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The Javanese language
Javanese language
has a decimal numeral system with distinct words for the 'tweens' from 21 to 29, called likuran. The basic numerals 1–10 have independent and combining forms, the latter derived via a suffix -ng. The combining forms are used to form the tens, hundreds, thousands, and millions. The numerals 1–5 and 10 have distinct high-register (halus, or in Javanese krama) and low register (ngoko) forms. The halus forms are listed below in italics. (Dasa 10 is derived from Sanskrit désa.) Like English, Javanese has compound forms for the teens; however, it also has a series of compound 'tweens', 21–29. The teens are based on a root -(wə)las, the tweens on -likur, and the tens are formed by the combining forms. Hyphens are not used in the orthography, but have been added to the table below to clarify their derivation. Final orthographic -a tends to [ɔ] in many dialects, as does any preceding a (as in sanga [sɔŋɔ] 9).

Javanese Hindu–Arabic Unit Teens Tweens Tens

꧑ 1 ꦱꦶꦗꦶ siji ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ setunggal ꦱꦼꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ sewelas/suwelas ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ setunggalwelas (11) ꦱꦼꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ selikur ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦏꦸꦂ setunggallikur (21) ꦱꦼꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ sepuluh (10) ꦱꦼꦢꦱ sedasa ꦱꦼꦗꦶꦤꦃ sejinah (market term)

꧒ 2 ꦭꦺꦴꦫꦺꦴ loro ꦏꦭꦶꦃ kalih ꦫꦺꦴꦭꦱ꧀ rolas ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ kalihwelas (12) ꦫꦺꦴꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ rolikur/lolikur ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ kalihlikur (22) ꦫꦺꦴꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ rongpuluh (20) ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦢꦱ kalihdasa ꦫꦺꦴꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ rong-jinah (market)

꧓ 3 ꦠꦼꦭꦸ telu ꦠꦶꦒ tiga ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦭꦱ꧀ telulas (13) ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ tigangwelas/tigawelas ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ telulikur ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ tiganglikur (23) ꦠꦶꦒꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ tigalikur ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ telungpuluh (30) ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦢꦱ tigangdasa ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ telungjinah (market)

꧔ 4 ꦥꦥꦠ꧀ papat ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ sekawan ꦥꦠ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ patbelas/pakbelas ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ sekawanwelas (14) ꦥꦠ꧀ꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ patlikur/pakdelikur ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ꦭꦏꦸꦂ sekawanlikur (24) ꦥꦠꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ patangpuluh/petangpuluh (40) ꦥꦠꦁꦢꦱ patangdasa/petangdasa ꦥꦠꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ patangjinah (market)

꧕ 5 ꦭꦶꦩ lima ꦒꦁꦱꦭ꧀ gangsal ꦭꦶꦩꦭꦱ꧀ limalas ꦒꦁꦱꦭ꧀ꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ gangsalwelas (15) ꦱꦼꦭꦮꦺ selawé ꦱꦼꦭꦁꦏꦸꦁ selangkung (25) ꦱꦺꦏꦼꦠ꧀ sèket ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦺꦏꦼꦠ꧀ setunggalèket (50) ꦭꦶꦩꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ limangjinah (market)

꧖ 6 ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ (e)nem ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ nembelas (16) ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ nemlikur (26) ꦱꦼꦮꦶꦢꦏ꧀ sewidak/suwidak (60) ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦢꦱnemdasa ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦗꦶꦤꦃ nemjinah (market)

꧗ 7 ꦥꦶꦠꦸ pitu ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦭꦱ꧀ pitulas (17) ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ pitulikur (27) ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ pitungpuluh (70) ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦢꦱ pitungdasa ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ pitungjinah (market)

꧘ 8 ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸ wolu ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦭꦱ꧀ wolulas (18) ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ wolulikur (28) ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ wolungpuluh (80) ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦢꦱ wolungdasa ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ wolungjinah (market)

꧙ 9 ꦱꦔ sanga ꦱꦔꦭꦱ꧀ sangalas (19) ꦱꦔꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ sangalikur (29) ꦱꦔꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ sangangpuluh (90) ꦱꦔꦁꦢꦱsangangdasa ꦱꦔꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ sangangjinah (market)

Parallel to the tens are the hundreds (satus, rongatus); the thousands (sèwu, rongèwu), and the millions (sayuta, rongyuta), except that the compounds of five and six are formed with limang- and nem- (séket 50 and suwidak/sewidak 60 are suppletive). Old Javanese numerals[edit] The names of the Old Javanese numerals were derived from their names in the Sanskrit language.

Native Unit Teens Tweens Tens

1 ꧑ eka esa éka-dasa 11 eka-dwidasa 21 dasa 10

2 ꧒ dwi dwi-dasa 12 dwi-dwidasa 22 wingsati 20

3 ꧓ tri tri-dasa 13 tri-dwidasa 23 trinisat 30

4 ꧔ catur catur-dasa 14 catur-dwidasa 24 catrawingsat 40

5 ꧕ panca panca-dasa 15 panca-dwidasa 25 pancasat 50

6 ꧖ sad sad-dasa 16 sad-dwidasa 26 sasthi 60

7 ꧗ sapta sapta-dasa 17 sapta-dwidasa 27 saptati 70

8 ꧘ asta asta-dasa 18 asta-dwidasa 28 astiti 80

9 ꧙ nawa nawa-dasa 19 nawa-dwidasa 29 nawati 90

[1] See also[edit]

Balinese numerals, a related but yet more complex numeral system.

v t e

Javanese language

Overviews

Language History Script

Development

Old Javanese Middle Javanese New Javanese Modern Javanese

Scripts

Pegon Aksara Latin

Notable variant

Standardized

Mataraman Modern Javanese

Regional dialects

Suriname Banyumasan Arekan Pekalongan Banten Blora Cirebon Kedu Madiunan Semarangan Pesisir-Lor Kulon Osing Tenggerese

Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Rerenggan (꧁ and ꧂)

References[edit]

^ http://seffindinata.blogspot.co.id/2009/04/bilang

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