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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

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v t e

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Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet
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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

v t e

Kawi family

Members

Balinese Batak Baybayin Buhid Hanunó'o Javanese Lontara Sundanese Rejang Tagbanwa

Related

Grantha Vatteluttu Brahmic family

v t e

Types of writing systems

Overview

History of writing Grapheme

Lists

Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

Abjads

Numerals

Aramaic

Hatran

Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

Abugidas

Brahmic

Northern

Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung

Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

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Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

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Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet
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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

v t e

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v t e

Javanese language

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Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet


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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

v t e

Kawi family

Members

Balinese Batak Baybayin Buhid Hanunó'o Javanese Lontara Sundanese Rejang Tagbanwa

Related

Grantha Vatteluttu Brahmic family

v t e

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undeciphered inventors constructed

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Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

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Northern

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Logograms

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Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

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Chinese-influenced

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Other logo-syllabic

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Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

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Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

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v t e

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Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
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cell

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Braille
scripts

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Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
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v t e

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Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet


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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

v t e

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Braille
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Braille
scripts

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Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

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Reordered scripts

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(obsolete)

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(obsolete)

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See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

v t e

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Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet


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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

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v t e

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Pegon Aksara Latin

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Mataraman Modern Javanese

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Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet


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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

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Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet


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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

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Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet


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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

v t e

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See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

v t e

Javanese language

Overviews

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Development

Old Javanese Middle Javanese New Javanese Modern Javanese

Scripts

Pegon Aksara Latin

Notable variant

Standardized

Mataraman Modern Javanese

Regional dialects

Suriname Banyumasan Arekan Pekalongan Banten Blora Cirebon Kedu Madiunan Semarangan Pesisir-Lor Kulon Osing Tenggerese

Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
Javanese Alphabet


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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

v t e

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Members

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Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

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Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

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Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

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v t e

Braille
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 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

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cell

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scripts

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Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

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Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

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Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

v t e

Javanese language

Overviews

Language History Script

Development

Old Javanese Middle Javanese New Javanese Modern Javanese

Scripts

Pegon Aksara Latin

Notable variant

Standardized

Mataraman Modern Javanese

Regional dialects

Suriname Banyumasan Arekan Pekalongan Banten Blora Cirebon Kedu Madiunan Semarangan Pesisir-Lor Kulon Osing Tenggerese

Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.
l> Javanese Alphabet


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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language
Javanese language
and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is a descendant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India
South India
and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[1] The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II[2] and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Form

3.1 Aksara

3.1.1 Pasangan 3.1.2 Additional Aksara

3.2 Sandhangan 3.3 Numerals 3.4 Punctuation

3.4.1 Correction mark

4 Collation 5 Other usage

5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language 5.2 Sundanese language 5.3 Madurese language 5.4 Balinese script

6 Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese 7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery

9.1 Manuscripts 9.2 Public Signage 9.3 Graphics

10 References 11 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes [distinct sounds] varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[6] In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence.[7] Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[8] Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.[9] History[edit] See also: Kawi script
Kawi script
and Pallava alphabet

19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java
Java
around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.[3][10] The Javanese script
Javanese script
was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java
Java
and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.[4][11] The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century.[6] In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.[12] However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script
Javanese script
was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script
Javanese script
and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject.[6][13] Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.[14] Form[edit] Aksara[edit] A single letter in the Javanese script
Javanese script
is called an aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters.[8] It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:[15]

A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.[6] Consonant letters are as follows:

Wyanjana (Consonants)

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

Murda

ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ

ꦘ2

ꦓ ꦨ

Mahaprana

ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.[3] Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, and the mahaprana case.[1] Murda are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all nglegéna letters have a murda form, and if a murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding murda are available. Mahaprana translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.[3] To produce pure vowels, ꦲ ha is used to represent zero consonant.[16] Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called swara as follows:

Swara (Vowels)

