The Info List - Javanese Numerals

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The Javanese language has a DECIMAL NUMERAL SYSTEM with distinct words for the 'tweens' from 21 to 29, called _likuran_.

The basic numerals 1–10 have independent and combining forms, the latter derived via a suffix _-ng_. The combining forms are used to form the tens, hundreds, thousands, and millions. The numerals 1–5 and 10 have distinct high-register (_halus_, or in Javanese _krama_) and low register (_ngoko_) forms. The _halus_ forms are listed below in italics. (_Dasa_ 10 is derived from Sanskrit _désa_.)

Like English, Javanese has compound forms for the teens; however, it also has a series of compound 'tweens', 21–29. The teens are based on a root _-(wə)las_, the tweens on _-likur_, and the tens are formed by the combining forms. Hyphens are not used in the orthography, but have been added to the table below to clarify their derivation.

Final orthographic _-a_ tends to in many dialects, as does any preceding _a_ (as in _sanga_ 9).


꧑ 1 ꦱꦶꦗꦶ siji ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ _setunggal_ ꦱꦼꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ sewelas/suwelas ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ _setunggalwelas_ (11) ꦱꦼꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ selikur ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦏꦸꦂ _setunggallikur_ (21) ꦱꦼꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ sepuluh (10) ꦱꦼꦢꦱ _sedasa_ ꦱꦼꦗꦶꦤꦃ sejinah (market term)

꧒ 2 ꦭꦺꦴꦫꦺꦴ loro ꦏꦭꦶꦃ _kalih_ ꦫꦺꦴꦭꦱ꧀ rolas ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ _kalihwelas_ (12) ꦫꦺꦴꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ rolikur/lolikur ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ _kalihlikur_ (22) ꦫꦺꦴꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ rongpuluh (20) ꦏꦭꦶꦃꦢꦱ _kalihdasa_ ꦫꦺꦴꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ rong-jinah (market)

꧓ 3 ꦠꦼꦭꦸ telu ꦠꦶꦒ _tiga_ ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦭꦱ꧀ telulas (13) ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ _tigangwelas_/_tigawelas_ ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ telulikur ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ _tiganglikur_ (23) ꦠꦶꦒꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ _tigalikur_ ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ telungpuluh (30) ꦠꦶꦒꦁꦢꦱ _tigangdasa_ ꦠꦼꦭꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ telungjinah (market)

꧔ 4 ꦥꦥꦠ꧀ papat ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ _sekawan_ ꦥꦠ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ patbelas/pakbelas ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ _sekawanwelas_ (14) ꦥꦠ꧀ꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ patlikur/pakdelikur ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ꦭꦏꦸꦂ _sekawanlikur_ (24) ꦥꦠꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ patangpuluh/petangpuluh (40) ꦥꦠꦁꦢꦱ _patangdasa_/_petangdasa_ ꦥꦠꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ patangjinah (market)

꧕ 5 ꦭꦶꦩ lima ꦒꦁꦱꦭ꧀ _gangsal_ ꦭꦶꦩꦭꦱ꧀ limalas ꦒꦁꦱꦭ꧀ꦮꦼꦭꦱ꧀ _gangsalwelas_ (15) ꦱꦼꦭꦮꦺ selawé ꦱꦼꦭꦁꦏꦸꦁ _selangkung_ (25) ꦱꦺꦏꦼꦠ꧀ sèket ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦺꦏꦼꦠ꧀ _setunggalèket_ (50) ꦭꦶꦩꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ limangjinah (market)

꧖ 6 ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ (e)nem ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦼꦭꦱ꧀ nembelas (16) ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ nemlikur (26) ꦱꦼꦮꦶꦢꦏ꧀ sewidak/suwidak (60) ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦢꦱ_nemdasa_ ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦗꦶꦤꦃ nemjinah (market)

꧗ 7 ꦥꦶꦠꦸ pitu ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦭꦱ꧀ pitulas (17) ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ pitulikur (27) ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ pitungpuluh (70) ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦢꦱ _pitungdasa_ ꦥꦶꦠꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ pitungjinah (market)

꧘ 8 ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸ wolu ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦭꦱ꧀ wolulas (18) ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ wolulikur (28) ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ wolungpuluh (80) ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦢꦱ _wolungdasa_ ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ wolungjinah (market)

꧙ 9 ꦱꦔ sanga ꦱꦔꦭꦱ꧀ sangalas (19) ꦱꦔꦭꦶꦏꦸꦂ sangalikur (29) ꦱꦔꦁꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ sangangpuluh (90) ꦱꦔꦁꦢꦱ_sangangdasa_ ꦱꦔꦁꦗꦶꦤꦃ sangangjinah (market)

Parallel to the tens are the hundreds (_satus, rongatus_); the thousands (_sèwu, rongèwu_), and the millions (_sayuta, rongyuta_), except that the compounds of five and six are formed with _limang-_ and _nem-_ (_séket_ 50 and _suwidak_/_sewidak_ 60 are suppletive ).


The names of the Old Javanese numerals were derived from their names in the