: A Study
Wayang Kulit with Performance Scripts and Puppet Designs.
McFarland. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7864-4838-8.
^ a b Robson, Stuart; Singgih Wibisono (2002). Javanese English
dictionary. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7946-0000-6.
^ Marr, David G.; Anthony Crothers Milner (1986). Southeast Asia in
the 9th to 14th centuries. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
^ Errington, James Joseph (1998). Shifting languages: interaction and
identity in Javanese Indonesia. Cambridge University Press.
^ Soeseno, Ki Nardjoko (2014). Falsafah Jawa Soeharto & Jokowi.
Araska. ISBN 978-602-7733-82-4.
^ McDonald, Hamish (1980). Suharto's Indonesia. Melbourne: Fontana.
pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-00-635721-0.
^ Ananta, Arifin & Bakhtiar 2008, p. 30.
^ Geertz, Clifford (1976). The religion of Java. University of Chicago
Press. ISBN 978-0-226-28510-8.
^ "Javanese Religion". www.philtar.ac.uk.
^ Beatty, Andrew (1999). Varieties of Javanese religion: an
anthropological account. Cambridge University Press.
^ Gin 2004, p. 719.
^ Caldarola 1982, p. 501.
^ Hooker 1988, p. 196.
^ Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of
October 2009). "
Trowulan - Former Capital City of
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) World Heritage Convention.
^ Karaton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat (2002). Kraton Jogja: the history
and cultural heritage. Kraton Yogyakarta,
Association. ISBN 978-979-969060-9. ISBN 979-96906-0-9.
^ Eliot, Joshua; Liz Capaldi; Jane Bickersteth (2001). Indonesia
handbook, Volume 3. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 303.
ISBN 978-1-900949-51-4. ISBN 1-900949-51-2.
^ Kusno, Abidin (2000). Behind the postcolonial: architecture, urban
space, and political cultures in Indonesia. Routledge. p. 3.
^ Singh, Nagendra Kr (2002). International encyclopaedia of Islamic
dynasties. Anmol Publications. p. 148.
ISBN 978-81-2610403-1. ISBN 81-261-0403-1.
^ Kalekin-Fishman, Devorah; Kelvin E. Y. Low (2010). Everyday Life in
Asia: Social Perspectives on the Senses. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7546-7994-3. ISBN 0-7546-7994-2.
^ a b DuFon, Margaret A.; Eton Churchill (2006). Language learners in
study abroad contexts. Multilingual Matters. p. 110.
ISBN 978-1-85359-851-7. ISBN 1-85359-851-8.
^ Tania, Vania. Djakabaia: Djalan-djalan dan Makan-makan. Gramedia
Pustaka Utama. ISBN 978-979-223923-2. ISBN 979-22-3923-5.
^ Tempat Makan Favorit di 6 Kota. AgroMedia. 2008. p. 136.
ISBN 978-979-006166-8. ISBN 979-006-166-8.
^ Witton, Patrick; Mark Elliott; Paul Greenway; Virginia Jealous
(2003). Indonesia. Lonely Planet. p. 108.
ISBN 978-1-74059-154-6. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
^ Soebroto, Chris.
Indonesia OK!!: the guide with a gentle twist.
Galangpress Group. p. 72. ISBN 978-979-934179-2.
^ Kim, Hyung-Jun (2006). Reformist Muslims in
Yogyakarta Village: the
Islamic transformation of contemporary socio-religious life. ANU E
Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-920942-34-2.
^ Owen, Sri (1999). Indonesian Regional Food and Cookery. Frances
Lincoln Ltd. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-7112-1273-2.
^ a b Gérard, Françoise; François Ruf (2001). Agriculture in
crisis: people, commodities and natural resources in Indonesia,
1996-2000. Routledge. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-7007-1465-0.
^ a b Dunham, Stanley Ann;
Alice G. Dewey (2009). Surviving Against
the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia. Duke University Press.
p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8223-4687-6. ISBN 0-8223-4687-7.
^ a b Dick-Read, Robert (2005). The Phantom Voyagers: Evidence of
Indonesian Settlement in Africa in Ancient Times. Thurlton.