Aksara ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u e o

Swara are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to murda. For example, the verb ayu (graceful) is written with the syllable ha (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name Ayu is written with swara instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). Swara are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon
Argon
for example, is written with swara.[12][17] Pasangan[edit] Pasangan is a counterpart of aksara, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, nda is made by attaching pasangan da to the syllable na.[3]

Pasangan

IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Nglegena ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ

Murda

◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ

◌꧀ꦦ

◌꧀ꦘ

◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ

Mahaprana

◌꧀ꦰ

◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ

◌꧀ꦜ

Swara don't have a pasangan. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.[17] Additional Aksara[edit] Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several aksara that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional aksara has a pasangan, but they are devoid of murda or mahaprana case. They are as follows:[3][17]

Ganten

Aksara Pasangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. Contemporary orthography established them as ganten, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi

Miscellaneous

ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language.

Rekan

ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan[18] Most sounds not native to the Javanese language
Javanese language
are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called rekan or rekaan, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional rekan further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo

Sandhangan[edit] Diacritics or dependent signs are called sandhangan (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:[17]

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)

Sandhangan - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/

Transcription a i u é o e

Name - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet

Sandhangan IPA Transc. Name Description

ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara.

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga.

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were pasangan of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of pasangan indicates that the letter is part of the following word while wyanjana diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.

Numerals[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.[8]

Angka (Numeral)

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Angka ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

Name siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.[8] Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called pada pangkat, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013).[8] Punctuation[edit]

Primary pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon. It acts as a period if preceded by pangkon.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark. It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System. The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.[3][17]

Special
Special
pada[8]

Pada Name Description

꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.

Correction mark[edit] There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ pada tirta tumétés and ꧟ pada isèn-isèn. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range
Unicode range
for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu ..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ Pada wu---luhur In Surakarta, it would be: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ[17] Collation[edit] Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ Hana caraka

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ Data sawala

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ Padha jayanya

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ Maga bathanga

of which the line-by-line translation[8] would be: There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka.[1] However, the hanacaraka sequence excludes murda and mahaprana letters. Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit, called the kaganga sequence, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode
Unicode
range. The arrangement is as follows:[3]

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Other usage[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
have been used in writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese languages in classical literature. The orthography in the writing is influenced by Shiksha. There are some characters that only found in classical literatures and not used frequently in modern writing. These characters are usually used for writing loanword from Sanskrit.

Wyanjana (Consonants)[17][19][20]

Plosive Velar Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.

ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

Nasal ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma

Semivowel

ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa

Liquid

ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la

Fricative

ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha

Swara (Vowels)[17][19]

Short Aksara ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Aksara ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritic)[17][19]

Short Sandhangan - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

Transcription a i u ṛ ḷ e o

Long Sandhangan ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

Transcription ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au

Sundanese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Sundanese language. The script was modified and called cacarakan instead. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ). Other difference between Sundanese modified Javanese script (cacarakan) and Javanese script
Javanese script
(carakan) are:

Aksara suara is used for writting word started with vocal in Sundanese, while Javanese use ha instead. For example, aksara is written as ꦄꦱꦫ in Sundanese and ꦲꦱꦫ in Javanese. Sundanese uses ꦄꦶ instead of Javanese ꦅ for aksara suara /i/. Other aksara suara-s have no change. Sundanese uses additional aksara suara ꦄꦼ /e/ and ꦄꦺꦼꦴ /eu/. Sundanese uses ꦣ instead of Javanese ꦢ for /da/. Character ꦢ is not used in Sundanese. Sundanese uses ꦤꦾ instead of Javanese ꦚ for /nya/.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Madurese language[edit] Javanese script
Javanese script
is used to write Madurese language. The orthography of Madurese in Javanese script
Javanese script
is similar to Javanese orthography.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Balinese script[edit] The Javanese and Balinese script
Balinese script
are essentially typographic variants. The scripts have visible similarity. However, there are several differences in orthography.[21]

Balinese script
Balinese script
omits the consonants dha and tha from basic vocabulary characters (aksara wreṣāstra) but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Old Javanese as aksara sualalita. Javanese script
Javanese script
reuses murda characters as capital letter in modern orthography. Balinese script
Balinese script
keeps mūrdhanya characters for writing retroflex consonant in loanword from Sanskrit, Kawi or Old Javanese.

Javanese script Balinese script

Note: Balinese script
Balinese script
in this picture is arranged according to Javanese traditional hanacaraka order (hanacaraka datasawala padhajayanya magabathanga) for clarity. Balinese traditional hanacaraka order is hanacaraka datasawala magabanga pajayanya. Both hanacaraka order are attributed to the myth of Aji Saka.

Indonesian and English transcription into Javanese[edit]

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java

The Javanese script
Javanese script
is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta
Surakarta
and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/). Font[edit]

Comparison of several Javanese fonts

꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉

Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga

JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy

Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto

Aturra, by Aditya Bayu

Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,[22] Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,[23] JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,[24] Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,[25] and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,[26] which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta
Surakarta
made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,[27] and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.[28] There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013.[29] In 2014, Google introduced Noto Sans Javanese as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.[30] Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script
Javanese script
in Unicode.[31] Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox
Firefox
browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType
OpenType
word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script
Javanese script
in the Javanese.[17] Unicode[edit] Main article: Javanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Javanese script
Javanese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

Javanese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit] Manuscripts[edit]

Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa, folio 10r. 18th-century.

Babad Tanah Jawi. 19th CE.

Serat Jatipustaka. 19th CE.

Serat Bratayudha. 20th CE.

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE.

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.

Public Signage[edit]

Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta.

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta.

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta
Surakarta
(1938).

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari, Yogyakarta

One of the wall poems in Leiden, Serat Kalatidha.

Graphics[edit]

The Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
emblem honors the Javanese script

Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Sultanate

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8), W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 ^ a b c d e f g h Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script
Javanese script
in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ a b Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). Nieuw Javaansch No.1. The Hague ^ a b c d "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09.  ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ^ a b c d e f g h Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). Javanese Script. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10.  ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. ^ a b Darusuprapta (2003). Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java. Duke University Press. ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa. ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). Paugeran Sriwedari. Surakarta ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". Library of Congress. 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wihananto, R.S. (2011). Panduan Fonta Aksara Jawa Unicode. ^ Javanisch, Fremde Laute. From Das Buch der Schrift. Faulmann, Carl (1880). ^ a b c Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). History of Java. London ^ Javanese compared to other Indic scripts. From History of Java. Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1817). ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Matthew Arciniega's page ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Google Noto Fonts - Noto Sans Javanese ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Javanese script.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Early Javanese books.

Unicode
Unicode
Table of the Javanese script Javanese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Javanese at Ancientsscripts.com --- A compendium of world-wide writing system from prehistory to today Page from Javanese detailing web support for Javanese (in Indonesian, Javanese, and English) Tuladha Jejeg. A Javanese Unicode
Unicode
font with SIL Graphite smart font technology Javanese Script Transliterator using SIL Graphite smart font technology Hanacaraka Font & Resources (in Indonesian)

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large small bird-worm

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Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

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Reordered scripts

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(obsolete)

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(obsolete)

Independent scripts

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3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
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See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

v t e

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Old Javanese Middle Javanese New Javanese Modern Javanese

Scripts

Pegon Aksara Latin

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Mataraman Modern Javanese

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Suriname Banyumasan Arekan Pekalongan Banten Blora Cirebon Kedu Madiunan Semarangan Pesisir-Lor Kulon Osing Tenggerese

Related

Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry

Letters of the Aksara Jawa

Nglegena consonants

Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ)

Murda consonants

Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ)

Extended consonants

Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ)

Final and Medial Consonants

Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀)

Vowels

Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ)

Numbers

0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇)

Punctuations

Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Reren

.