^ Beale, Philip (April 2006). "From
Indonesia to Africa: Borobudur
Ship Expedition". Ziff Journal: 22 – via
^ Blench, “The Ethnographic Evidence for Long-distance Contacts”,
^ I. W. Ardika & P. Bellwood, “Sembiran: The Beginnings of
Indian Contact with Bali”, Antiquity 65 (1991): 221–32. See also
I. W. Ardika, P. Bellwood, I. M. Sutaba & K. C. Yuliati,
“Sembiran and the First Indian Contacts with Bali: An Update”,
Antiquity 71(1997): 193–95.
^ Nugroho, Irawan Djoko (2011).
Majapahit Peradaban Maritim. Suluh
Nuswantara Bakti. ISBN 9786029346008.
^ Jones, John Winter (1863). The travels of
Ludovico di Varthema
Ludovico di Varthema in
Egypt, Syria, Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix, in Persia, India, and
Ethiopia, A.D. 1503 to 1508. Hakluyt Society.
^ Cartas de Afonso de Albuquerque, Volume 1, p. 64, April 1, 1512
^ de Couto, Diogo (1602). Decada Quarta da Asia. Portugal: Em
Lisboa : Impresso por Pedro Crasbeeck.
^ a b Liebner, Horst H. (2002). Perahu-Perahu Tradisional Nusantara.
^ Pires, Tome. Suma Oriental. London: The Hakluyt Society.
^ Lombard, Denys (1990). The Javanese Crossroads. Essay of Global
History. ISBN 2713209498.
^ Thomas Stamford Raffles, The History of Java, Oxford University
Press, 1965, ISBN 0-19-580347-7, 1088 pages.
^ Barosa, Duarte (1866). A Description of the Coasts of East Africa
and Malabar in the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century. The Hakluyt
^ Reid, Anthony (2012). Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast
Asian Past. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
^ Tadié, J; Guillaud, Dominique (ed.); Seysset, M. (ed.); Walter,
Annie (ed.) (1998), Kota Gede : le devenir identitaire d'un
quartier périphérique historique de
Yogyakarta (Indonésie); Le
voyage inachevé... à Joël Bonnemaison, ORSTOM, retrieved 20 April
2012CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ "In a Central
Java town, local wood enterprises carve a niche in the
global market - CIFOR Forests News". CIFOR Forests News. 6 March 2018.
Retrieved 1 June 2018.
^ Adelaar, Alexander (2006). "The Indonesian migrations to Madagascar:
making sense of the multidisciplinary evidence". Melbourne Institute
of Asian Languages and Societies, The University of Melbourne.
^ Simanjuntak, Truman; Ingrid Harriet Eileen Pojoh; Muhamad Hisyam
Austronesian diaspora and the ethnogeneses of people in
Indonesian archipelago. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 422.
^ Crawfurd, John (1856). A descriptive dictionary of the Indian
islands & adjacent countries. Bradbury & Evans. p. 244.
^ LePoer, Barbara Leitch (1991). Singapore, a country study. Federal
Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 83. Retrieved 17
Singapore Malay community leaders estimated that some
50 to 60 percent of the community traced their origins to
Java and an
additional 15 to 20 percent to
Bawean Island, in the
Java Sea north of
the city of Surabaya.
^ Storch, Tanya (2006). Religions and missionaries around the Pacific,
1500-1900. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-0667-3.
^ Lapidus, Ira Marvin (2002). A history of
Cambridge University Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.
.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em
.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100%
Caldarola, Carlo (1982), Religion and Societies: Asia and the Middle
East, Walter de Gruyter
Gin, Ooi Keat (2004), Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from
Angkor Wat to Timor. R-Z. Volume three, ABC-CLIO
Hooker, M.B. (1988),
Islam in South East Asia, Brill
Kuncaraningrat Raden Mas; Southeast Asian Studies Program (Institute
of Southeast Asian Studies) (1985), Javanese culture, Oxford
University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-582542-8
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese.
vte Ethnic groups in
Indonesia by regionIndonesiansSumatra
Tau Taa Wana
Lesser Sunda Islands
Chinese in Bangka-Belitung Islands
vte Ethnic groups in MalaysiaMalaysiansBumiputeraMalay(list)Anak Jati
Negeri Sembilanese Malay
Peranakan Siam (Sam-Sam)
vte Ethnic and national groups in SingaporeIndigenousNational
Peranakan / Straits-Born Chinese
Immigrant workers in Singapore
Race in Singapore
vte Surinamese peopleIndigenous